Current Environment:

The Sports Medicine Research Laboratory, led by principal investigator Dr. Martha M. Murray, focuses on sports medicine injuries, including those of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), knee meniscus, and articular cartilage. Researchers and their collaborators are studying these injuries on multiple levels: gene, protein, cell, tissue, and organism.

Murray MM, Fleming BC, Badger GJ, Freiberger C, Henderson R, Barnett S, Kiapour A, Ecklund K, Proffen B, Sant N, Kramer DE, Micheli LJ, Yen YM. Bridge-Enhanced Anterior Cruciate Ligament Repair Is Not Inferior to Autograft Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction at 2 Years: Results of a Prospective Randomized Clinical Trial. Am J Sports Med. 2020 05; 48(6): 1305-1315.

Murray MM, Kalish LA, Fleming BC, Flutie B, Freiberger C, Henderson RN, Perrone GS, Thurber LG, Proffen BL, Ecklund K, Kramer DE, Yen YM, Micheli LJ. Bridge-Enhanced Anterior Cruciate Ligament Repair: Two-Year Results of a First-in-Human Study. Orthop J Sports Med. 2019 Mar; 7(3):2325967118824356.

Perrone GS, Proffen BL, Kiapour AM, Sieker JT, Fleming BC, Murray MM.Bench-to-Bedside: Bridge-Enhanced Anterior Cruciate Ligament Repair. J Orthop Res. 2017 Jun 13

Murray MM, Flutie BM, Kalish LA, Ecklund K, Fleming BC, Proffen BL, Micheli LJ.The Bridge-Enhanced Anterior Cruciate Ligament Repair (BEAR) Procedure: An Early Feasibility Cohort Study. Orthop J Sports Med. 2016 Nov 21

Biercevicz AM, Proffen BL, Murray MM, Walsh EG, Fleming BC. T2* relaxometry and volume predict semi-quantitative histological scoring of an ACL bridge-enhanced primary repair in a porcine model. J Orthop Res. 2015 Aug;33

Kiapour AM, Fleming BC, Murray MM. Biomechanical Outcomes of Bridge-enhanced (TM) Anterior Cruciate Ligament Repair Are Influenced by Sex in a Preclinical Model. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2015 Aug;473(8):2599-608.

Kiapour A, Shalvoy M, Murray MM, Fleming, B. Validation of Porcine Knee as a Sex-specific Model to Study Human Anterior Cruciate Ligament Disorders. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2015 Feb;473(2):639-50.

Biercevicz A, Walsh E, Murray MM, Fleming BC. Improving the Clinical Efficiency of T2* Mapping of Ligament Integrity. Journal of Biomechanics. 2014 Jul 18;47(10):2522-5.

Biercevicz AM, Murray MM, Walsh EG, Miranda DL, Machan JT, Fleming BC. T2* MR Relaxometry to Predict Healing Ligament Structural Properties. Orthop Res. 2014 Apr;32(4):492-9.

Fleming BC, Proffen BL, Vavken P, Shalvoy MR, Machan JT, Murray MM. Increased Platelet Concentration Does Not Improve Functional Graft Healing in Bio-Enhanced ACL Reconstruction. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2015 Apr;23(4):1161-70.

Haslauer CM, Proffen BL, Johnson VM, Murray MM. Expression of Modulators of Extracellular Matrix Structure After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury. Wound Repair and Regeneration. 2014 Jan-Feb;22(1):103-10.

Proffen BL, Fleming B, Murray MM. Histologic Predictors of Maximum Failure Loads Differ between the Healing ACL and ACL Grafts after 6 and 12 Months In Vivo. J Ortho Sports Med. 2013 Nov; 1(6):1-12.

Yoshida R, Cheng M, Murray MM. Increasing Platelet Concentration in Platelet-Rich Plasma Inhibits Anterior Cruciate Ligament Cell Function in Three-dimensional Culture. J Orthop Res. 2014 Feb;32(2):291-5.

Murray MM, Fleming BC. Use of a Bioactive Scaffold to Stimulate ACL Healing also Minimizes Post-traumatic Osteoarthritis after Surgery. Am J Sports Med. 2013 Aug;41(8):1762-70.

Proffen BL, Haslauer CM, Harris CE, Murray MM. Mesenchymal Stem Cells from the Retropatellar Fat Pad and Peripheral Blood Stimulate ACL Fibroblast Migration, Proliferation and Collagen Gene Expression. Connect Tissue Res. 2013;54(1):14-21.

Vavken P, Proffen B, Peterson C, Fleming BC, Machan JT, Murray MM. Effects of Suture Choice on Biomechanics and Physeal Status After Bioenhanced Anterior Cruciate Ligament Repair in Skeletally Immature Patients: A Large-animal Study. Arthroscopy. 2013 Jan; 29(1):122-32.

Yoshida R, Murray MM Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells Enhance the Anabolic Effects of Platelet-Rich Plasma on Anterior Cruciate Ligament Fibroblasts. J Orthop Res. 2013 Jan;31(1):29-34.


Biercevicz A, Miranda DL, Machan JT, Murray MM, Fleming BC. In Situ Non-Invasive T2*-Weighted MRI Derived Parameters Determine Ex Vivo Structural Properties of an ACL Reconstruction or Bio-enhanced Primary Repair in a Porcine Model. Am J Sports Med. 2013 Mar;41(3):560-6.

Yoshida, R., Vavken, P. and Murray, M.M. Decellularization of Bovine Anterior Cruciate Ligament Tissues Minimizes Immunogenic Reactions to Alpha-Gel Epitopes by Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells. Knee. 2012 Oct;19(5):672-5.

Magarian EM, Vavken P, Connolly SA, Mastrangelo AN, Murray MM. Safety of Intra-Articular Use of Atelocollagen for Enhanced Tissue Repair. Open Orthop J. 2012;6:231-8.

Vavken P, Fleming BC, Mastrangelo AN, Machan JT, Murray MM. Biomechanical Outcomes after Bio-enhanced Anterior Cruciate Ligament Repair and Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction are Equal in a Porcine Model. Arthroscopy. 2012 May;28(5):672-80.

Vavken P, Saad FA, Fleming BC, Murray MM. VEGF Receptor mRNA Expression By ACL Fibroblasts is Associated with Functional Healing of the ACL. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2011 Oct; 19(10):1675-82.

Fleming BC, Vajapeyam S, Connolly S, Magarian EM, Murray MM. The Use of Magnetic Resonance Imaging to Predict ACL Graft Structural Properties. J Biomechanics. 2011 Nov 10;44(16):2843-6.

Harrison SL, Vavken P, Murray MM. Erythrocytes Inhibit Ligament Fibroblast Proliferation in a Collagen Scaffold. J Orthop Res. 2011 Sep 29(9):1361-6.

Palmer M, Stanford E, Murray MM. The Effect of Synovial Fluid Enzymes on the Biodegradability of Collagen and Fibrin Clots Materials (Basel). 2011 Aug 20;4(8):1469-1482.

Vavken, P, Sadoghi P, Murray MM. The Effect of Platelet Concentrates on Graft Maturation and Graft-Bone Interface Healing in ACL Reconstruction in Human Patients. A Systematic Review of Controlled Trials. Arthroscopy. 2011; 27(11):1573-83.

Magarian EM, Vavken P, Murray MM. Human Anterior Cruciate Ligament Fibroblasts from Immature Patients Have a Stronger In Vitro Response to Platelet Concentrates Than Those from Mature Individuals. Knee. 2011 Aug;18(4):247-51.

Proffen BL, Fleming BC, Murray MM. A Comparative Anatomical Study of the Human Knee and Six Animal Species. Knee. 2012 Aug;19(4):493-9.

Cheng M, Johnson V, Murray MM. The Effects of Age and Platelet-Rich Plasma on ACL Cell Viability and Collagen Gene Expression. J Orthop Res. 2011;30(1):79-85.

Mastrangelo AN, Vavken P, Fleming BC, Harrison SH, Murray MM. Reduced Platelet Concentration Does Not Harm PRP Effectiveness for ACL Repair in a Porcine In Vivo Model. J Ortho Res. 2011 Jul;29(7):1002-7.

Haus BM, Mastrangelo AN, Murray MM. The Effect of Anterior Cruciate Healing on the Uninjured Ligament Insertion Site. J Orthop Res. 2011 Jul 11; 30(1):86-94.

Steinert A, Kunz M, Barthel T, Jakob F, Noeth U, Murray MM, Evans, C, Porter, R. Mesenchymal Stem Cell Characteristics of Human Anterior Cruciate Ligament Outgrowth Cells. Tissue Engineering Part A. 2011 May;17(9-10):1375-88.

Harrison S, Vavken P, Kevy S, Jacobson M, Zurakowski D, Murray MM. Platelet Activation by Collagen Provides Sustained Release of Anabolic Cytokines. Am J Sports Med. 2011;39(4):729-34.

Vavken, P., Joshi, S.M. and Murray, M.M. Fibrin Concentration Affects ACL Fibroblast Proliferation and Collagen Synthesis. The Knee, 2011, Jan; 18(1):42-6.

Magarian EM, Fleming BC, Harrison SL, Mastrangelo AN, Badger G, Murray MM. Delay of 2 or 6 Weeks Adversely Affects the Functional Outcome of Augmented Primary Repair of the Porcine ACL. Am J Sports Med. 2010 Dec;38(12):2528-34.

Murray MM, Magarian EM, Harrison SL, Zurakowski D, Fleming BC. The Effect of Skeletal Maturity on Functional Healing of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2010 Nov;92(11):2039-49.

Vavken P, Saad FA, Murray MM, Age-dependence of Expression of Growth Factor Receptors in Porcine ACL Fibroblasts. J Orthop Res. 2010 Aug;28(8):1107-12.

Mastrangelo AN, Haus B, Vavken P, Murray MM. Immature Animals Have Higher Cellular Density in the Healing Anterior cruciate Ligament Than Adolescent or Adult Animals. J Orthop Res. 2010 Aug;28(8):1100-6.

Murray MM, Magarian E, Zurakowski D, Fleming BC Bone-to-Bone Fixation Enhances Functional Healing of the Porcine Anterior Cruciate Ligament Using a Collagen-Platelet Composite. Arthroscopy. 2010 Sep;26(9 Suppl):S49-57.

Fleming BC, Magarian EM, Harrison SL, Paller DJ, Murray MM. Collagen Scaffold Supplementation does not improve the functional properties of the repaired anterior cruciate ligament. J Orthop Res. 2010 Jun;28(6):703-9.

Mastrangelo AN, Magarian EM, Palmer MP, Murray MM. The Effect of Skeletal Maturity on the Regenerative Function of Intrinsic ACL Cells. J Orthop Res. 2010 May;28(5):644-51.

Cheng MY, Wang H, Yoshida R, Murray MM. Platelets and Plasma Proteins are Both Required to Stimulate Collagen Gene Expression by ACL Cells in Three-dimensional Culture. Tissue Eng Part A. 2010 May;16(5):1479-89.

Abreu EL, Palmer MP, Murray MM. Collagen Density Significantly Affects The Functional Properties of an Engineered Provisional Scaffold. J Biomed Mater Res A. 2010 Apr;93(1):150-7.

Vavken, P, Joshi, S. and Murray, M.M. Triton-X Is Most Effective Among Three Decellularization Agents for ACL Tissue Engineering. J Orthop Res. 2009 Dec;27(12):1612-8.

Joshi SM, Mastrangelo AN, Fleming BC, Murray MM. Collagen-Platelet Composite Enhances Biomechanical and Histologic Healing of the ACL. Am J Sports Med. 2009 Dec;37(12):2401-10.

Abreu EL, Palmer MP, Murray MM. Storage Conditions Do Not Have Detrimental Effect on Allograft Collagen or Scaffold Performance. Cell Tissue Bank. 2009 Nov;10(4):333-40.

Fleming BC, Spindler KP, Palmer M, Magarian E, Murray MM. Collagen-platelet Composites Improve the Biomechanical Properties of Healing ACL Grafts in a Porcine Model. Am J Sports Med. 2009 Aug;37(8):1554-63.

Palmer MP, Abreu EL, Mastrangelo A, Murray MM. Injection Temperature Significantly Affects In Vitro and In Vivo Performance of Collagen-platelet Scaffolds. J Orthop Res. 2009 Jul;27(7):964-71.

Spindler KP, Murray MM, Carey JL, Zurakowski D, Fleming BC. The Use of Platelets to Affect Functional Healing of an Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) Autograft in a Caprine ACL Reconstruction Model. J Orthop Res. 2009 May;27(5):631-8.

Murray MM, Palmer M, Abreu E, Spindler KP, Zurakowski D, Fleming BC. Platelet-Rich Plasma Alone Is not Sufficient To Enhance Suture Repair of the ACL In Skeletally Immature Animals: An In Vivo Study. J Ortho Res. 2009 May;(5): 639-45.

Fleming BC, Carey J, Spindler KP, Murray MM. Can Suture Repair of ACL Transection Restore Normal Anteroposterior Laxity of the Knee? An Ex Vivo Study. J Orthop Res. 2008 Nov;26(11):1500-5.

Jacobson M, Fufa D, Abreu E, Kevy S, Murray MM. Platelets, But Not Erythrocytes, Significantly Affect Cytokine Release and Scaffold Contraction in a Provisional Scaffold Model. Wound Repair and Regeneration. 2008 May-Jun;16(3):370-8.

Fufa D, Shealy B, Jacobson M, Kevy S, Murray MM, Activation of Platelet-Rich Plasma Using Soluble Type I Collagen. Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2008 Apr; 66(4):684-90.

Murray MM, Spindler KP, Ballard P, Welch T, Nanney LB. Enhanced Histologic Repair in a Central Wound in the Anterior Cruciate Ligament with a Collagen-platelet-rich plasma Scaffold. J Orthop Res. 2007 Aug; 25(8):1007-1017.

Murray MM, Spindler KP, Abreu E, Muller J, Nedder A, Kelly M, Frino J, Zurakowski D, Valenza M, Snyder BD, Connolly SA. Collagen-Platelet Rich Plasma Hydrogel Enhances Primary Repair of the Porcine Anterior Cruciate Ligament. J Orthop Res. 2007;25:81-91.

Murray MM, Spindler KP, Devin C, Snyder BD, Muller J, Ballard P, Nanney LB, Zurakowski D. Use of a Collagen-platelet Rich Plasma Scaffold to Stimulate Healing of the ACL. J Orthop Res. 2006;24:820-830.

Spindler KP, Murray MM, Devin C, Nanney LB, Davidson JM. The Central ACL Defect as a Model for Failure of Intra-articular Healing. J Orthop Res 2006. Mar; 24:401-406.

Murray MM, Forsythe B, Chen F, Lee SJ, Yoo JJ, Atala A, Steiner A. The Effect of Thrombin on ACL Fibroblast Interactions With Collagen Hydrogels. J Orthop Res. 2006 Mar; 24:508-515.

Murray MM, Weiler A, Spindler KP. Interspecies Variation in the Fibroblast Distribution of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament. Am J Sports Med. 2004;32:1484-1491.

Pascher A, Steinert AF, Palmer GD, Betz O, Gouze JN, Gouze E, Pilapil C, Ghivizzani SC, Evans CH, Murray MM. Enhanced Repair of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament by in Situ Gene Transfer: Evaluation in an in Vitro Model. Molecular Therapy. 2004;10(2):327-336.

Murray MM, Rice K, Wright RJ, Spector M. The Effect of Selected Growth Factors on Human Anterior Cruciate Ligament Cell Interactions with a Three Dimensional Collagen-GAG Scaffold. J Orthop Res. 2003 Mar;21(2):238-44.

Murray MM, Bennett RL, Spector MS. Cell Outgrowth From the Human ACL In Vitro: Regional Variation and Response to TGF-b1. J Orthop Res. 2002 Jul; 20:875-880.

Murray MM, Spector M. The Migration of Cells From the Ruptured Human Anterior Cruciate Ligament Into Collagen-glycosaminoglycan Regeneration Templates In Vitro. Biomaterials. 2001 Sep; 22:2393-2402.

Murray MM, Martin SD, Martin TL, Spector M. Histologic Changes in the Human Anterior Cruciate Ligament After Rupture. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2000;82A(10):1387-1397.

Murray MM, Martin SD, Spector M. The Migration of Cells From Human Anterior Cruciate Ligament Explants into Three Dimensional Collagen-glycosaminoglycan Scaffolds In Vitro. J Orthop Res. 2000 Jul;18(4);557-64.

Murray MM, Spector M. Fibroblast Distribution in the Anteromedial Bundle of the Human Anterior Cruciate Ligament: The Presence of A-smooth Muscle Actin-positive Cells. J Orthop Res. 1999 Jan;17:18-26.