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Valerie Earnshaw, PhD

Valerie Earnshaw, PhD
Medicine Research
General Pediatrics Research
Hospital Title:
Associate Scientific Researcher
Academic Title:
Instructor in Pediatrics, Harvard Medical School
Research Focus Area:
StigmaHealth disparitiesHIV and viral infections
Contact Via Email
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Research Overview

Dr. Earnshaw’s work contributes to understandings of how stigma relates to health outcomes and disparities across the lifespan, and what moderates these associations in protective ways. She primarily focuses on stigma experienced by adolescents and adults at risk for or living with chronic illnesses including HIV. As examples, her research demonstrates that stigma experienced by Black and Latino socioeconomically disadvantaged middle school students is associated with greater likelihood of smoking as well as higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure, higher body mass index, and lower self-rated health. She has also found that stigma experienced by Black and Latina pregnant young women is associated with lower infant birth weight, poorer mental health, and greater engagement in sexual risk behaviors. Her research further suggests that social support protects adolescents and adults from the deleterious impact of stigma on health outcomes. Within the context of this work, she applies an advanced quantitative skillset including structural equation modeling, multilevel modeling, and psychometric evaluation techniques.

About Valerie Earnshaw, PhD

Dr. Earnshaw is Instructor in Pediatrics at Harvard Medical School, and Associate Scientific Researcher in the Division of General Pediatrics at Boston Children’s Hospital. She earned her PhD in Social Psychology in 2011 from the University of Connecticut, where she pursued additional training in social processes of HIV/AIDS, health psychology, and quantitative research methods. Dr. Earnshaw completed post-doctoral training via the NIMH Interdisciplinary HIV Prevention Training Program at the Center for Interdisciplinary Research on AIDS at Yale University before joining Boston Children’s Hospital in 2014.

Active Projects

2012-2014 Understanding and Intervening in the Relationship between Stigma and Health Disparities

Health Disparities Research Loan Repayment Program
L60 MD007299
Principal Investigator

Program support enabled me to engage in key mentored and independent research activities designed to strengthen my foundation in health disparities and stigma, and develop transdisciplinary methodological skills.


Publications powered by Harvard Catalyst Profiles
  1. Earnshaw VA, Elliott MN, Reisner SL, Mrug S, Windle M, Emery ST, Peskin MF, Schuster MA. Peer Victimization, Depressive Symptoms, and Substance Use: A Longitudinal Analysis. Pediatrics. 2017 May 08.
  2. Nejatisafa AA, Mozafari S, Noorbala AA, Asgarian FS, Earnshaw VA, Sahraian MA, Etesam F. Psychometric Evaluation of the Persian Version of the Chronic Illness Anticipated Stigma Scale (CIASS). Int J Behav Med. 2017 Mar 06.
  3. Calabrese SK, Earnshaw VA, Magnus M, Hansen NB, Krakower DS, Underhill K, Mayer KH, Kershaw TS, Betancourt JR, Dovidio JF. Sexual Stereotypes Ascribed to Black Men Who Have Sex with Men: An Intersectional Analysis. Arch Sex Behav. 2017 Feb 21.
  4. Cornelius T, Earnshaw VA, Menino D, Bogart LM, Levy S. Treatment motivation among caregivers and adolescents with substance use disorders. J Subst Abuse Treat. 2017 Apr; 75:10-16.
  5. Earnshaw VA, Bogart LM, Poteat VP, Reisner SL, Schuster MA. Bullying Among Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Youth. Pediatr Clin North Am. 2016 Dec; 63(6):999-1010.
  6. Logie CH, Jenkinson JI, Earnshaw V, Tharao W, Loutfy MR. A Structural Equation Model of HIV-Related Stigma, Racial Discrimination, Housing Insecurity and Wellbeing among African and Caribbean Black Women Living with HIV in Ontario, Canada. PLoS One. 2016; 11(9):e0162826.
  7. Calabrese SK, Underhill K, Earnshaw VA, Hansen NB, Kershaw TS, Magnus M, Krakower DS, Mayer KH, Betancourt JR, Dovidio JF. Framing HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) for the General Public: How Inclusive Messaging May Prevent Prejudice from Diminishing Public Support. AIDS Behav. 2016 Jul; 20(7):1499-513.
  8. Earnshaw VA, Bogart LM, Klompas M, Katz IT. Medical mistrust in the context of Ebola: Implications for intended care-seeking and quarantine policy support in the United States. J Health Psychol. 2016 Jun 01.
  9. Reid AE, Rosenthal L, Earnshaw VA, Lewis TT, Lewis JB, Stasko EC, Tobin JN, Ickovics JR. Discrimination and excessive weight gain during pregnancy among Black and Latina young women. Soc Sci Med. 2016 May; 156:134-41.
  10. Smith LR, Earnshaw VA, Copenhaver MM, Cunningham CO. Substance use stigma: Reliability and validity of a theory-based scale for substance-using populations. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2016 May 01; 162:34-43.
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  12. Earnshaw VA, Rosenthal L, Lang SM. Stigma, activism, and well-being among people living with HIV. AIDS Care. 2016; 28(6):717-21.
  13. Earnshaw VA, Jin H, Wickersham JA, Kamarulzaman A, John J, Lim SH, Altice FL. Stigma Toward Men Who Have Sex with Men Among Future Healthcare Providers in Malaysia: Would More Interpersonal Contact Reduce Prejudice? AIDS Behav. 2016 Jan; 20(1):98-106.
  14. Ickovics JR, Earnshaw V, Lewis JB, Kershaw TS, Magriples U, Stasko E, Rising SS, Cassells A, Cunningham S, Bernstein P, Tobin JN. Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial of Group Prenatal Care: Perinatal Outcomes Among Adolescents in New York City Health Centers. Am J Public Health. 2016 Feb; 106(2):359-65.
  15. Earnshaw VA, Rosenthal L, Cunningham SD, Kershaw T, Lewis J, Rising SS, Stasko E, Tobin J, Ickovics JR. Exploring Group Composition among Young, Urban Women of Color in Prenatal Care: Implications for Satisfaction, Engagement, and Group Attendance. Womens Health Issues. 2016 Jan-Feb; 26(1):110-5.
  16. Culbert GJ, Earnshaw VA, Wulanyani NM, Wegman MP, Waluyo A, Altice FL. Correlates and Experiences of HIV Stigma in Prisoners Living With HIV in Indonesia: A Mixed-Method Analysis. J Assoc Nurses AIDS Care. 2015 Nov-Dec; 26(6):743-57.
  17. Kipp AM, Audet CM, Earnshaw VA, Owens J, McGowan CC, Wallston KA. Re-validation of the Van Rie HIV/AIDS-related stigma scale for use with people living with HIV in the United States. PLoS One. 2015; 10(3):e0118836.
  18. Earnshaw VA, Rosenthal L, Carroll-Scott A, Santilli A, Gilstad-Hayden K, Ickovics JR. Everyday discrimination and physical health: Exploring mental health processes. J Health Psychol. 2016 Oct; 21(10):2218-28.
  19. Gilstad-Hayden K, Durante A, Earnshaw VA, Rosenthal L, Ickovics JR. Association of influenza vaccine uptake with health, access to health care, and medical mistreatment among adults from low-income neighborhoods in New Haven, CT: a classification tree analysis. Prev Med. 2015 May; 74:97-102.
  20. Logie CH, Earnshaw V. Adapting and validating a scale to measure sexual stigma among lesbian, bisexual and queer women. PLoS One. 2015; 10(2):e0116198.
  21. Pitpitan EV, Strathdee SA, Semple SJ, Wagner KD, Chavarin CV, Earnshaw VA, Patterson TL. Perceived stigma of purchasing sex among Latino and non-Latino male clients of female sex workers in Tijuana, Mexico. J Immigr Minor Health. 2015 Feb; 17(1):172-80.
  22. Carrion BV, Earnshaw VA, Kershaw T, Lewis JB, Stasko EC, Tobin JN, Ickovics JR. Housing instability and birth weight among young urban mothers. J Urban Health. 2015 Feb; 92(1):1-9.
  23. Noor A, Bashir S, Earnshaw VA. Bullying, internalized hepatitis (Hepatitis C virus) stigma, and self-esteem: Does spirituality curtail the relationship in the workplace. J Health Psychol. 2016 Sep; 21(9):1860-9.
  24. Earnshaw VA, Lang SM, Lippitt M, Jin H, Chaudoir SR. HIV stigma and physical health symptoms: do social support, adaptive coping, and/or identity centrality act as resilience resources? AIDS Behav. 2015 Jan; 19(1):41-9.
  25. Earnshaw VA, Smith LR, Shuper PA, Fisher WA, Cornman DH, Fisher JD. HIV stigma and unprotected sex among PLWH in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa: a longitudinal exploration of mediating mechanisms. AIDS Care. 2014; 26(12):1506-13.
  26. Rosenthal L, Earnshaw VA, Lewis TT, Reid AE, Lewis JB, Stasko EC, Tobin JN, Ickovics JR. Changes in experiences with discrimination across pregnancy and postpartum: age differences and consequences for mental health. Am J Public Health. 2015 Apr; 105(4):686-93.
  27. Earnshaw VA, Rosenthal L, Carroll-Scott A, Peters SM, McCaslin C, Ickovics JR. Teacher Involvement as a Protective Factor from the Association between Race-Based Bullying and Smoking Initiation. Soc Psychol Educ. 2014 Jun 01; 17(2):197-209.
  28. Quinn DM, Williams MK, Quintana F, Gaskins JL, Overstreet NM, Pishori A, Earnshaw VA, Perez G, Chaudoir SR. Examining effects of anticipated stigma, centrality, salience, internalization, and outness on psychological distress for people with concealable stigmatized identities. PLoS One. 2014; 9(5):e96977.
  29. Tan JY, Earnshaw VA, Pratto F, Rosenthal L, Kalichman S. Social-structural indices and between-nation differences in HIV prevalence. Int J STD AIDS. 2015 Jan; 26(1):48-54.
  30. Earnshaw VA, Jin H, Wickersham J, Kamarulzaman A, John J, Altice FL. Exploring intentions to discriminate against patients living with HIV/AIDS among future healthcare providers in Malaysia. Trop Med Int Health. 2014 Jun; 19(6):672-679.
  31. Jin H, Earnshaw VA, Wickersham JA, Kamarulzaman A, Desai MM, John J, Altice FL. An assessment of health-care students' attitudes toward patients with or at high risk for HIV: implications for education and cultural competency. AIDS Care. 2014; 26(10):1223-8.
  32. Calabrese SK, Earnshaw VA, Underhill K, Hansen NB, Dovidio JF. The impact of patient race on clinical decisions related to prescribing HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP): assumptions about sexual risk compensation and implications for access. AIDS Behav. 2014 Feb; 18(2):226-40.
  33. Cole-Lewis HJ, Kershaw TS, Earnshaw VA, Yonkers KA, Lin H, Ickovics JR. Pregnancy-specific stress, preterm birth, and gestational age among high-risk young women. Health Psychol. 2014 Sep; 33(9):1033-45.
  34. Rosenthal L, Earnshaw VA, Lewis JB, Lewis TT, Reid AE, Stasko EC, Tobin JN, Ickovics JR. Discrimination and sexual risk among young urban pregnant women of color. Health Psychol. 2014 Jan; 33(1):3-10.
  35. Riemer A, Chaudoir S, Earnshaw V. What looks like sexism and why? The effect of comment type and perpetrator type on women's perceptions of sexism. J Gen Psychol. 2014; 141(3):263-79.
  36. Earnshaw VA, Smith LR, Cunningham CO, Copenhaver MM. Intersectionality of internalized HIV stigma and internalized substance use stigma: Implications for depressive symptoms. J Health Psychol. 2015 Aug; 20(8):1083-9.
  37. Rosenthal L, Earnshaw VA, Carroll-Scott A, Henderson KE, Peters SM, McCaslin C, Ickovics JR. Weight- and race-based bullying: health associations among urban adolescents. J Health Psychol. 2015 Apr; 20(4):401-12.
  38. Earnshaw VA, Smith LR, Chaudoir SR, Amico KR, Copenhaver MM. HIV stigma mechanisms and well-being among PLWH: a test of the HIV stigma framework. AIDS Behav. 2013 Jun; 17(5):1785-95.
  39. Earnshaw VA, Quinn DM. Influenza Stigma during the 2009 H1N1 Pandemic. J Appl Soc Psychol. 2013 Jun 01; 43(Suppl 1).
  40. Earnshaw VA, Bogart LM, Dovidio JF, Williams DR. Stigma and racial/ethnic HIV disparities: moving toward resilience. Am Psychol. 2013 May-Jun; 68(4):225-36.
  41. Earnshaw VA, Carroll-Scott A, Rosenthal L, Chwastiak L, Santilli A, Ickovics JR. Preventive discussions with health care providers: exploring differences by race/ethnicity and place. J Health Care Poor Underserved. 2013 Feb; 24(1):185-96.
  42. Earnshaw VA, Rosenthal L, Lewis JB, Stasko EC, Tobin JN, Lewis TT, Reid AE, Ickovics JR. Maternal experiences with everyday discrimination and infant birth weight: a test of mediators and moderators among young, urban women of color. Ann Behav Med. 2013 Feb; 45(1):13-23.
  43. Earnshaw V, Smith L, Copenhaver M. Drug Addiction Stigma in the Context of Methadone Maintenance Therapy: An Investigation into Understudied Sources of Stigma. Int J Ment Health Addict. 2013 Feb 01; 11(1):110-122.
  44. Chaudoir SR, Earnshaw VA, Andel S. "Discredited" Versus "Discreditable": Understanding How Shared and Unique Stigma Mechanisms Affect Psychological and Physical Health Disparities. Basic Appl Soc Psych. 2013 Jan 01; 35(1):75-87.
  45. Quinn DM, Earnshaw VA. Concealable Stigmatized Identities and Psychological Well-Being. Soc Personal Psychol Compass. 2013 Jan; 7(1):40-51.
  46. Earnshaw VA, Smith LR, Chaudoir SR, Lee IC, Copenhaver MM. Stereotypes about people living with HIV: implications for perceptions of HIV risk and testing frequency among at-risk populations. AIDS Educ Prev. 2012 Dec; 24(6):574-81.
  47. Rosenthal L, Levy SR, Earnshaw VA. Social Dominance Orientation Relates to Believing Men Should Dominate Sexually, Sexual Self-Efficacy, and Taking Free Female Condoms Among Undergraduate Women and Men. Sex Roles. 2012 Dec; 67(11-12):659-669.
  48. Chaudoir SR, Norton WE, Earnshaw VA, Moneyham L, Mugavero MJ, Hiers KM. Coping with HIV stigma: do proactive coping and spiritual peace buffer the effect of stigma on depression? AIDS Behav. 2012 Nov; 16(8):2382-91.
  49. Rosenthal L, Carroll-Scott A, Earnshaw VA, Sackey N, O'Malley SS, Santilli A, Ickovics JR. Targeting cessation: understanding barriers and motivations to quitting among urban adult daily tobacco smokers. Addict Behav. 2013 Mar; 38(3):1639-42.
  50. Overstreet NM, Earnshaw VA, Kalichman SC, Quinn DM. Internalized stigma and HIV status disclosure among HIV-positive black men who have sex with men. AIDS Care. 2013; 25(4):466-71.
  51. Rosenthal L, Carroll-Scott A, Earnshaw VA, Santilli A, Ickovics JR. The importance of full-time work for urban adults' mental and physical health. Soc Sci Med. 2012 Nov; 75(9):1692-6.
  52. Wheeler R, Earnshaw VA, Kershaw T, Ickovics JR. Postpartum sexually transmitted disease: refining our understanding of the population at risk. Sex Transm Dis. 2012 Jul; 39(7):509-13.
  53. Earnshaw VA, Quinn DM, Kalichman SC, Park CL. Development and psychometric evaluation of the Chronic Illness Anticipated Stigma Scale. J Behav Med. 2013 Jun; 36(3):270-82.
  54. Earnshaw VA, Quinn DM, Park CL. Anticipated stigma and quality of life among people living with chronic illnesses. Chronic Illn. 2012 Jun; 8(2):79-88.
  55. Earnshaw VA, Quinn DM. The impact of stigma in healthcare on people living with chronic illnesses. J Health Psychol. 2012 Mar; 17(2):157-68.
  56. Earnshaw VA, Chaudoir SR. From conceptualizing to measuring HIV stigma: a review of HIV stigma mechanism measures. AIDS Behav. 2009 Dec; 13(6):1160-77.
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