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ACL Injury Treatment




Boston Children's Hospital Female Athlete Program Gives Injured Teens Custom Care
WBZ - CBS Boston, May 30, 2013

Program focuses on injuries unique to female athletes
Lynn Daily Item, April 15, 2013 

Beating the odds: After three knee injuries, a female athlete triumphs
Thriving – April 3, 2013

Dr. Martha Murray discusses the use of platelet-derived factors and scaffolds for ligament healing, in this two-part podcast presented by the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (AAOS). AAOS Now Podcast, Jan 2012.

Looking for alternatives to ligament replacement surgery
New York Times, October 13, 2011

New options for healing torn ACLs: Research continues into possible use of PRP, tissue engineering, AAOS Now, Jun 2010

CIMIT Stories: Tool For Knee Surgery Will Help Rebuild ACL,

Children's surgeon makes "gel gun" to heal female athletes' injuries Mass High Tech, Feb 9, 2007

Looking for Alternatives to Ligament Replacement Surgery NY Times - Apr 20, 2006

Torn knee ligament: Can it be Healed? WebMD Medical News, Mar 24, 2006

Beaker bytes: Building bridges to better ACL healing Children's News online - January, 2005

Targeting ACL Injuries Dream - Spring 2005



Original Articles

  1. Fibroblast distribution in the anteromedial bundle of the human anterior cruciate ligament: The presence of smooth muscle actin-positive cells. Murray, MM, Spector, M. J Orthop Res 1999; 17:18-26.
  2. The migration of cells from human anterior cruciate ligament explants into three dimensional collagen-glycosaminoglycan scaffolds in vitro. Murray, MM, Martin, SD, and Spector, M. J Orthop Res 2000; 18: 557-64.
  3. Histologic changes in the human anterior cruciate ligament after rupture. Murray, MM, Martin, SD, Martin, TL, and Spector, M. J Bone Joint Surg 2000; 82A:1387-1397.
  4. Outgrowth of chondrocytes from human articular cartilage explants and expression of ?-smooth muscle actin. Qiu, W, Murray, M M, Shortkroff, S, Lee, CR, Martin, SD, and Spector, M. Wound Repair and Regeneration 2000; 18:383-391.
  5. The presence of smooth muscle actin in fibroblasts in the torn human rotator cuff. Premdas, J., Tang, J-B., Warner, JP, Murray, MM, and Spector, M. J Orthop Res, 2000; 19(2): 221-228.
  6. Distribution of Smooth Muscle Actin-Containing Cells in the Human Meniscus. Ahluwalia S, Fehm M, Murray MM, Martin SD, and Spector, M. J Orthop Res, 2000; 19(4): 649-654.
  7. The migration of cells from the ruptured human anterior cruciate ligament into collagen-glycosaminoglycan regeneration templates in vitro. Murray, M. M. and Spector, M. Biomaterials 2001; 22:2393-2402.
  8. Cell Outgrowth from the human ACL in vitro: Regional variation and response to TGF-d1. Murray, MM, Bennett, RL, and Spector, M. S. J Orthop Res 2002; 20:875-880.
  9. The biomechanical response to doses of TGF-b2 in the healing rabbit medial collateral ligament. Spindler, KP, Murray, MM, Detwiler, KB., Tarter, JT, Dawson, JM, Davidson, JM, Nanney, LB, J Orthop Res, 2002; 21(2): 245-249.
  10. The effect of selected growth factors on human anterior cruciate ligament cell interactions with a three dimensional collagen-GAG scaffold. Murray, MM, Rice, K, Wright, RJ, and Spector, M. J Orthop Res, 2003; 21:238-244.
  11. The death of articular chondrocytes after intra-articular fracture in humans. Murray, MM, Zurakowski, D., Vrahas, MS. Journal of Trauma, 2004; 56: 128-131.
  12. Osteochondral defects of the talus treated with autologous bone grafting. Kolker D, Murray MM, Wilson M. J Bone Joint Surg Br, 2004; 86(4): 521-526.
  13. Enhanced Repair of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament by in Situ Gene Transfer: Evaluation in an in Vitro Model. Pascher A, Steinert A. F, Palmer GD, Betz O, Gouze JN, Gouze E, Pilapil C, Ghivizzani SC, Evans CH, Murray MM. Molecular Therapy 2004; 10(2): 327-336.
  14. Interspecies Variation in the Fibroblast Distribution of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament. Murray MM, Weiler A, Spindler KP. Am. J. Sports Med. 2004.
  15. The effect of thrombin on ACL fibroblast interactions with collagen hydrogels. Murray MM, Forsythe B, Chen F, Lee SJ, Yoo JJ, Atala A, Steinert A. J Orthop Res 2006 Feb 1;24(3):508-515.
  16. The central ACL defect as a model for failure of intra-articular healing. Spindler, KP, Murray, MM, Devin, C, Nanney, LB, Davidson, JM. J Orthop Res 2006 Jan 6;24(3):401-406.
  17. Use of a collagen-platelet rich plasma scaffold to stimulate healing of the ACL. Murray, MM, Spindler, KP, Devin, C, Snyder, BD, Muller, J, Ballard, P, Nanney, LB, Zurakowski, D. J Orthop Res. 2006 Apr;24(4):820-30.
  18. Mahan S, Murray MM, Woolf A, Kasser J. J Bone Joint Surg. 2006 Dec; 88(12):2762-9.
  19. Collagen-Platelet Rich Plasma Hydrogel Enhances Primary Repair of the Porcine Anterior Cruciate Ligament. Murray MM, Spindler KP, Abreu E, Muller J, Nedder A, Kelly M, Frino J, Zurakowski D, Valenza M, Snyder BD, Connolly SA. J Orthop Res. 2007, 25:81-91.
  20. Pathologic characteristics of the torn human meniscus. Mesiha M, Zurakowski D, Soriano J, Nielson JH, Zarins B, Murray MM. Am J Sports Med. 2007 Jan;35(1):103-12.
  21. Enhanced histologic repair in a central wound in the anterior cruciate ligament with a collagen-platelet-rich plasma scaffold. Murray MM, Spindler KP, Ballard P, Welch T, Nanney LB. J Orthop Res, 2007, 25(8):1007-1017.
  22. Activation of platelet-rich plasma using soluble type I collagen. Fufa D, Shealy B, Jacobson M, Kevy S, Murray MM. Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, 2008, 66(4): 684-690.
  23. Strategies to Improve Anterior Cruciate Ligament Healing and Graft Placement. Steiner ME, Murray MM, Rodeo SA. American Journal of Sports Medicine, 2008; Jan;36(1):176-89.
  24. In situ IGF-1 gene delivery to cells emerging from the injured anterior cruciate ligament. Steinert AF, Weber M, Kunz M, Palmer GD, Nöth U, Evans CH, Murray MM. Journal of Biomaterials, 2008; 29(7):904-16.
  25. Platelets, but not erythrocytes, significantly affect cytokine release and scaffold contraction in a provisional scaffold model. Jacobson M, Fufa D, Abreu EL, Kevy S, Murray MM. Wound Repair and Regeneration, 2008; May-Jun;16(3):370-8.
  26. Can Suture Repair of ACL Transection Restore Normal Anteroposterior Laxity of the Knee? An Ex Vivo Study. Fleming BC, Carey J, Spindler KP, Murray MM. J Orthop Res. 2008 Nov;26(11):1500-5.
  27. The Use of Platelets to Affect Functional Healing of an Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) Autograft in a Caprine ACL Reconstruction Model. J Orthop Res. 2008 Nov 13. Spindler KP, Murray MM, Carey JL, Zurakowski D, Fleming BC.
  28. Evaluation Criteria for Musculoskeletal and Craniofacial Tissue Engineering Constructs: A Conference Report. Butler, DL, Lewis, JL, Frank, CB, Banes, AJ, Caplan AI, DeDeyne, PG, Dowling, M, Fleming BC, Glowacki, J, Guldbery, RE, Johnstone, B, Kaplan DL, Levenston, ME, Lotz, JC, Lu, EY,. Lumelsky, N, Mao, JJ, Mauck, RL, McDevitt, CA, Mejia, LC, Murray, MM, Ratcliffe, A, Spindler KP, Tashman, S, Wagner, CT, Weisberg, EM, Williams, C, Zhang, R. Tissue Engineering, Tissue Eng Part A. 2008 Dec;14(12):2089-104.
  29. Genome-wide expression analysis of intra- and extra-articular connective tissue. Pearse RV 2nd, Esshaki D, Tabin CJ, Murray MM. J Orthop Res. 2008 Oct 28.
  30. Platelet-Rich Plasma Alone is Not Sufficient to Enhance Suture Repair of the ACL: An In Vivo Study. Murray MM, Palmer M, Abreu E, Zurakowski D, Spindler KP, and Fleming BC. J Orthop Res. 2008 Nov 7.
  31. Injection Temperature Significantly Affects In Vitro and In Vivo Performance of Collagen-Platelet Scaffolds. Palmer P, Abreu E, Mastrangelo A, Murray MM. J Orthop Res. 2009 Jul 27(7):964-71. 
  32. Current Status and Future Potential of Primary ACL Repair. Murray MM. Clin Sports Med. 2009 Jan;28(1):51-61.  
  33. Collagen-platelet composites improve the biomechanical properties of healing ACL grafts in a porcine model.  Fleming BC, Spindler KP, Palmer M, Magarian E. and Murray MM. Am J Sports Med, 2009 Aug;37(8):1554-63. Epub 2009 Mar 31.
  34. The Effect of Skeletal Maturity on the Regenerative Function of Intrinsic ACL Cells. Mastrangelo, AN, Magarian EM, Palmer MP, and Murray MM. J Orthop Res. 2010 May;28(5):644-51. 
  35. Platelet-Rich Plasma Alone Is Not Sufficient To Enhance Suture Repair of the ACL In Skeletally Immature Animals: An In Vivo Study. Murray MM, Palmer M, Abreu E, Spindler KP, Zurakowski D, Fleming BC.J Orthop Res. 2009 May 27(5):639-45.  
  36. TRITON-X  Is Most Effective Among Three Decellularization Agents for ACL Tissue Engineering. Vavken P, Joshi S, Murray MM.  J Orthop Res. 2009 Dec;27(12):1612-8. 
  37. Storage Conditions Do Not Have Detrimental Effect on Allograft Collagen or Scaffold Performance. Abreu EL, Palmer MP, Murray MM. Cell Tissue Bank. 2009 Nov;10(4):333-40. Epub 2009 Jun 9.  
  38. Collagen Density Significantly Affects The Functional Properties of an Engineered Provisional Scaffold. Abreu EL, Palmer MP, Murray MM. J Biomed Mater Res A. 2010 Apr;93(1):150-7. 
  39. Injection Temperature Significantly Affects In Vitro and In Vivo Performance of Collagen-Platelet Scaffolds. Palmer MP, Abreu EL, Mastrangelo A, Murray MM. J Orthop Res. 2009 Jul 27(7):964-71.
  40. Translational Studies in ACL repair. Vavken P, Murray MM. Tissue Eng Part B Rev. 2010 Feb;16(1):5-11.  
  41. Collagen-Platelet Composite Enhances Biomechanical and Histologic Healing of the ACL. Joshi, SM, Mastrangelo AN, Fleming BC, Murray MM. Am J Sports Med, 2009 Dec;37(12):2401-10. 
  42. Posterior periosteal disruption in Salter-Harris II fractures of the distal femur: Evidence for a hyperextension mechanism. Kleinman, PK, Murray, MM., et al. Am J Roentgenol. 2009 Dec;193(6):W540-5.
  43. Platelets and plasma proteins synergistically effect collagen production by anterior cruciate ligament cells in three-dimensional culture. Cheng, MY, Wang H, Yoshida R, Murray, MM. Tissue Eng Part A. 2010 May;16(5):1479-89.
  44. Immature animals have higher cellular density in the healing anterior cruciate ligament than adolescent or adult animals. Mastrangelo AN, Haus B, Vavken P, Murray MM.  J Orthop Res. 2010 Aug;28(8):1100-6. 
  45. Fibrin concentration affects ACL fibroblast proliferation and collagen synthesis. Vavken, P, Joshi SM, Murray MM. The Knee, 2010 Jan 15.[Epub ahead of print]. 
  46. Collagen Scaffold Supplementation does not improve the functional properties of the repaired ACL. Fleming BC, Magarian EM, Harrison SL, Paller DJ. Murray MM. J Orthop Res, 2010 Jun;28(6):703-9.
  47. Age-dependence of expression of growth factor receptors in porcine ACL fibroblasts. Vavken, P, Saad FA, Murray MM.  J Orthop Res, 2010 Aug;28(8):1107-12.  
  48. BMP12 and BMP13 gene transfer induce ligamentogenic differentiation in mesenchymal progenitor and anterior cruciate ligament cells.  Haddad-Weber M, Prager P, Kunz M,  Seefried L,  Jakob F, Murray MM, Evans CE, Noth U. Steinert AF.   Cytotherapy. 2010 Jul;12(4):505-13.
  49. Bone to Bone Fixation Enhances Functional Healing of the Porcine Anterior Cruciate Ligament Using a Collagen-Platelet Composite. Murray MM, Magarian E, Zurakowski D, Fleming BC. Arthroscopy. 2010 Sep;26(9 Suppl):S49-57. Epub 2010 Jun 11.
  50. Skeletal maturity significantly affects functional healing of the anterior cruciate ligament. Murray MM, Magarian EM, Harrison SL, Zurakowski D, Fleming BC. J Bone Joint Surg Am, 2010 Nov;92(11):2039-49.NIHMSID 217078.
  51. Delay of 2 or 6 weeks adversely affects the functional outcome of augmented primary repair of the porcine ACL. Magarian EM, Fleming BC, Harrison SL, Mastrangelo AN, Badger G. Murray MM.  AJSM, 2010 Dec:38(12):2528-34.  
  52. Human anterior cruciate ligament fibroblasts from immature patients have a stronger in vitro response to platelet concentrates than those from mature individuals. Magarian EM, Vavken P, Murray MM. Knee. 2010 Aug 19. [Epub ahead of print]
  53. Erythrocytes inhibit ligament fibroblast proliferation in a collagen scaffold. Harrison SL, Vavken P, Murray MM.  J Orthop Res.  In press 2011.
  54. Treating Anterior Cruciate Ligament Tears in Skeletally Immature Patients. Vavken P, Murray MM. Arthroscopy, 2011, May;27(5):704-16..
  55. Platelet Activation by Collagen Provides Sustained Release of Anabolic Cytokines. Harrison S, Vavken P, Kevy S, Jacobson M, Zurakowski, D, Murray MM. Am J Sports Med. 2011 Mar 11. [Epub ahead of print].
  56. Reduced platelet concentration does not harm PRP effectiveness for ACL repair in a porcine in vivo model. Mastrangelo AN, Vavken P, Fleming BC, Harrison SH, Murray, MM. J Ortho Res, In Press, 2011.  
  57. Characteristics of Human Anterior Cruciate Ligament Outgrowth Cells. Steinert A, Kunz M, Barthel T, Jakob F, Noeth U, Murray MM, Evans C, Porter R. Mesenchymal Stem Cell Tissue Engineering, in press 2011.
  58. VEGF receptor mRNA expression by ACL fibroblasts is associated with functional healing of the ACL. VEGF receptor mRNA expression by ACL fibroblasts is associated with functional healing of the ACL. Vavken P, Saad FA, Fleming BC, Murray MM. Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy. 2011, Oct;19(10):1675-82. Epub 2011 Feb 19.
  59. The potential for primary repair of the ACL. Vavken P, Murray MM. TSports Med Arthroscopy.  2011, Mar;19(1):44-9.
  60. The effect of platelet concentrates on graft maturation and graft-bone interface healing in ACL reconstruction in human patients. A systematic review of controlled trials. Vavken P, Sadoghi P, Murray MM. Arthroscopy. 2011, 27(11):1573-83.
  61. The effects of age and platelet-rich plasma on ACL cell viability and collagen gene expression. Cheng M, Johnson V, Murray MM. J Orthop Res. 2011,30(1):79-85.
  62. A comparative anatomical study of the human knee and six animal species. Proffen B, Fleming BC, Murray MM. The Knee. 2011, Aug 16 (Epub ahead of print).
  63. The effect of snyovial fluid enzymes on the biodegradability of collagen and fibrin clots. Palmer M, Standford E, Murray MM. Materials. 2011, 4(8):1469-1482.
  64. Decellularization of bovine anterior cruciate ligament tissues minimized immunogenic reactions to the alpha-gal epitopes by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Yoshida R, Vavken P, Murray MM. The Knee. 2011, Sept 16 (Epub ahead of print).
  65. The use of magnetic resonance imaging to predict ACL graft structural properties. Fleming BC, Vajapeyam S, Connolly S, Magarian, EM, Murray MM. J Biomechanics. 2011, 44(16):2843-6.
  66. The effects of age and skeletal maturity on enhances primary repair of the anterior cruciate ligament. Chao L, Murray MM. Orthopaedic Journal of the Harvard Medical School. 2012.
  67. Early evolution of disruptive technology: ACL repair and regeneration. Haslauer CM, Murray MM. Orthopaedic Journal of the Harvard Medical School. 2012.
  68. Biomechanical outcomes after bio-enchanced anterior cruciate ligament repair and anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction are equal in a porcine model. Vavken P, Fleming BC, Mastrangelo AN, Machan JT, Murray MM. Arthroscopy. In press. 2011.

Reviews, Chapters and Editorials

  1. Murray MM. Effect of the intra-articular environment on healing of the ruptured anterior cruciate ligament. Invited Editorial, electronic J Bone Joint Surgery (Am), August 2001.
  2. Murray MM, Mankin HJ, Glowacki J. The Musculoskeletal System. In: O'Leary, JP editor. The Physiologic Basis of Surgery, 3rd Edition, Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, 2002.
  3. Murray MM, Bernstein J. Ligaments. In: Bernstein, J, editor. Musculoskeletal Medicine, AAOS, Rosemont, IL, 2003.
  4. Murray MM, Bernstein J. Meniscus. In: Bernstein, J, editor. Musculoskeletal Medicine, AAOS, Rosemont, IL, 2003.
  5. Steinert AF, Chen F, Evans CH, Murray MM. Novel Biological Approaches to Enhance Primary Repair of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament. The Orthopaedic Journal at Harvard Medical School, 2004; 81-83.
  6. Murray MM, Spindler KP. Anterior Cruciate Ligament Healing and Primary Repair, Sports Medicine and Arthroscopy Review, 2005; 13(3), 151-6.
  7. Murray MM, Murray MF. Biology and Gene-Based Therapy. In: Kocher, MS and Micheli, LJ, eds. The Pediatric and Adolescent Knee. Publish date 2006.
  8. Murray MM, Mankin H, Glowacki, J. The Musculoskeletal System. In: O'Leary, JP editor. The Physiologic Basis of Surgery, 4th Edition, Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, 2007.
  9. Murray MM. The Future of Sports Medicine, In: Encyclopedia of Sports Medicine, Micheli, LJ ed., Sage Publications, 2008.
  10. Murray MM. Meniscal Injuries , In: Encyclopedia of Sports Medicine, Micheli, LJ ed., Sage Publications, 2008.
  11. Murray MM. ACL Injuries , In: Encyclopedia of Sports Medicine, Micheli, LJ ed., Sage Publications, 2008.
  12. Murray MM, Vavken P. Regenerative Medicine and cranial cruciate repair. In:
    Muir P (Ed) Advances in Veterinary Surgery: The Canine Cranial Cruciate Ligament. Wiley-Blackwell, 2010.
  13. Chao L, Murray MM, Vavken P.  Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in Ligament and Tendon Repair.  iMOR Institute, Springer, 2012.
  14. Proffen B, Fleming BC, Palmer R, Murray MM. The mature sheep as an animal model for bio-enhanced cruciate ligament repair and reconstruction. The Knee:Current Concepts in Kinematics, Injury Types and Treatment Options. Nova Science Publishers, 2012.
  15. Vavken P, Murray MM. The stimulation of healing of the anterior cruciate ligament. Research and Clinical Relevance, In The ACL-Deficient Knee. An Approach Based on Problems Resolution, Editors: Vicente Sanchis-Alfonso and Joan Carles Monllau. Publisher: Springer London, 2012.
  16. Vavken P, Micheli LJ, Murray MM. ACL Injuries in Skeletally Immature Patients and Adolescents: How can we improve the High Rate of Poor Outcomes? In  "The ACL-Deficient Knee. An Approach Based on Problems Resolution,  Editors: Vicente Sanchis-Alfonso and Joan Carles Monllau.  Publisher: Springer London, 2012.

Books, Monographs and Textbooks

  1. Bernstein, J, senior editor. Murray MM. section editor for Basic Science. Musculoskeletal Medicine. American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, Rosemont, IL, 2003.
  2. Murray MM, Vavken P, Fleming BC. The ACL Handbook: Knee Biology, Mechanics, and Treatment. Springer, 2013.

Educational Materials

  1. Murray MM. "E. R. Ortho", Resident Handbook, Harvard Combined Orthopaedic Residency Program, 1998, 1999.
  2. Murray MM. Guided Tissue Regeneration of the ACL: Preliminary Studies; Harvard Combined Orthopaedic Residency Program, 1999.

Non-print materials

Computer-based pre-operative plans for:

  1. Orthopaedic Trauma in adults
  2. Orthopaedic Trauma in children
  3. Common Sports Medicine surgical procedures

Pre-operative planning templates for orthopaedic residents and fellows preparing for surgical cases. Published on the Harvard Combined Orthopaedic Resident's website MD Beacon. Used only by permission of the residents and graduates of the Harvard Combined Orthopaedic Residency Program.