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Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), often referred to as “bubble boy disease,” is a rare hereditary condition that makes infants vulnerable to infection. Essentially, children with SCID lack an immune system.

SCID is caused by genetic mutations. In the most common form of the disease, X-linked SCID (SCID-X1), the gene responsible is IL2RG, which is needed for the healthy development of several kinds of immune cells — T and natural killer lymphocytes and nonfunctional B lymphocytes. The current treatment for SCID-X1 is a bone marrow transplant that can produce normal immune cells, but finding a suitable can be a challenge.

How gene therapy for SCID-X1 works

To perform SCID-X1 gene therapy, a patient’s blood stem cells (these are the cells that give rise to all mature blood stem cells) are collected. In a highly-specialized laboratory, a viral vector is used as a carrier to insert a correct version of the faulty IL2RG gene into the patient’s stem cells. Then, the patient receives chemotherapy to make room for the genetically-altered cells. Finally, the cells are given back to the patient via an intravenous infusion.


Meet Paul

La Dreama Wood and Kevin Gallagher were preparing for their first baby together when they learned he would be born with SCID. They would have to make a choice between two treatments. In their own words, learn about their decision and their journey.

Read their story
La Dreama and Kevin with their child, Paul.

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