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Michael R.  Wessels, MD

Michael Wessels
Medicine Research
Infectious Diseases Research
Hospital Title:
Chief, Division of Infectious Diseases
Academic Title:
John F. Enders Professor of Pediatrics and Professor of Medicine (Microbiology and Immunobiology), Harvard Medical School
Research Focus Area:
Streptococcus infection
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Research Overview

Research in the laboratory of Michael Wessels is concerned with understanding the molecular interactions between pathogen and host in infections due to two species of hemolytic streptococci, S. pyogenes (group A Streptococcus, GAS) and S. agalactiae (group B Streptococcus, GBS). These bacteria can colonize mucosal surfaces as harmless commensals, but both species have the potential to produce local infection or systemic, life-threatening disease.

Current projects are investigating how specific products of GAS alter the biology of pharyngeal epithelial cells, thereby modulating epithelial barrier integrity and innate immune responses at the mucosal surface. The hyaluronic acid capsular polysaccharide of GAS acts an adhesin by binding to CD44, a hyaluronic acid-binding protein on pharyngeal epithelial cells. Signaling through CD44 alters host cell morphology and epithelial integrity, thereby enhancing GAS penetration of the epithelial barrier. The secreted toxins streptolysin O and NADase interfere with uptake of GAS by epithelial cells and antigen presenting cells and prevent killing of internalized GAS by lysosomal fusion. Current studies are characterizing how these toxins prevent bacterial entry and modulate intracellular survival by induction of autophagy and disruption of phagolysosomal function.

In both GAS and GBS, the CsrRS two-component regulatory system controls expression of multiple virulence determinants in response to environmental signals. Ongoing studies are investigating the nature of the stimuli that interact with the CsrS sensor component of this system in each species, as well as the molecular events involved in signal transduction to the CsrR transcriptional regulator and modulation of target gene expression. The lab is particularly interested in bacterial detection of environmental changes within the infected host. Experimental infection models are being used to assess the role of CsrRS signaling in bacterial adaptation in this setting and its implications for pathogenesis.

About Michael Wessels

Michael Wessels received his MD from Duke University. He completed internship and residency at Beth Israel Hospital, Boston and a fellowship at Beth Israel and Brigham and Women's Hospitals.


Publications powered by Harvard Catalyst Profiles
  1. Velarde JJ, O'Seaghdha M, Baddal B, Bastiat-Sempe B, Wessels MR. Binding of NAD+-Glycohydrolase to Streptolysin O Stabilizes Both Toxins and Promotes Virulence of Group A Streptococcus. MBio. 2017 Sep 12; 8(5).
  2. Hancz D, Westerlund E, Bastiat-Sempe B, Sharma O, Valfridsson C, Meyer L, Love JF, O'Seaghdha M, Wessels MR, Persson JJ. Inhibition of Inflammasome-Dependent Interleukin 1ß Production by Streptococcal NAD+-Glycohydrolase: Evidence for Extracellular Activity. MBio. 2017 Jul 18; 8(4).
  3. Sharma O, O'Seaghdha M, Velarde JJ, Wessels MR. NAD+-Glycohydrolase Promotes Intracellular Survival of Group A Streptococcus. PLoS Pathog. 2016 Mar; 12(3):e1005468.
  4. Gauguet S, Ahmed AA, Zhou J, Pfoh ER, Ahnger-Pier KK, Harper MB, Ozonoff A, Wessels MR, Lee GM. Group A streptococcal bacteremia without a source is associated with less severe disease in children. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2015 Apr; 34(4):447-9.
  5. Wessels MR. Choosing an antibiotic for skin infections. N Engl J Med. 2015 Mar 19; 372(12):1164-5.
  6. Wessels MR, Brigham KS, DeMaria A. Case records of the Massachusetts General Hospital. Case 6-2015. A 16-year-old boy with coughing spells. N Engl J Med. 2015 Feb 19; 372(8):765-73.
  7. Velarde JJ, Ashbaugh M, Wessels MR. The human antimicrobial peptide LL-37 binds directly to CsrS, a sensor histidine kinase of group A Streptococcus, to activate expression of virulence factors. J Biol Chem. 2014 Dec 26; 289(52):36315-24.
  8. Bastiat-Sempe B, Love JF, Lomayesva N, Wessels MR. Streptolysin O and NAD-glycohydrolase prevent phagolysosome acidification and promote group A Streptococcus survival in macrophages. MBio. 2014 Sep 16; 5(5):e01690-14.
  9. Jiang S, Wessels MR. BsaB, a novel adherence factor of group B Streptococcus. Infect Immun. 2014 Mar; 82(3):1007-16.
  10. O'Seaghdha M, Wessels MR. Streptolysin O and its co-toxin NAD-glycohydrolase protect group A Streptococcus from Xenophagic killing. PLoS Pathog. 2013; 9(6):e1003394.
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  12. Love JF, Tran-Winkler HJ, Wessels MR. Vitamin D and the human antimicrobial peptide LL-37 enhance group a streptococcus resistance to killing by human cells. MBio. 2012 Oct 23; 3(5).
  13. Park SE, Jiang S, Wessels MR. CsrRS and environmental pH regulate group B streptococcus adherence to human epithelial cells and extracellular matrix. Infect Immun. 2012 Nov; 80(11):3975-84.
  14. Jiang S, Park SE, Yadav P, Paoletti LC, Wessels MR. Regulation and function of pilus island 1 in group B streptococcus. J Bacteriol. 2012 May; 194(10):2479-90.
  15. Tran-Winkler HJ, Love JF, Gryllos I, Wessels MR. Signal transduction through CsrRS confers an invasive phenotype in group A Streptococcus. PLoS Pathog. 2011 Oct; 7(10):e1002361.
  16. Wessels MR. Clinical practice. Streptococcal pharyngitis. N Engl J Med. 2011 Feb 17; 364(7):648-55.
  17. Logsdon LK, Håkansson AP, Cortés G, Wessels MR. Streptolysin O inhibits clathrin-dependent internalization of group A Streptococcus. MBio. 2011; 2(1):e00332-10.
  18. Cortés G, Wessels MR. Inhibition of dendritic cell maturation by group A Streptococcus. J Infect Dis. 2009 Oct 01; 200(7):1152-61.
  19. Santi I, Grifantini R, Jiang SM, Brettoni C, Grandi G, Wessels MR, Soriani M. CsrRS regulates group B Streptococcus virulence gene expression in response to environmental pH: a new perspective on vaccine development. J Bacteriol. 2009 Sep; 191(17):5387-97.
  20. Filbin MR, Ring DC, Wessels MR, Avery LL, Kradin RL. Case records of the Massachusetts General Hospital. Case 2-2009. A 25-year-old man with pain and swelling of the right hand and hypotension. N Engl J Med. 2009 Jan 15; 360(3):281-90.
  21. Gryllos I, Tran-Winkler HJ, Cheng MF, Chung H, Bolcome R, Lu W, Lehrer RI, Wessels MR. Induction of group A Streptococcus virulence by a human antimicrobial peptide. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 Oct 28; 105(43):16755-60.
  22. Gryllos I, Grifantini R, Colaprico A, Cary ME, Hakansson A, Carey DW, Suarez-Chavez M, Kalish LA, Mitchell PD, White GL, Wessels MR. PerR confers phagocytic killing resistance and allows pharyngeal colonization by group A Streptococcus. PLoS Pathog. 2008 Sep 05; 4(9):e1000145.
  23. Pfoh E, Wessels MR, Goldmann D, Lee GM. Burden and economic cost of group A streptococcal pharyngitis. Pediatrics. 2008 Feb; 121(2):229-34.
  24. Jiang SM, Ishmael N, Dunning Hotopp J, Puliti M, Tissi L, Kumar N, Cieslewicz MJ, Tettelin H, Wessels MR. Variation in the group B Streptococcus CsrRS regulon and effects on pathogenicity. J Bacteriol. 2008 Mar; 190(6):1956-65.
  25. Gryllos I, Grifantini R, Colaprico A, Jiang S, Deforce E, Hakansson A, Telford JL, Grandi G, Wessels MR. Mg(2+) signalling defines the group A streptococcal CsrRS (CovRS) regulon. Mol Microbiol. 2007 Aug; 65(3):671-83.
  26. Levy O, Coughlin M, Cronstein BN, Roy RM, Desai A, Wessels MR. The adenosine system selectively inhibits TLR-mediated TNF-alpha production in the human newborn. J Immunol. 2006 Aug 01; 177(3):1956-66.
  27. Angelone DF, Wessels MR, Coughlin M, Suter EE, Valentini P, Kalish LA, Levy O. Innate immunity of the human newborn is polarized toward a high ratio of IL-6/TNF-alpha production in vitro and in vivo. Pediatr Res. 2006 Aug; 60(2):205-9.
  28. Levy O, Suter EE, Miller RL, Wessels MR. Unique efficacy of Toll-like receptor 8 agonists in activating human neonatal antigen-presenting cells. Blood. 2006 Aug 15; 108(4):1284-90.
  29. Michos A, Gryllos I, Håkansson A, Srivastava A, Kokkotou E, Wessels MR. Enhancement of streptolysin O activity and intrinsic cytotoxic effects of the group A streptococcal toxin, NAD-glycohydrolase. J Biol Chem. 2006 Mar 24; 281(12):8216-23.
  30. Lee GM, Wessels MR. Changing epidemiology of acute rheumatic fever in the United States. Clin Infect Dis. 2006 Feb 15; 42(4):448-50.
  31. Srivastava A, Henneke P, Visintin A, Morse SC, Martin V, Watkins C, Paton JC, Wessels MR, Golenbock DT, Malley R. The apoptotic response to pneumolysin is Toll-like receptor 4 dependent and protects against pneumococcal disease. Infect Immun. 2005 Oct; 73(10):6479-87.
  32. Bricker AL, Carey VJ, Wessels MR. Role of NADase in virulence in experimental invasive group A streptococcal infection. Infect Immun. 2005 Oct; 73(10):6562-6.
  33. Tettelin H, Masignani V, Cieslewicz MJ, Donati C, Medini D, Ward NL, Angiuoli SV, Crabtree J, Jones AL, Durkin AS, Deboy RT, Davidsen TM, Mora M, Scarselli M, Margarit y Ros I, Peterson JD, Hauser CR, Sundaram JP, Nelson WC, Madupu R, Brinkac LM, Dodson RJ, Rosovitz MJ, Sullivan SA, Daugherty SC, Haft DH, Selengut J, Gwinn ML, Zhou L, Zafar N, Khouri H, Radune D, Dimitrov G, Watkins K, O'Connor KJ, Smith S, Utterback TR, White O, Rubens CE, Grandi G, Madoff LC, Kasper DL, Telford JL, Wessels MR, Rappuoli R, Fraser CM. Genome analysis of multiple pathogenic isolates of Streptococcus agalactiae: implications for the microbial "pan-genome". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Sep 27; 102(39):13950-5.
  34. Cywes Bentley C, Hakansson A, Christianson J, Wessels MR. Extracellular group A Streptococcus induces keratinocyte apoptosis by dysregulating calcium signalling. Cell Microbiol. 2005 Jul; 7(7):945-55.
  35. Wessels MR. Streptolysin S. J Infect Dis. 2005 Jul 01; 192(1):13-5.
  36. Cieslewicz MJ, Chaffin D, Glusman G, Kasper D, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Fahey J, Wessels MR, Rubens CE. Structural and genetic diversity of group B streptococcus capsular polysaccharides. Infect Immun. 2005 May; 73(5):3096-103.
  37. Håkansson A, Bentley CC, Shakhnovic EA, Wessels MR. Cytolysin-dependent evasion of lysosomal killing. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Apr 05; 102(14):5192-7.
  38. Jiang SM, Cieslewicz MJ, Kasper DL, Wessels MR. Regulation of virulence by a two-component system in group B streptococcus. J Bacteriol. 2005 Feb; 187(3):1105-13.
  39. Pérez-Caballero D, García-Laorden I, Cortés G, Wessels MR, de Córdoba SR, Albertí S. Interaction between complement regulators and Streptococcus pyogenes: binding of C4b-binding protein and factor H/factor H-like protein 1 to M18 strains involves two different cell surface molecules. J Immunol. 2004 Dec 01; 173(11):6899-904.
  40. Levy O, Zarember KA, Roy RM, Cywes C, Godowski PJ, Wessels MR. Selective impairment of TLR-mediated innate immunity in human newborns: neonatal blood plasma reduces monocyte TNF-alpha induction by bacterial lipopeptides, lipopolysaccharide, and imiquimod, but preserves the response to R-848. J Immunol. 2004 Oct 01; 173(7):4627-34.
  41. Levy O, Jean-Jacques RM, Cywes C, Sisson RB, Zarember KA, Godowski PJ, Christianson JL, Guttormsen HK, Carroll MC, Nicholson-Weller A, Wessels MR. Critical role of the complement system in group B streptococcus-induced tumor necrosis factor alpha release. Infect Immun. 2003 Nov; 71(11):6344-53.
  42. Gryllos I, Levin JC, Wessels MR. The CsrR/CsrS two-component system of group A Streptococcus responds to environmental Mg2+. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003 Apr 01; 100(7):4227-32.
  43. Malley R, Henneke P, Morse SC, Cieslewicz MJ, Lipsitch M, Thompson CM, Kurt-Jones E, Paton JC, Wessels MR, Golenbock DT. Recognition of pneumolysin by Toll-like receptor 4 confers resistance to pneumococcal infection. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003 Feb 18; 100(4):1966-71.
  44. Sierig G, Cywes C, Wessels MR, Ashbaugh CD. Cytotoxic effects of streptolysin o and streptolysin s enhance the virulence of poorly encapsulated group a streptococci. Infect Immun. 2003 Jan; 71(1):446-55.
  45. Tettelin H, Masignani V, Cieslewicz MJ, Eisen JA, Peterson S, Wessels MR, Paulsen IT, Nelson KE, Margarit I, Read TD, Madoff LC, Wolf AM, Beanan MJ, Brinkac LM, Daugherty SC, DeBoy RT, Durkin AS, Kolonay JF, Madupu R, Lewis MR, Radune D, Fedorova NB, Scanlan D, Khouri H, Mulligan S, Carty HA, Cline RT, Van Aken SE, Gill J, Scarselli M, Mora M, Iacobini ET, Brettoni C, Galli G, Mariani M, Vegni F, Maione D, Rinaudo D, Rappuoli R, Telford JL, Kasper DL, Grandi G, Fraser CM. Complete genome sequence and comparative genomic analysis of an emerging human pathogen, serotype V Streptococcus agalactiae. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002 Sep 17; 99(19):12391-6.
  46. Bricker AL, Cywes C, Ashbaugh CD, Wessels MR. NAD+-glycohydrolase acts as an intracellular toxin to enhance the extracellular survival of group A streptococci. Mol Microbiol. 2002 Apr; 44(1):257-69.
  47. Cywes C, Wessels MR. Group A Streptococcus tissue invasion by CD44-mediated cell signalling. Nature. 2001 Dec 06; 414(6864):648-52.
  48. Ashbaugh CD, Wessels MR. Absence of a cysteine protease effect on bacterial virulence in two murine models of human invasive group A streptococcal infection. Infect Immun. 2001 Nov; 69(11):6683-8.
  49. Gryllos I, Cywes C, Shearer MH, Cary M, Kennedy RC, Wessels MR. Regulation of capsule gene expression by group A Streptococcus during pharyngeal colonization and invasive infection. Mol Microbiol. 2001 Oct; 42(1):61-74.
  50. Cieslewicz MJ, Kasper DL, Wang Y, Wessels MR. Functional analysis in type Ia group B Streptococcus of a cluster of genes involved in extracellular polysaccharide production by diverse species of streptococci. J Biol Chem. 2001 Jan 05; 276(1):139-46.
  51. Lee FS, Chu FK, Tackley M, Wu AD, Atri A, Wessels MR. Human granulocytic ehrlichiosis presenting as facial diplegia in a 42-year-old woman. Clin Infect Dis. 2000 Nov; 31(5):1288-91.
  52. Cywes C, Stamenkovic I, Wessels MR. CD44 as a receptor for colonization of the pharynx by group A Streptococcus. J Clin Invest. 2000 Oct; 106(8):995-1002.
  53. Ashbaugh CD, Moser TJ, Shearer MH, White GL, Kennedy RC, Wessels MR. Bacterial determinants of persistent throat colonization and the associated immune response in a primate model of human group A streptococcal pharyngeal infection. Cell Microbiol. 2000 Aug; 2(4):283-92.
  54. Deng L, Kasper DL, Krick TP, Wessels MR. Characterization of the linkage between the type III capsular polysaccharide and the bacterial cell wall of group B Streptococcus. J Biol Chem. 2000 Mar 17; 275(11):7497-504.
  55. Wessels MR. Regulation of virulence factor expression in group A streptococcus. Trends Microbiol. 1999 Nov; 7(11):428-30.
  56. Butko P, Nicholson-Weller A, Wessels MR. Role of complement component C1q in the IgG-independent opsonophagocytosis of group B streptococcus. J Immunol. 1999 Sep 01; 163(5):2761-8.
  57. Kasper DL, Wessels MR, Guttormsen HK, Paoletti LC, Edwards MS, Baker CJ. Measurement of human antibodies to type III group B Streptococcus. Infect Immun. 1999 Aug; 67(8):4303-5.
  58. Baker CJ, Paoletti LC, Wessels MR, Guttormsen HK, Rench MA, Hickman ME, Kasper DL. Safety and immunogenicity of capsular polysaccharide-tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccines for group B streptococcal types Ia and Ib. J Infect Dis. 1999 Jan; 179(1):142-50.
  59. Levin JC, Wessels MR. Identification of csrR/csrS, a genetic locus that regulates hyaluronic acid capsule synthesis in group A Streptococcus. Mol Microbiol. 1998 Oct; 30(1):209-19.
  60. Ashbaugh CD, Albertí S, Wessels MR. Molecular analysis of the capsule gene region of group A Streptococcus: the hasAB genes are sufficient for capsule expression. J Bacteriol. 1998 Sep; 180(18):4955-9.
  61. Wessels MR, Kasper DL, Johnson KD, Harrison LH. Antibody responses in invasive group B streptococcal infection in adults. J Infect Dis. 1998 Aug; 178(2):569-72.
  62. Ashbaugh CD, Warren HB, Carey VJ, Wessels MR. Molecular analysis of the role of the group A streptococcal cysteine protease, hyaluronic acid capsule, and M protein in a murine model of human invasive soft-tissue infection. J Clin Invest. 1998 Aug 01; 102(3):550-60.
  63. Wessels MR, Paoletti LC, Guttormsen HK, Michon F, D'Ambra AJ, Kasper DL. Structural properties of group B streptococcal type III polysaccharide conjugate vaccines that influence immunogenicity and efficacy. Infect Immun. 1998 May; 66(5):2186-92.
  64. Schrager HM, Albertí S, Cywes C, Dougherty GJ, Wessels MR. Hyaluronic acid capsule modulates M protein-mediated adherence and acts as a ligand for attachment of group A Streptococcus to CD44 on human keratinocytes. J Clin Invest. 1998 Apr 15; 101(8):1708-16.
  65. Albertí S, Ashbaugh CD, Wessels MR. Structure of the has operon promoter and regulation of hyaluronic acid capsule expression in group A Streptococcus. Mol Microbiol. 1998 Apr; 28(2):343-53.
  66. Wessels MR. Biology of streptococcal capsular polysaccharides. J Appl Microbiol. 1997 Oct; 83(S1):20S-31S.
  67. Butko P, Nicholson-Weller A, Wessels MR. Role of complement and complement receptor C1qR in the antibody-independent killing of group B streptococcus. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1997; 418:941-3.
  68. Moses AE, Wessels MR, Zalcman K, Albertí S, Natanson-Yaron S, Menes T, Hanski E. Relative contributions of hyaluronic acid capsule and M protein to virulence in a mucoid strain of the group A Streptococcus. Infect Immun. 1997 Jan; 65(1):64-71.
  69. Schrager HM, Wessels MR. Hyaluronic acid capsule modulates interactions of group A streptococci with human epidermal keratinocytes. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1997; 418:517-23.
  70. Alberti S, Wessels MR. Regulation of hyaluronic acid capsule production by the has operon promoter in group A streptococci. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1997; 418:975-8.
  71. Deng L, Wessels MR. Glycolipid intermediates in biosynthesis of group B streptococcal capsular polysaccharide. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1997; 418:623-5.
  72. Wessels MR. Biology of streptococcal capsular polysaccharides. Soc Appl Bacteriol Symp Ser. 1997; 26:20S-31S.
  73. Kasper DL, Paoletti LC, Wessels MR, Guttormsen HK, Carey VJ, Jennings HJ, Baker CJ. Immune response to type III group B streptococcal polysaccharide-tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine. J Clin Invest. 1996 Nov 15; 98(10):2308-14.
  74. Schrager HM, Rheinwald JG, Wessels MR. Hyaluronic acid capsule and the role of streptococcal entry into keratinocytes in invasive skin infection. J Clin Invest. 1996 Nov 01; 98(9):1954-8.
  75. Dale JB, Washburn RG, Marques MB, Wessels MR. Hyaluronate capsule and surface M protein in resistance to opsonization of group A streptococci. Infect Immun. 1996 May; 64(5):1495-501.
  76. Haft RF, Wessels MR, Mebane MF, Conaty N, Rubens CE. Characterization of cpsF and its product CMP-N-acetylneuraminic acid synthetase, a group B streptococcal enzyme that can function in K1 capsular polysaccharide biosynthesis in Escherichia coli. Mol Microbiol. 1996 Feb; 19(3):555-63.
  77. Wessels MR, Butko P, Ma M, Warren HB, Lage AL, Carroll MC. Studies of group B streptococcal infection in mice deficient in complement component C3 or C4 demonstrate an essential role for complement in both innate and acquired immunity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995 Dec 05; 92(25):11490-4.
  78. Ashbaugh CD, Wessels MR. Cloning, sequence analysis and expression of the group A streptococcal guaB gene encoding inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase. Gene. 1995 Nov 07; 165(1):57-60.
  79. Wessels MR, Paoletti LC, Pinel J, Kasper DL. Immunogenicity and protective activity in animals of a type V group B streptococcal polysaccharide-tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine. J Infect Dis. 1995 Apr; 171(4):879-84.
  80. Ashbaugh CD, Wessels MR. Identification of a gene similar to ABC transporters near the capsule synthesis region of the group A streptococcal chromosome. Dev Biol Stand. 1995; 85:231-5.
  81. Rubens CE, Haft RF, Wessels MR. Characterization of the capsular polysaccharide genes of group B streptococci. Dev Biol Stand. 1995; 85:237-44.
  82. Wessels MR, Bronze MS. Critical role of the group A streptococcal capsule in pharyngeal colonization and infection in mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994 Dec 06; 91(25):12238-42.
  83. Haft RF, Wessels MR. Characterization of CMP-N-acetylneuraminic acid synthetase of group B streptococci. J Bacteriol. 1994 Dec; 176(23):7372-4.
  84. Paoletti LC, Wessels MR, Rodewald AK, Shroff AA, Jennings HJ, Kasper DL. Neonatal mouse protection against infection with multiple group B streptococcal (GBS) serotypes by maternal immunization with a tetravalent GBS polysaccharide-tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine. Infect Immun. 1994 Aug; 62(8):3236-43.
  85. Marques MB, Kasper DL, Shroff A, Michon F, Jennings HJ, Wessels MR. Functional activity of antibodies to the group B polysaccharide of group B streptococci elicited by a polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccine. Infect Immun. 1994 May; 62(5):1593-9.
  86. Wessels MR, Goldberg JB, Moses AE, DiCesare TJ. Effects on virulence of mutations in a locus essential for hyaluronic acid capsule expression in group A streptococci. Infect Immun. 1994 Feb; 62(2):433-41.
  87. Wessels MR, Paoletti LC, Rodewald AK, Michon F, DiFabio J, Jennings HJ, Kasper DL. Stimulation of protective antibodies against type Ia and Ib group B streptococci by a type Ia polysaccharide-tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine. Infect Immun. 1993 Nov; 61(11):4760-6.
  88. Edwards MS, Wessels MR, Baker CJ. Capsular polysaccharide regulates neutrophil complement receptor interactions with type III group B streptococci. Infect Immun. 1993 Jul; 61(7):2866-71.
  89. Wessels MR, Kasper DL. The changing spectrum of group B streptococcal disease. N Engl J Med. 1993 Jun 24; 328(25):1843-4.
  90. Soumerai SB, Avorn J, Taylor WC, Wessels M, Maher D, Hawley SL. Improving choice of prescribed antibiotics through concurrent reminders in an educational order form. Med Care. 1993 Jun; 31(6):552-8.
  91. Rubens CE, Heggen LM, Haft RF, Wessels MR. Identification of cpsD, a gene essential for type III capsule expression in group B streptococci. Mol Microbiol. 1993 May; 8(5):843-55.
  92. Marques MB, Kasper DL, Pangburn MK, Wessels MR. Prevention of C3 deposition by capsular polysaccharide is a virulence mechanism of type III group B streptococci. Infect Immun. 1992 Oct; 60(10):3986-93.
  93. Paoletti LC, Wessels MR, Michon F, DiFabio J, Jennings HJ, Kasper DL. Group B Streptococcus type II polysaccharide-tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine. Infect Immun. 1992 Oct; 60(10):4009-14.
  94. Pincus SH, Cole RL, Wessels MR, Corwin MD, Kamanga-Sollo E, Hayes SF, Cieplak W, Swanson J. Group B streptococcal opacity variants. J Bacteriol. 1992 Jun; 174(11):3739-49.
  95. Wessels MR, Haft RF, Heggen LM, Rubens CE. Identification of a genetic locus essential for capsule sialylation in type III group B streptococci. Infect Immun. 1992 Feb; 60(2):392-400.
  96. Paoletti LC, Kasper DL, Michon F, DiFabio J, Jennings HJ, Tosteson TD, Wessels MR. Effects of chain length on the immunogenicity in rabbits of group B Streptococcus type III oligosaccharide-tetanus toxoid conjugates. J Clin Invest. 1992 Jan; 89(1):203-9.
  97. Wessels MR. Development of a vaccine against group B Streptococcus. An Esp Pediatr. 1991 Dec; 35 Suppl 47:125-6.
  98. Wessels MR, Moses AE, Goldberg JB, DiCesare TJ. Hyaluronic acid capsule is a virulence factor for mucoid group A streptococci. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1991 Oct 01; 88(19):8317-21.
  99. Michon F, Chalifour R, Feldman R, Wessels M, Kasper DL, Gamian A, Pozsgay V, Jennings HJ. The alpha-L-(1----2)-trirhamnopyranoside epitope on the group-specific polysaccharide of group B streptococci. Infect Immun. 1991 May; 59(5):1690-6.
  100. Wessels MR, DiFabio JL, Benedì VJ, Kasper DL, Michon F, Brisson JR, Jelínková J, Jennings HJ. Structural determination and immunochemical characterization of the type V group B Streptococcus capsular polysaccharide. J Biol Chem. 1991 Apr 15; 266(11):6714-9.
  101. Wessels MR, Kasper DL. Correct structure of repeating unit of group B Streptococcus type III capsular polysaccharide. J Infect Dis. 1990 Dec; 162(6):1412.
  102. Everitt DE, Soumerai SB, Avorn J, Klapholz H, Wessels M. Changing surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis practices through education targeted at senior department leaders. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 1990 Nov; 11(11):578-83.
  103. Wessels MR, Paoletti LC, Kasper DL, DiFabio JL, Michon F, Holme K, Jennings HJ. Immunogenicity in animals of a polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccine against type III group B Streptococcus. J Clin Invest. 1990 Nov; 86(5):1428-33.
  104. Paoletti LC, Kasper DL, Michon F, DiFabio J, Holme K, Jennings HJ, Wessels MR. An oligosaccharide-tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine against type III group B Streptococcus. J Biol Chem. 1990 Oct 25; 265(30):18278-83.
  105. Rubens CE, Wessels MR, Kuypers JM, Kasper DL, Weiser JN. Molecular analysis of two group B streptococcal virulence factors. Semin Perinatol. 1990 Aug; 14(4 Suppl 1):22-9.
  106. Wessels MR, Rubens CE, Benedí VJ, Kasper DL. Definition of a bacterial virulence factor: sialylation of the group B streptococcal capsule. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1989 Nov; 86(22):8983-7.
  107. Buchwald D, Soumerai SB, VanDevanter N, Wessels MR, Avorn J. Effect of hospitalwide change in clindamycin dosing schedule on clinical outcome. Rev Infect Dis. 1989 Jul-Aug; 11(4):619-24.
  108. Wessels MR, Kasper DL. Antibody recognition of the type 14 pneumococcal capsule. Evidence for a conformational epitope in a neutral polysaccharide. J Exp Med. 1989 Jun 01; 169(6):2121-31.
  109. Wessels MR, Benedí WJ, Jennings HJ, Michon F, DiFabio JL, Kasper DL. Isolation and characterization of type IV group B Streptococcus capsular polysaccharide. Infect Immun. 1989 Apr; 57(4):1089-94.
  110. Avorn J, Soumerai SB, Taylor W, Wessels MR, Janousek J, Weiner M. Reduction of incorrect antibiotic dosing through a structured educational order form. Arch Intern Med. 1988 Aug; 148(8):1720-4.
  111. Wessels MR, Muñoz A, Kasper DL. A model of high-affinity antibody binding to type III group B Streptococcus capsular polysaccharide. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1987 Dec; 84(24):9170-4.
  112. Rubens CE, Wessels MR, Heggen LM, Kasper DL. Transposon mutagenesis of type III group B Streptococcus: correlation of capsule expression with virulence. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1987 Oct; 84(20):7208-12.
  113. Wessels MR, Pozsgay V, Kasper DL, Jennings HJ. Structure and immunochemistry of an oligosaccharide repeating unit of the capsular polysaccharide of type III group B Streptococcus. A revised structure for the type III group B streptococcal polysaccharide antigen. J Biol Chem. 1987 Jun 15; 262(17):8262-7.
  114. Schifferle RE, Jennings HJ, Wessels MR, Katzenellenbogen E, Roy R, Kasper DL. Immunochemical analysis of the types Ia and Ib group B streptococcal polysaccharides. J Immunol. 1985 Dec; 135(6):4164-70.
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