Caregiver Profile

Nuestros Médicos

We are Boston Children's

Caregiver Profile

Meet Dr. Carlos Estrada

Nuestros Médicos

Conocer al Doctor Estrada

We are Boston Children's

Dr. Estrada tells one of his favorite Boston Children’s memories about a special patient.


Undergraduate Degree

  • College of the Holy Cross , 1994 , Worcester , MA

Graduate Degree

  • MIT Sloan School of Management , 2017 , Cambridge , MA

Medical School

  • Wright State University School of Medicine , 1998 , Dayton , OH


  • Rush University Medical Center , 1999 , Chicago , IL


  • Rush University Medical Center , 2002 , Chicago , IL


Chief Urology Resident
  • Rush University Medical Center , 2003 , Chicago , IL


Pediatric Urology
  • Boston Children's Hospital , 2006 , Boston , MA


Carlos R. Estrada, Jr., MD, MBA, is the Urologist-in-Chief at Boston Children’s Hospital, co-director of Boston Children's Spina Bifida and Spinal Cord Conditions Center, co-director of the Urodynamics and Neurourology Program, and co-director of the Center for Gender Surgery. Dr. Estrada completed his fellowship at Boston Children's and joined the faculty here in 2006. His research interests include tissue engineering and neurogenic bladder dysfunction. He is an Associate Professor of Surgery at Harvard Medical School.


  • American Board of Urology, Pediatric Urology


Publications powered by Harvard Catalyst Profiles

  1. It Takes a Village: Equipping Children with Spina Bifida for an Independent Life. J Urol. 2022 01; 207(1):14-15. View abstract
  2. The role of androgens in clitorophallus development and possible applications to transgender patients. Andrology. 2021 11; 9(6):1719-1728. View abstract
  3. Selecting Children with Vesicoureteral Reflux Who are Most Likely to Benefit from Antibiotic Prophylaxis: Application of Machine Learning to RIVUR. J Urol. 2021 04; 205(4):1170-1179. View abstract
  4. Pattern recognition algorithm to identify detrusor overactivity on urodynamics. Neurourol Urodyn. 2021 01; 40(1):428-434. View abstract
  5. Experience with implementation of a nurse practitioner-led newborn circumcision clinic. J Pediatr Urol. 2020 Oct; 16(5):651.e1-651.e7. View abstract
  6. "Ramping up telemedicine in pediatric urology- Tips for using a new modality". J Pediatr Urol. 2020 06; 16(3):288-289. View abstract
  7. Anxiety, distress, and pain in pediatric urodynamics. Neurourol Urodyn. 2020 04; 39(4):1178-1184. View abstract
  8. Telemedicine for Pediatric Urological Postoperative Care is Safe, Convenient and Economical. J Urol. 2020 07; 204(1):144-148. View abstract
  9. The Use of Telemedicine for the Postoperative Urological Care of Children: Results of a Pilot Program. J Urol. 2019 07; 202(1):159-163. View abstract
  10. Targeted Workup after Initial Febrile Urinary Tract Infection: Using a Novel Machine Learning Model to Identify Children Most Likely to Benefit from Voiding Cystourethrogram. J Urol. 2019 07; 202(1):144-152. View abstract
  11. Augmentation Cystoplasty of Diseased Porcine Bladders with Bi-Layer Silk Fibroin Grafts. Tissue Eng Part A. 2019 06; 25(11-12):855-866. View abstract
  12. Repair of injured urethras with silk fibroin scaffolds in a rabbit model of onlay urethroplasty. J Surg Res. 2018 09; 229:192-199. View abstract
  13. Variability in Care-What Would Business People Think? J Urol. 2018 01; 199(1):40-42. View abstract
  14. Advances in paediatric urology. Lancet. 2017 Sep 09; 390(10099):1061-1071. View abstract
  15. Bilayer silk fibroin grafts support functional oesophageal repair in a rodent model of caustic injury. J Tissue Eng Regen Med. 2018 02; 12(2):e1068-e1075. View abstract
  16. Bi-layer silk fibroin grafts support functional tissue regeneration in a porcine model of onlay esophagoplasty. J Tissue Eng Regen Med. 2018 02; 12(2):e894-e904. View abstract
  17. Ultrasound diagnosis of fetal hypospadias: Accuracy and outcomes. J Pediatr Urol. 2017 Oct; 13(5):484.e1-484.e4. View abstract
  18. Robotic-assisted laparoscopic bladder augmentation in the pediatric patient. J Pediatr Urol. 2016 Oct; 12(5):313.e1-313.e2. View abstract
  19. Silk Fibroin Scaffolds for Urologic Tissue Engineering. Curr Urol Rep. 2016 Feb; 17(2):16. View abstract
  20. CT cystography for evaluation of bladder perforation--be safe and know the limitations--reply to Dr. Karmazyn. Pediatr Radiol. 2016 Apr; 46(4):580. View abstract
  21. Inosine Improves Neurogenic Detrusor Overactivity following Spinal Cord Injury. PLoS One. 2015; 10(11):e0141492. View abstract
  22. The role of imaging in pediatric bladder augmentation. Pediatr Radiol. 2015 Sep; 45(10):1440-7. View abstract
  23. Acellular bi-layer silk fibroin scaffolds support functional tissue regeneration in a rat model of onlay esophagoplasty. Biomaterials. 2015 Jun; 53:149-59. View abstract
  24. The effect of spinal cord level on sexual function in the spina bifida population. J Pediatr Urol. 2015 Jun; 11(3):142.e1-6. View abstract
  25. CEVL training for coronal/distal shaft hypospadias repair: a guide for attendings, residents, and OR staff. J Pediatr Urol. 2015 Feb; 11(1):3-4. View abstract
  26. In vitro evaluation of bi-layer silk fibroin scaffolds for gastrointestinal tissue engineering. J Tissue Eng. 2014; 5:2041731414556849. View abstract
  27. The use of bi-layer silk fibroin scaffolds and small intestinal submucosa matrices to support bladder tissue regeneration in a rat model of spinal cord injury. Biomaterials. 2014 Aug; 35(26):7452-9. View abstract
  28. Evaluation of a mobile voiding diary for pediatric patients with voiding dysfunction: a prospective comparative study. J Urol. 2014 Sep; 192(3):908-13. View abstract
  29. Acellular bi-layer silk fibroin scaffolds support tissue regeneration in a rabbit model of onlay urethroplasty. PLoS One. 2014; 9(3):e91592. View abstract
  30. Multi-planar dynamic contrast-enhanced ultrasound assessment of blood flow in a rabbit model of testicular torsion. Ultrasound Med Biol. 2014 Feb; 40(2):361-70. View abstract
  31. Bladder tissue regeneration using acellular bi-layer silk scaffolds in a large animal model of augmentation cystoplasty. Biomaterials. 2013 Nov; 34(34):8681-9. View abstract
  32. The performance of silk scaffolds in a rat model of augmentation cystoplasty. Biomaterials. 2013 Jul; 34(20):4758-65. View abstract
  33. Evaluation of silk biomaterials in combination with extracellular matrix coatings for bladder tissue engineering with primary and pluripotent cells. PLoS One. 2013; 8(2):e56237. View abstract
  34. In utero closure of myelomeningocele does not improve lower urinary tract function. J Urol. 2012 Oct; 188(4 Suppl):1567-71. View abstract
  35. Evaluation of biomaterials for bladder augmentation using cystometric analyses in various rodent models. J Vis Exp. 2012 Aug 09; (66). View abstract
  36. Urodynamic findings in patients with Currarino syndrome. J Urol. 2012 Jun; 187(6):2195-200. View abstract
  37. Screening for malignancy after augmentation cystoplasty in children with spina bifida: a decision analysis. J Urol. 2011 Oct; 186(4):1437-43. View abstract
  38. Contemporary use of nephron-sparing surgery for children with malignant renal tumors at freestanding children's hospitals. Urology. 2011 Aug; 78(2):422-6. View abstract
  39. The effect of manipulation of silk scaffold fabrication parameters on matrix performance in a murine model of bladder augmentation. Biomaterials. 2011 Oct; 32(30):7562-70. View abstract
  40. CD8a? dendritic cells improve collagen-induced arthritis in CC chemokine receptor (CCR)-2 deficient mice. Immunobiology. 2011 Sep; 216(9):971-8. View abstract
  41. Intermittent ureterovesical junction obstruction in children. J Pediatr Urol. 2011 Oct; 7(5):579-81. View abstract
  42. Evaluation of gel spun silk-based biomaterials in a murine model of bladder augmentation. Biomaterials. 2011 Jan; 32(3):808-18. View abstract
  43. Clinical prediction rule for stratifying risk of pulmonary multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. PLoS One. 2010 Aug 11; 5(8):e12082. View abstract
  44. All-trans retinoic acid directs urothelial specification of murine embryonic stem cells via GATA4/6 signaling mechanisms. PLoS One. 2010 Jul 13; 5(7):e11513. View abstract
  45. Editorial comment. J Urol. 2010 Jul; 184(1):314. View abstract
  46. Editorial comment. J Urol. 2010 Apr; 183(4):1531-2; discussion 1532. View abstract
  47. Stem cells: a review and implications for urology. Urology. 2010 Mar; 75(3):664-70. View abstract
  48. Biofeedback training for lower urinary tract symptoms: factors affecting efficacy. J Urol. 2009 Oct; 182(4 Suppl):2050-5. View abstract
  49. Editorial comment. J Urol. 2009 Oct; 182(4 Suppl):1692-3; discussion 1693. View abstract
  50. Ultrasound versus computerized tomography for evaluating urolithiasis. J Urol. 2009 Oct; 182(4 Suppl):1829-34. View abstract
  51. Nomograms for predicting annual resolution rate of primary vesicoureteral reflux: results from 2,462 children. J Urol. 2009 Oct; 182(4):1535-41. View abstract
  52. Core Principles of Perioperative Management in Children. Campbell-Walsh Urology, Wein AJ, Kavoussi LR, Novick AC, Partin AW, Peters CA, Editors. 2009. View abstract
  53. Caliceal diverticula in children: natural history and management. J Urol. 2009 Mar; 181(3):1306-11; discussion 1311. View abstract
  54. Vesicoureteral reflux and urinary tract infection in children with a history of prenatal hydronephrosis--should voiding cystourethrography be performed in cases of postnatally persistent grade II hydronephrosis? J Urol. 2009 Feb; 181(2):801-6; discussion 806-7. View abstract
  55. Prenatal hydronephrosis: early evaluation. Curr Opin Urol. 2008 Jul; 18(4):401-3. View abstract
  56. Open Surgical Management of Uretropelvic Junction Obstruction. Textbook of Reconstructive Urologic Surgery, Montague DK, Gill IS, Angermeier KW, Ross JH, Editors. 2008; 143-150. View abstract
  57. Supravesical Diversion for Bladder Outlet Obstruction. Dialogues in Pediatric Urology. 2008; 29(4). View abstract
  58. Robot-assisted laparoscopic ileal bladder augmentation: defining techniques and potential pitfalls. J Endourol. 2008 Feb; 22(2):355-60. View abstract
  59. Traumatic Hematuria. Common Surgical Diseases: An Algorithmic Approach to Problem Solving, 2nd Edition. Myers J, Millikan KW, Saclarides TJ, Editors. 2008. View abstract
  60. Early results of robot assisted laparoscopic lithotomy in adolescents. J Urol. 2007 Jun; 177(6):2306-9; discussion 2309-10. View abstract
  61. [Robotic surgery in pediatric urology]. Arch Esp Urol. 2007 May; 60(4):471-9. View abstract
  62. CC chemokine receptor 5 influences late-stage atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis. 2007 Nov; 195(1):e92-103. View abstract
  63. Robotic surgery in pediatric urology. Arch Esp Urol 2007. 2007; 60(4):471-9. View abstract
  64. Inhibition of EGFR signaling abrogates smooth muscle proliferation resulting from sustained distension of the urinary bladder. Lab Invest. 2006 Dec; 86(12):1293-302. View abstract
  65. Safety and durability of dextranomer injections for urinary incontinence. Nat Clin Pract Urol. 2006 Sep; 3(9):466-7. View abstract
  66. Behavioral profiling of human transitional cell carcinoma ex vivo. Cancer Res. 2006 Mar 15; 66(6):3078-86. View abstract
  67. Renal cell carcinoma: Children's Hospital Boston experience. Urology. 2005 Dec; 66(6):1296-300. View abstract
  68. Intermittent testicular torsion: diagnostic features and management outcomes. J Urol. 2005 Oct; 174(4 Pt 2):1532-5; discussion 1535. View abstract
  69. Erectile dysfunction following surgical correction of Peyronie's disease and a pilot study of the use of sildenafil citrate rehabilitation for postoperative erectile dysfunction. J Sex Med. 2005 Mar; 2(2):241-7. View abstract
  70. Growth and stretch response of human exstrophy bladder smooth muscle cells: molecular evidence of normal intrinsic function. BJU Int. 2005 Jan; 95(1):144-8. View abstract
  71. Why pursue a fellowship...a pediatric urology fellowship...a 3-year pediatric urology fellowship?. AUA News 2005. 2005. View abstract
  72. Caveolae are negative regulators of transforming growth factor-beta1 signaling in ureteral smooth muscle cells. J Urol. 2004 Dec; 172(6 Pt 1):2451-5. View abstract
  73. Mechanical stretch is a highly selective regulator of gene expression in human bladder smooth muscle cells. Physiol Genomics. 2004 Dec 15; 20(1):36-44. View abstract
  74. HER-2/neu protein overexpression and gene amplification in human transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. Urology. 2004 Apr; 63(4):786-90. View abstract
  75. Continent urinary diversion: 10-year experience of Shriners Hospitals for Children in Chicago. J Spinal Cord Med. 2004; 27 Suppl 1:S84-7. View abstract
  76. Commentary on Pelviureteric junction obstruction: how much is the extent of the upper ureter with defective innervation needing resection?. The American Journal of Urology Review. 2004; 2:2-4. View abstract
  77. Priapism. Sexual Dysfunction, Teloken C, Taunhausev M, Da Ros C, Editors. 2004. View abstract
  78. Human cadaveric pericardial graft for the surgical correction of Peyronie's disease. J Urol. 2003 Dec; 170(6 Pt 1):2359-62. View abstract
  79. The value of pituitary magnetic resonance imaging in men with hypogonadism. J Urol. 2003 Sep; 170(3):795-8. View abstract
  80. Tricorporal priapism in a patient with metastatic esophageal cancer. Urology. 2003 Jun; 61(6):1259. View abstract
  81. Tunica albuginea tissue analysis after electromotive drug administration. J Urol. 2003 May; 169(5):1775-8. View abstract
  82. Outcomes and perioperative hyperglycemia in patients with or without diabetes mellitus undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. Ann Thorac Surg. 2003 May; 75(5):1392-9. View abstract
  83. Peyronie disease in younger men: characteristics and treatment results. J Androl. 2003 Jan-Feb; 24(1):27-32. View abstract
  84. Tricorporal priapism in a patient with metastatic esophageal cancer. Urology. 2003;61(6):1259. 2003; 61(1):1259. View abstract
  85. Traumatic Hematuria. Common Surgical Diseases: An Algorithmic Approach to Problem Solving. Millikan KW and Saclarides TJ, Editors. 2003. View abstract
  86. Intralesional verapamil for the treatment of Peyronie's disease: a review. Int J Impot Res. 2002 Oct; 14(5):324-8. View abstract
  87. Nocturnal penile tumescence. Pathophysiology and Treatment of Male Sexual Dysfunction. Kandeel, F, Editor. 2002. View abstract
  88. Mechanical reliability and safety of, and patient satisfaction with the Ambicor inflatable penile prosthesis: results of a 2 center study. J Urol. 2001 Sep; 166(3):932-7. View abstract