Spinal Fusion Surgery

Spinal Fusion Surgery

Daniel Hedequeist, MD describes spinal fusion surgery and how titanium rods are used to correct severe scoliosis and other spinal deformities.


Medical School

  • Creighton University School of Medicine , 1995 , Omaha , NE


  • University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center , 1996 , Dallas , TX


  • University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center , 2000 , Dallas , TX


  • Boston Children's Hospital , 2001 , Boston , MA


  • American Board of Orthopaedic Surgery


Publications powered by Harvard Catalyst Profiles

  1. Operative Treatment of Cervical Spine Injuries Sustained in Youth Sports. J Pediatr Orthop. 2021 Nov-Dec 01; 41(10):617-624. View abstract
  2. Intraoperative Use of Robotics With Navigation for Pedicle Screw Placement in Treatment of Pediatric High-grade Spondylolisthesis: A Preliminary Report. J Pediatr Orthop. 2021 Nov-Dec 01; 41(10):591-596. View abstract
  3. Performing Multiple Posterior Spinal Fusions in 1 Day: A Comparison of Perioperative Outcomes Between Morning and Afternoon Cases. J Pediatr Orthop. 2021 Oct 01; 41(9):e722-e726. View abstract
  4. The Use of Robotics Coupled With Navigation for Pediatric Congenital Spine Deformity. HSS J. 2021 Oct; 17(3):289-293. View abstract
  5. Surgical Correction of Scoliosis in Children with Severe Congenital Heart Disease and Palliated Single Ventricle Physiology. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2021 Jul 15; 46(14):E791-E796. View abstract
  6. Variability in Antibiotic Treatment of Pediatric Surgical Site Infection After Spinal Fusion at A Single Institution. J Pediatr Orthop. 2021 Jul 01; 41(6):e380-e385. View abstract
  7. Screw Fixation of Pediatric Tibial Tubercle Fractures. JBJS Essent Surg Tech. 2021 Apr-Jun; 11(2). View abstract
  8. Vitamin D levels and pain outcomes in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients undergoing spine fusion. Spine Deform. 2021 Jul; 9(4):997-1004. View abstract
  9. Scoliosis with Chiari I malformation without associated syringomyelia. Spine Deform. 2021 Jul; 9(4):1105-1113. View abstract
  10. Epiphysiodesis for Leg Length Discrepancy: A Cost Analysis of Drill Versus Screw Technique. J Surg Orthop Adv. 2021; 30(3):181-184. View abstract
  11. Results of Conservative and Surgical Management in Children with Idiopathic and Nonidiopathic Os Odontoideum. World Neurosurg. 2021 03; 147:e324-e333. View abstract
  12. Why Irrigate for the Same Contamination Rate: Wound Contamination in Pediatric Spinal Surgery Using Betadine Versus Saline. J Pediatr Orthop. 2020 Nov/Dec; 40(10):e994-e998. View abstract
  13. Initial intraoperative experience with robotic-assisted pedicle screw placement with stealth navigation in pediatric spine deformity: an evaluation of the first 40 cases. J Robot Surg. 2021 Oct; 15(5):687-693. View abstract
  14. Occipital Plate Fixation in the Pediatric Population. J Pediatr Orthop. 2020 Oct; 40(9):462-467. View abstract
  15. Acute Implant-related Complications in Pediatric Cervical Spine Fusion. J Pediatr Orthop. 2020 Aug; 40(7):e662-e666. View abstract
  16. Management of Gustilo-Anderson Type II and IIIA Open Long Bone Fractures in Children: Which Wounds Require a Second Washout? J Pediatr Orthop. 2020 Jul; 40(6):288-293. View abstract
  17. Efficacy of bracing in skeletally immature patients with moderate-severe idiopathic scoliosis curves between 40° and 60°. Spine Deform. 2020 10; 8(5):911-920. View abstract
  18. The Reliability of the AOSpine Thoracolumbar Classification System in Children: Results of a Multicenter Study. J Pediatr Orthop. 2020 May/Jun; 40(5):e352-e356. View abstract
  19. Diagnosing and treating native spinal and pelvic osteomyelitis in adolescents. Spine Deform. 2020 10; 8(5):1001-1008. View abstract
  20. Does bracing for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis affect operative results? Spine Deform. 2020 06; 8(3):427-432. View abstract
  21. Intraoperative Use of O-arm in Pediatric Cervical Spine Surgery. J Pediatr Orthop. 2020 Apr; 40(4):e266-e271. View abstract
  22. Management of Fasciotomy Incisions After Acute Compartment Syndrome: Is Delayed Primary Closure More Feasible in Children Compared With Adults? J Pediatr Orthop. 2020 Apr; 40(4):e300-e305. View abstract
  23. Os Odontoideum in Children. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 2020 Feb 01; 28(3):e100-e107. View abstract
  24. Use of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein for revision cervical spine fusion in children with Down syndrome: a case series. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2020 Jan 31; 1-5. View abstract
  25. The Lumbosacral Takeoff Angle Can Be Used to Predict the Postoperative Lumbar Cobb Angle Following Selective Thoracic Fusion in Patients with Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2020 Jan 15; 102(2):143-150. View abstract
  26. Chiari I malformations with syringomyelia: long-term results of neurosurgical decompression. Spine Deform. 2020 04; 8(2):233-243. View abstract
  27. Surgical Treatment of Developmental Spondylolisthesis: Contemporary Series With a Two-Surgeon Team. Spine Deform. 2019 Mar; 7(2):275-285. View abstract
  28. Implementing a Multidisciplinary Clinical Pathway Can Reduce the Deep Surgical Site Infection Rate After Posterior Spinal Fusion in High-Risk Patients. Spine Deform. 2019 Jan; 7(1):33-39. View abstract
  29. Surgical Fixation Using Screw-Rod Construct Instrumentation for Upper Cervical Instability in Pediatric Down Syndrome Patients. Spine Deform. 2019 Nov; 7(6):957-961. View abstract
  30. Halo-gravity traction for the treatment of pediatric cervical spine disorders. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2019 Dec 27; 1-10. View abstract
  31. Surgical Fixation Using Screw-Rod Construct Instrumentation for Upper Cervical Instability in Pediatric Down Syndrome Patients. Spine Deform. 2019 11; 7(6):957-961. View abstract
  32. Halo-Gravity Traction for the Treatment of Cervical Spine Disorders. Spine Deform. 2019 Nov; 7(6):1026-1027. View abstract
  33. Os Odontoideum in Children: Treatment Outcomes and Neurologic Risk Factors. Spine Deform. 2019 Nov; 7(6):1027. View abstract
  34. Growth-friendly Instrumentation for the Treatment of Early-onset Scoliosis in Marfan Syndrome. Spine Deform. 2019 Nov; 7(6):1027-1028. View abstract
  35. Os Odontoideum in Children: Treatment Outcomes and Neurological Risk Factors. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2019 Oct 02; 101(19):1750-1760. View abstract
  36. Management of Gustilo-Anderson Type II and IIIA Open Long Bone Fractures in Children: Which Wounds Require a Second Washout? J Pediatr Orthop. 2019 Sep 04. View abstract
  37. Perioperative acute neurological deficits in instrumented pediatric cervical spine fusions. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2019 Aug 16; 1-11. View abstract
  38. Os Odontoideum in Children. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 2019 Aug 05. View abstract
  39. Adverse Perioperative Events in Children with Complex Congenital Heart Disease Undergoing Operative Scoliosis Repair in the Contemporary Era. Pediatr Cardiol. 2019 Oct; 40(7):1468-1475. View abstract
  40. Multidisciplinary management of spinal aneurysmal bone cysts: A single-center experience. Interv Neuroradiol. 2019 Oct; 25(5):564-569. View abstract
  41. The AOSpine thoracolumbar spine injury classification system: A comparative study with the thoracolumbar injury classification system and severity score in children. OTA Int. 2019 Dec; 2(4):e036. View abstract
  42. Surgical Treatment of Developmental Spondylolisthesis: Contemporary Series With a Two-Surgeon Team. Spine Deform. 2019 03; 7(2):275-285. View abstract
  43. Implementing a Multidisciplinary Clinical Pathway Can Reduce the Deep Surgical Site Infection Rate After Posterior Spinal Fusion in High-Risk Patients. Spine Deform. 2019 01; 7(1):33-39. View abstract
  44. Tranexamic Acid Is Efficacious at Decreasing the Rate of Blood Loss in Adolescent Scoliosis Surgery: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2018 Dec 05; 100(23):2024-2032. View abstract
  45. A comparison of screw versus drill and curettage epiphysiodesis to correct leg-length discrepancy. J Child Orthop. 2018 Oct 01; 12(5):509-514. View abstract
  46. C2 Translaminar Screw Fixation in Children. J Pediatr Orthop. 2018 Jul; 38(6):e312-e317. View abstract
  47. Sirolimus Therapy as Perioperative Treatment of Gorham-Stout Disease in the Thoracic Spine: A Case Report. JBJS Case Connect. 2018 Jul-Sep; 8(3):e70. View abstract
  48. Identifying Factors Predictive of Atlantoaxial Fusion Failure in Pediatric Patients: Lessons Learned From a Retrospective Pediatric Craniocervical Society Study. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2018 06 01; 43(11):754-760. View abstract
  49. Sagittal plane parameters in growing rod patients following final fusion. J Pediatr Orthop B. 2018 Mar; 27(2):168-175. View abstract
  50. Closed Versus Open Supracondylar Fractures of the Humerus in Children: A Comparison of Clinical and Radiographic Presentation and Results. J Pediatr Orthop. 2018 Feb; 38(2):77-81. View abstract
  51. Deep Surgical Site Infections Following Pediatric Cervical Spine Surgery. J Pediatr Orthop. 2017 Dec; 37(8):553-556. View abstract
  52. Staged Growing Rods With Preimplantation of Spinal Anchors for Complex Early Onset Scoliosis. J Pediatr Orthop. 2017 Dec; 37(8):e606-e611. View abstract
  53. Fracture Table Application for Pediatric Femur Fractures: Incidence and Risk Factors Associated With Adverse Outcomes. J Pediatr Orthop. 2017 Sep; 37(6):e353-e356. View abstract
  54. Efficacy of Intraoperative Neurophysiologic Monitoring for Pediatric Cervical Spine Surgery. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2017 Jul 01; 42(13):974-978. View abstract
  55. The surgical treatment of spinal deformity in children with myelomeningocele: the role of personalized three-dimensional printed models. J Pediatr Orthop B. 2017 Jul; 26(4):375-382. View abstract
  56. Allograft Bone Use in Pediatric Subaxial Cervical Spine Fusions. J Pediatr Orthop. 2017 Mar; 37(2):e140-e144. View abstract
  57. Uniplanar Versus Taylor Spatial Frame External Fixation For Pediatric Diaphyseal Tibia Fractures: A Comparison of Cost and Complications. J Pediatr Orthop. 2016 Dec; 36(8):821-828. View abstract
  58. Outcomes of Spinal Fusion for Cervical Kyphosis in Children with Neurofibromatosis. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2016 Nov 02; 98(21):e95. View abstract
  59. Pediatric Nonfracture Acute Compartment Syndrome: A Review of 39 Cases. J Pediatr Orthop. 2016 Oct-Nov; 36(7):685-90. View abstract
  60. Combined preoperative traction with instrumented posterior occipitocervical fusion for severe ventral brainstem compression secondary to displaced os odontoideum: technical report of 2 cases. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2016 Dec; 25(6):724-729. View abstract
  61. Treatment outcomes after insufficiency femoral diaphyseal fractures in nonambulatory children. J Pediatr Orthop B. 2016 Jul; 25(4):331-7. View abstract
  62. Management of Spinal Implants in Acute Pediatric Surgical Site Infections: A Multicenter Study. Spine Deform. 2016 Jul; 4(4):277-282. View abstract
  63. Pediatric forearm fractures with in situ intramedullary implants. J Child Orthop. 2016 Aug; 10(4):321-7. View abstract
  64. Cervical Spine Instrumentation in Children. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 2016 Jun; 24(6):370-8. View abstract
  65. Osteonecrosis After Femoral Neck Fractures in Children and Adolescents: Analysis of Risk Factors. J Pediatr Orthop. 2016 Mar; 36(2):111-6. View abstract
  66. Epidural Steroid Injections for Radiculopathy and/or Back Pain in Children and Adolescents: A Retrospective Cohort Study With a Prospective Follow-Up. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2016 Jan-Feb; 41(1):86-92. View abstract
  67. Excision of symptomatic spinous process nonunion in adolescent athletes. Am J Orthop (Belle Mead NJ). 2015 Nov; 44(11):515-7. View abstract
  68. Surgical Treatment of Spinal Deformity in Patients With CLOVES Syndrome: A Report of 4 Cases. J Pediatr Orthop. 2015 Oct-Nov; 35(7):682-6. View abstract
  69. Likelihood of surgery in isolated pediatric fifth metatarsal fractures. J Pediatr Orthop. 2015 Apr-May; 35(3):296-302. View abstract
  70. Surgical management for displaced pediatric proximal humeral fractures: a cost analysis. J Child Orthop. 2015 Feb; 9(1):55-64. View abstract
  71. Rigid fixation improves outcomes of spinal fusion for C1-C2 instability in children with skeletal dysplasias. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2015 Feb 04; 97(3):232-40. View abstract
  72. Spinal deformity progression after posterior segmental instrumentation and fusion for idiopathic scoliosis. J Child Orthop. 2015 Feb; 9(1):29-37. View abstract
  73. Modern instrumentation of the pediatric occiput and upper cervical spine: review article. HSS J. 2015 Feb; 11(1):9-14. View abstract
  74. Efficacy of nonfusion treatment for subacute and chronic atlanto-axial rotatory fixation in children. J Pediatr Orthop. 2014 Jul-Aug; 34(5):490-5. View abstract
  75. Modern posterior screw techniques in the pediatric cervical spine. World J Orthop. 2014 Apr 18; 5(2):94-9. View abstract
  76. Gain in spinal height from surgical correction of idiopathic scoliosis. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2014 Jan 01; 96(1):59-65. View abstract
  77. Adverse sequelae due to plate retention following submuscular plating for pediatric femur fractures. J Orthop Trauma. 2013 Dec; 27(12):726-9. View abstract
  78. Acute compartment syndrome in children and teenagers with tibial shaft fractures: incidence and multivariable risk factors. J Orthop Trauma. 2013 Nov; 27(11):616-21. View abstract
  79. Complications of plate fixation of femoral shaft fractures in children and adolescents. J Child Orthop. 2013 Jun; 7(3):235-43. View abstract
  80. Comparison of titanium elastic nail and plate fixation of pediatric subtrochanteric femur fractures. J Pediatr Orthop. 2013 Apr-May; 33(3):232-8. View abstract
  81. Proximal tibial osteotomy and Taylor Spatial Frame application for correction of tibia vara in morbidly obese adolescents. J Pediatr Orthop. 2013 Apr-May; 33(3):276-81. View abstract
  82. Surgical management of giant multilevel aneurysmal bone cyst of cervical spine in a 10-year-old child: case report with review of literature (evid based spine care j 2012;3(4):55-59). Evid Based Spine Care J. 2013 Apr; 4(1):63-4. View abstract
  83. Distal femoral valgus deformity following plate fixation of pediatric femoral shaft fractures. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2013 Mar 20; 95(6):526-33. View abstract
  84. Submuscular plating of pediatric femur fracture. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 2012 Sep; 20(9):596-603. View abstract
  85. Alternative technique for open reduction and fixation of displaced pediatric medial epicondyle fractures: author response to letter to the editor. J Child Orthop. 2012 Jul; 6(3):257. View abstract
  86. Alternative technique for open reduction and fixation of displaced pediatric medial epicondyle fractures. J Child Orthop. 2012 Jun; 6(2):105-9. View abstract
  87. Surgical treatment for primary spinal aneurysmal bone cysts: experience from Children's Hospital Boston. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2012 Mar; 9(3):305-15. View abstract
  88. Surgical site infection after pediatric spinal deformity surgery. Curr Rev Musculoskelet Med. 2012 Feb 09. View abstract
  89. CLOVES syndrome with thoracic and central phlebectasia: increased risk of pulmonary embolism. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2010 Aug; 140(2):459-63. View abstract
  90. Lateral mass screw fixation in children. J Child Orthop. 2010 Jun; 4(3):197-201. View abstract
  91. Single stage reduction and stabilization of basilar invagination after failed prior fusion surgery in children with Down's syndrome. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2010 Feb 15; 35(4):E128-33. View abstract
  92. Implant removal after submuscular plating for pediatric femur fractures. J Pediatr Orthop. 2009 Oct-Nov; 29(7):709-12. View abstract
  93. Osteoid osteomas: intraoperative bone scan-assisted resection. Clinical article. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2009 Sep; 4(3):237-44. View abstract
  94. Instrumentation and fusion for congenital spine deformities. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2009 Aug 01; 34(17):1783-90. View abstract
  95. Three rod technique facilitates hemivertebra wedge excision in young children through a posterior only approach. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2009 Mar 15; 34(6):E225-9. View abstract
  96. Screw fixation to C2 in children: a case series and technical report. J Pediatr Orthop. 2009 Jan-Feb; 29(1):21-5. View abstract
  97. Failure of attempted implant retention in spinal deformity delayed surgical site infections. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2009 Jan 01; 34(1):60-4. View abstract
  98. Modern cervical spine instrumentation in children. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2008 Feb 15; 33(4):379-83. View abstract
  99. Locking plate fixation for pediatric femur fractures. J Pediatr Orthop. 2008 Jan-Feb; 28(1):6-9. View abstract
  100. Anterior exposures of the pediatric spine and posterior pedicle screw instrumentation. Neurosurg Clin N Am. 2007 Oct; 18(4):681-95. View abstract
  101. Surgical treatment of congenital scoliosis. Orthop Clin North Am. 2007 Oct; 38(4):497-509, vi. View abstract
  102. The use of allograft as a bone graft substitute in patients with congenital spine deformities. J Pediatr Orthop. 2007 Sep; 27(6):686-9. View abstract
  103. Lateral entry compared with medial and lateral entry pin fixation for completely displaced supracondylar humeral fractures in children. A randomized clinical trial. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2007 Apr; 89(4):706-12. View abstract
  104. Histomorphometric assessment of thoracoscopically assisted anterior release in a porcine model: safety and completeness of disc discectomy with surgeon learning curve. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2007 Jan 15; 32(2):188-92. View abstract
  105. Congenital scoliosis: a review and update. J Pediatr Orthop. 2007 Jan-Feb; 27(1):106-16. View abstract
  106. Results and technique of unstable pediatric femoral fractures treated with submuscular bridge plating. J Pediatr Orthop. 2006 Mar-Apr; 26(2):177-81. View abstract
  107. Operative treatment of scoliosis in patients with a Fontan circulation. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2006 Jan 15; 31(2):202-5. View abstract
  108. Technical aspects of bridge plating for pediatric femur fractures. J Orthop Trauma. 2005 Apr; 19(4):276-9. View abstract
  109. Hemivertebra excision in children via simultaneous anterior and posterior exposures. J Pediatr Orthop. 2005 Jan-Feb; 25(1):60-3. View abstract
  110. Complications and timing of follow-up after closed reduction and percutaneous pinning of supracondylar humerus fractures: follow-up after percutaneous pinning of supracondylar humerus fractures. J Pediatr Orthop. 2004 Nov-Dec; 24(6):610-4. View abstract
  111. The safety and efficacy of spinal instrumentation in children with congenital spine deformities. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2004 Sep 15; 29(18):2081-6; discussion 2087. View abstract
  112. Operative correction of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis in male patients. A radiographic and functional outcome comparison with female patients. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2004 Sep; 86(9):2005-14. View abstract
  113. Congenital scoliosis. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 2004 Jul-Aug; 12(4):266-75. View abstract
  114. Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 enhances anterior spinal fusion in a thoracoscopically instrumented animal model. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2004 Apr; 86(4):752-62. View abstract
  115. The correlation of preoperative three-dimensional computed tomography reconstructions with operative findings in congenital scoliosis. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2003 Nov 15; 28(22):2531-4; discussion 1. View abstract
  116. Use of an abduction brace for developmental dysplasia of the hip after failure of Pavlik harness use. J Pediatr Orthop. 2003 Mar-Apr; 23(2):175-7. View abstract
  117. Early versus delayed stabilization of pediatric femur fractures: analysis of 387 patients. J Orthop Trauma. 1999 Sep-Oct; 13(7):490-3. View abstract