Current Environment:


The investigators propose to translate confocal microscopy for use during open heart surgery. This tool will help discriminate between various types of tissues in the heart during surgery. One of the most feared complication after heart surgery is heart block. This flexible fiberoptic confocal microscope will help discriminate between the various types of tissues in the heart and thus help avoid injury to the conduction tissue during surgery.


Atrial Septal Defect

Recruitment Status


Detailed Description

This is an interventional pilot study that proposes to evaluate the safety, logistical feasibility, and technological feasibility of using Fluorescite with fiberoptic confocal microscopy during cardiac surgery to discriminate between cardiac tissue and conduction tissue. During surgery to repair atrial septal defect, diluted Fluorescite will be added to the surface of the heart. The fiberoptic confocal microscope (Cellvizio 100 Series System with Confocal Miniprobe) will be used to record images in several different locations of the heart. The image files will be provided to blinded raters who will attempt to identify whether they contain cardiac tissue or conduction tissue. All subjects will be monitored while they are inpatient after surgery for any adverse events.

Eligibility Criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

Males and females between 30 days and 21 years old
Undergoing elective surgery for closure of atrial septal defect
Both parents attend pre-operative clinic appointment, to provide 2 parent consent, or an adult participant (age 18-21) may provide consent for him/herself

Exclusion Criteria:

Prior history of adverse reaction to fluorescein sodium
Prior history of renal failure or abnormal renal function
Baseline PR interval > 220 msec or 98% for age
Baseline HR > 87% for age
Underlying genetic syndrome associated with progressive AV block of sinus node dysfunction (e.g. Holt-Oram or NKX2.5)


Intervention Type

Intervention Name




Cellvizio 100 Series System with Confocal Miniprobes


Phase 1



Min Age

30 Days

Max Age

21 Years

Download Date

July 7, 2020

Principal Investigator

Aditya Kaza

Primary Contact Information

For more information on this trial, visit


For more information and to contact the study team:

Utilization of Confocal Microscopy During Cardiac Surgery NCT03189134