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Conditions We Treat | Overview

The Speech-Language Pathologists in the Feeding and Swallowing Program are highly trained and experienced in working with infants and children who have feeding and swallowing difficulties.  Below is a list of some of the areas that we specialize in:

  • Dysphagia, swallowing impairments, swallowing disorders
  • Feeding difficulties
  • Food aversion, oral aversion, food refusal, behavioral feeding issues
  • Oral hypersensitivity, gagging
  • Oral motor delay, oral motor disorders
  • Suck-swallow-breathe discoordination, sucking difficulties, breastfeeding difficulties, bottle feeding, newborn feeding, infant feeding
  • Introduction of solids, difficulty transitioning to solids, biting and chewing difficulties
  • Feeding equipment, bottles, nipples, baby food, spoons, cups, teething toys
  • Modified diets, thickened liquids, thickened fluids
  • Non-oral feeding, tube feeding, tube weaning
  • Oral stimulation, oral desensitization,
  • Tracheostomy, speaking valves
  • Clinical feeding evaluation, feeding assessment, swallow assessment
  • Modified Barium Swallow (MBS), Video Fluoroscopic Swallow Study (VFSS), Fiberoptic Endoscopic Evaluation of Swallowing (FEES)

We address feeding and swallowing issues in children who have :


  • Low gestational age at birth
  • Respiratory disease
  • Broncho-Pulmonary Dysplasia (BPD)
  • Chronic Lung Disease (CLD)
  • Low birth weight
  • Comorbidities associated with prematurity

Respiratory and AeroDigestive disorders that can impact feeding and swallowing

  • Apnea of the newborn
  • Laryngomalacia, tracheomalacia, bronchomalacia
  • Laryngeal cleft
  • Reactive Airway Disease
  • Pneumonia/Bronchiolitis

Cardio-pulmonary disorders that can impact feeding and swallowing

  • Cyanotic heart defects, Acyanotic heart defects
  • Hypoplastic Left Heart syndrome
  • Cardiac disease
  • Congenital heart disease
  • Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD)
  • Ventricular Septal Defect (ASD)
  • Patient Ductus Arteriosus (PDA)

Gastrointestinal and Growth Issues that can impact feeding and swallowing

  • Congenital diaphragmatic hernia
  • Food allergies
  • Food intolerances
  • Esophageal strictures
  • Failure to thrive
  • Nectrotising EnteroColotis (NEC)
  • Gastroschesis
  • Hirshprung’s disease
  • Tracheo-Esophageal Fistula (TEF)
  • Esophageal Atresia (EA) and Long Gap Esophageal Atresia (LGEA)
  • Gastro-Esophageal Reflux (GER)
  • Food allergies and food intolerances
  • Eosinophillic Esophagitis (EE)
  • Omphalocele (does this belong here?)
  • Short Gut syndrome /Short Bowel syndrome

Neurological and Neuromuscular Disorders that can impact feeding and swallowing

  • Intra-Ventricular Hemorrhage (IVH)
  • Peri-Ventricular Leukomalacia (PVL)
  • Hydrocephalus
  • Seizures
  • Epilepsy
  • Microcephaly
  • Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) and Acquired Brain Injury (ABI)
  • Brain tumors
  • Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy (HIE)
  • Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA)
  • Muscular Dystrophy (MD)
  • Multiple Sclerosis (MS)
  • Cerebral Palsy (CP)
  • Chiari malformation

Congenital abnormalities that can impact feeding and swallowing

  • Cleft lip, cleft palate
  • Pierre Robin sequence
  • Other cranio-facial syndromes
  • Moebius syndrome
  • Micrognathia

Medical treatments that may impact feeding and swallowing

  • Tube feeding (OG, NG, NJ, PEG, gastrostomy)
  • Respiratory support (e.g. ventilation, high-flow, CPAP, oxygen)
  • Tracheostomy, Naso-Pharyngeal (NP) airway
  • Some medications

Ingestional injuries (e.g. swallowing detergents or a battery)

Structural or Airway Complications

  • Laryngeal cleft
  • Tongue Tie
  • Chronic Tonsillitis
  • Vocal cord/vocal fold paralysis
  • Sub-glottic stenosis
  • Laryngomalacia
  • Tracheomalacia
  • Tracheostomy
  • Choanal atresia

Genetic Disorders that can impact Feeding and Swallowing

  • Down syndrome
  • CHARGE Association
  • Rett Syndrome
  • Prader Willi syndrome
  • Cornelia de Lange syndrome
  • 22q11 deletion (DiGeorge or VeloCardioFacial Syndrome)

Sensory Processing Disorders (SPD), Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)

Behavioral feeding difficulties (e.g. food aversion)Please note this list is not exhaustive.