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Heidelise Als, PhD

Heidelise Als, PhD
Lab:
Als Laboratory
Department:
Psychiatry
Division
Psychology Research
Hospital Title:
Director, Neurobehavioral Infant and Child Studies
Academic Title:
Professor of Psychology, Harvard Medical School
Research Focus Area:
Newborn Neurodevelopmental Assessment and InterventionPreterm and other High Risk Newborns
Contact:
617-355-8249
Contact Via Email
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Research Overview

Dr. Heidelise Als is a researcher and clinician who has focused her life research on the behavioral organization of the newborn infant, especially the preterm and high risk infant. From neurobehavioral and neurophysiological studies performed by our group and others, it is clear that the preterm infant at school age emerges as significantly more at risk for attention deficit disorder, lower IQ, difficulties in social-emotional functioning and self-regulation, and increased need for specialized school services. 

These differences may be attributable at least in part to the difference in sensory experience of the immature nervous system when cared for outside the uterus before term. The hypothesis that we have derived from these findings is that environmental input may lead to altered pathway development due to unexpected and overwhelming sensory experience, which in turn may lead to deviant developmental functioning, especially of cortical association areas. Dr. Als is the author of the APIB (Assessment of Preterm Infants' Behavior) and the originator of the Newborn Individualized Developmental Care and Assessment Program (NIDCAP), an individualized, behaviorally-based developmental care model which is changing Newborn Intensive Care Units (NICUs) around the world. 

These neurobehavioral assessment methodologies were developed to address the issues of differentiation and modulation of functioning seen as indices for the study of neuro- organizational differences and disturbances. Additionally, NIDCAP and APIB were developed for the education and training of staff and the support of parents in reading the infant's behavioral cues in order to implement all care collaboratively with the infant. Study results are consistent and demonstrate improved lung function, feeding behavior and growth; reduced length of hospitalization, improved neurodevelopmental function, along with improved brain structure and function for the infants who received individualized developmental care, as compared to the control groups who received the respective NICU's current best practice. Dr. Als is the founder of NIDCAP Federation International (NFI), a professional membership organization.

The aims of Dr. Als and her colleagues' research is firstly to assess the immature nervous system's readiness for sensory input and to document the infant's current active behavioral efforts towards developmental differentiation and thresholds to disorganization. Secondly, they aim to modify the environment and caregiving in keeping with an individual infant's current thresholds to disorganization. Thirdly, they aim to test the effectiveness of the Newborn Individualized Developmental Care and Assessment Program (NIDCAP), a behaviorally-based approach, in long-term follow-up studies throughout infancy, childhood, and adolescence. Dr. Als has received over 15 grant awards from the U.S. Department of Education and the National Institute of Health for her research and authored over 60 articles and chapters.

About Heidelise Als

Heidelise Als received an MS in Education from the Graduate School of Education, University of Pennsylvania and a PhD in Human Learning and Development from the Graduate School of Arts & Sciences, University of Pennsylvania. Her postgraduate training took place at the Child Development Unit at Children's Hospital Boston. Dr. Als is a developmental, educational, and licensed clinical psychologist with over 30 years of experience in undertaking and managing major research efforts involving high risk and preterm infants and families in medical settings, and in longitudinal follow-up. 

She furthermore holds a research associate appointment in Newborn Medicine at the Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, and an adjunct pediatric psychology appointment at the Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospital in Boston. In 1987 she received the Award of Excellence of the Boston Institute for the Development of Infants and Parents, in 1988 the Senator D'Amico Award of the Massachusetts Early Intervention Consortium, and in 1995 CINN-Elekta Decade of the Brain Award. She is the founder and President of the NIDCAP Federation International, a non-profit organization which provides national and international training for advanced professionals in the field of NICU developmental care implementation.

"The goal of my work is to increase knowledge and understanding of all human development, to improve the lives of the most vulnerable newborn populations and their families, and to assure that the opportunities they have allow them to fulfill their potentials to lead fulfilling lives. My research and clinical obversations have convinced me that all human beings have rich inner lives that must be supported to unfold and thrive or will be thwarted diminished by the care, opportunities and environments they encounter. Every human being continuously attempts to be the best they can be, no matter how their current actions express themselves. This humbles me as clinician and researcher; I believe in the human condition and its unlimited capacity for transformation. This conviction carries my work and continues to characterize my personal and professional journey."

Publications

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  1. Duffy FH, Shankardass A, McAnulty GB, Eksioglu YZ, Coulter D, Rotenberg A, Als H. Corticosteroid therapy in regressive autism: a retrospective study of effects on the Frequency Modulated Auditory Evoked Response (FMAER), language, and behavior. BMC Neurol. 2014 May 15; 14:70.
  2. Lawhon G, Helm JM, Buehler D, McAnulty G, Kosta S, Alberts JR, Als H, Mader S, Daly M, Sizun J, Vandenberg K, Warren I. NIDCAP Federation International response. Pediatrics. 2013 Aug; 132(2):e550-1.
  3. Als H. Re: Ohlsson and Jacobs, NIDCAP: a systematic review and meta-analyses. Pediatrics. 2013 Aug; 132(2):e552-3.
  4. Duffy FH, Shankardass A, McAnulty GB, Als H. The relationship of Asperger's syndrome to autism: a preliminary EEG coherence study. BMC Med. 2013 Jul 31; 11:175.
  5. McAnulty G, Duffy FH, Kosta S, Weisenfeld NI, Warfield SK, Butler SC, Alidoost M, Bernstein JH, Robertson R, Zurakowski D, Als H. School-age effects of the newborn individualized developmental care and assessment program for preterm infants with intrauterine growth restriction: preliminary findings. BMC Pediatr. 2013 Feb 19; 13:25.
  6. Duffy FH, Eksioglu YZ, Rotenberg A, Madsen JR, Shankardass A, Als H. The frequency modulated auditory evoked response (FMAER), a technical advance for study of childhood language disorders: cortical source localization and selected case studies. BMC Neurol. 2013 Jan 25; 13:12.
  7. Duffy FH, Als H. A stable pattern of EEG spectral coherence distinguishes children with autism from neuro-typical controls - a large case control study. BMC Med. 2012 Jun 26; 10:64.
  8. Als H, Duffy FH, McAnulty G, Butler SC, Lightbody L, Kosta S, Weisenfeld NI, Robertson R, Parad RB, Ringer SA, Blickman JG, Zurakowski D, Warfield SK. NIDCAP improves brain function and structure in preterm infants with severe intrauterine growth restriction. J Perinatol. 2012 Oct; 32(10):797-803.
  9. McAnulty G, Duffy FH, Kosta S, Weisenfeld NI, Warfield SK, Butler SC, Bernstein JH, Zurakowski D, Als H. School Age Effects of the Newborn Individualized Developmental Care and Assessment Program for Medically Low-Risk Preterm Infants: Preliminary Findings. J Clin Neonatol. 2012; 1(4):184-194.
  10. Als H, McAnulty GB. The Newborn Individualized Developmental Care and Assessment Program (NIDCAP) with Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC): Comprehensive Care for Preterm Infants. Curr Womens Health Rev. 2011 Aug; 7(3):288-301.
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  12. Ferber SG, Als H, McAnulty G, Peretz H, Zisapel N. Melatonin and mental capacities in newborn infants. J Pediatr. 2011 Jul; 159(1):99-103.e1.
  13. Als H, Duffy FH, McAnulty GB, Fischer CB, Kosta S, Butler SC, Parad RB, Blickman JG, Zurakowski D, Ringer SA. Is the Newborn Individualized Developmental Care and Assessment Program (NIDCAP) effective for preterm infants with intrauterine growth restriction? J Perinatol. 2011 Feb; 31(2):130-6.
  14. Huppertz-Kessler CJ, Als H, Koch L, Poeschl J. [Developmental screening of preterms at an early stage postpartum]. Klin Padiatr. 2009 Dec; 221(7):450-3.
  15. Als H. NIDCAP: testing the effectiveness of a relationship-based comprehensive intervention. Pediatrics. 2009 Oct; 124(4):1208-10.
  16. McAnulty G, Duffy FH, Butler S, Parad R, Ringer S, Zurakowski D, Als H. Individualized developmental care for a large sample of very preterm infants: health, neurobehaviour and neurophysiology. Acta Paediatr. 2009 Dec; 98(12):1920-6.
  17. McAnulty GB, Duffy FH, Butler SC, Bernstein JH, Zurakowski D, Als H. Effects of the Newborn Individualized Developmental Care and Assessment Program (NIDCAP) at age 8 years: preliminary data. Clin Pediatr (Phila). 2010 Mar; 49(3):258-70.
  18. Butler S, Als H. Individualized developmental care improves the lives of infants born preterm. Acta Paediatr. 2008 Sep; 97(9):1173-5.
  19. Als H, Butler S. Screening of Newborn and Maternal Wellbeing. Haith M, Benson J, Eds, Encyclopedia of Infant and Early Childhood Development. 2008; 3:66-78.
  20. Als H, Butler S. Newborn Individualized Developmental Care and Assessment Program (NIDCAP). Changing the future for infants and their families in intensive and special care nurseries. Early Childhood Services. 2008; 2(1):1-19.
  21. Als H, Butler S. Die Pflege des Neugeborenen: Die frühe Gehirnentwicklung und die Bedeutung von frühen Erfahrungen. Brisch KH, Hellbrügge T, editors. Der Säugling - Bindung, Neurobiologie und Gene. 2008; 44 – 87.
  22. Als H, Behrman R, Checchia P, Denne S, Dennery P, Hall CB, Martin R, Panitch H, Schmidt B, Stevenson DK, Vila L. Preemie abandonment? Multidisciplinary experts consider how to best meet preemies needs at "preterm infants: a collaborative approach to specialized care" roundtable. Mod Healthc. 2007 Jun 4; 37(23):17-24.
  23. Smith KM, Butler S, Als H. Newborn Individualized Developmental Care and Assessment Program (NIDCAP). Changing the future for infants and their families in intensive and special care nurseries. Italian Journal of Pediatrics. 2007; 33:79-91.
  24. Als H. Individualized Developmental Care for Preterm Infants. Encyclopedia on Early Childhood Development. Montreal, Quebec: Centre of Excellence for Early Childhood Development. 2007; 1-7.
  25. Mewes AU, Hüppi PS, Als H, Rybicki FJ, Inder TE, McAnulty GB, Mulkern RV, Robertson RL, Rivkin MJ, Warfield SK. Regional brain development in serial magnetic resonance imaging of low-risk preterm infants. Pediatrics. 2006 Jul; 118(1):23-33.
  26. Als, H. 3 DVD Series: Focus on the Brain, [DVD-1] Part 1: The Science of Preterm Infant Development. [DVD-2] Part 2: Clinical Care Practices for Special Care Nurseries. [DVD-3] No Matter How Small. A Parent Guide to Preterm Infant Development. [Additional CD-ROM] Focus on the Brain: Professional Resources. 2006.
  27. Mewes AUJ, Als H, McAnulty H, Inder T, Huppi P, Rybicki MD, Warfield S. Regional brain development of low-risk preterm infants differs from fullterm infants. Abstract 2005 Pediatric Academic Societies' Meeting; Washington, DC. 2005.
  28. Als H, Butler S, Kosta S, McAnulty G. The Assessment of Preterm Infants' Behavior (APIB): furthering the understanding and measurement of neurodevelopmental competence in preterm and full-term infants. Ment Retard Dev Disabil Res Rev. 2005; 11(1):94-102.
  29. Als H, Butler S. Neurobehavioral development of the preterm infant. Martin R, Fanaroff A, Walsh M, editors. Fanaroff and Martin's Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine: Diseases of the Fetus and Infant. 2005; 2:1051-68.
  30. Rivkin MJ, Wolraich D, Als H, McAnulty G, Butler S, Conneman N, Fischer C, Vajapeyam S, Robertson RL, Mulkern RV. Prolonged T*2 values in newborn versus adult brain: Implications for fMRI studies of newborns. Magn Reson Med. 2004 Jun; 51(6):1287-91.
  31. Als H, Duffy FH, McAnulty GB, Rivkin MJ, Vajapeyam S, Mulkern RV, Warfield SK, Huppi PS, Butler SC, Conneman N, Fischer C, Eichenwald EC. Early experience alters brain function and structure. Pediatrics. 2004 Apr; 113(4):846-57.
  32. Als H, Lawhon G. Theoretic Perspective for Developmentally Supportive Care. Kenner C, McGrath JM, editors. Developmental Care of Newborns and Infants: A Guide for Health Professionals. 2004; 47-59.
  33. Fischer CB, Als H. Trusting Behavioral Communication: Individualized relationship-based developmental care in the newborn intensive care unit - a way of meeting the neurodevelopmental expectations of the preterm infant. Nocker-Ribaupier M, editor. Music Therapy for Premature and Newborn Infants. 2004; 1-20.
  34. Als H, Gilkerson L, Duffy FH, McAnulty GB, Buehler DM, Vandenberg K, Sweet N, Sell E, Parad RB, Ringer SA, Butler SC, Blickman JG, Jones KJ. A three-center, randomized, controlled trial of individualized developmental care for very low birth weight preterm infants: medical, neurodevelopmental, parenting, and caregiving effects. J Dev Behav Pediatr. 2003 Dec; 24(6):399-408.
  35. Butler SC, Als H, McAnulty GB, Duffy FH, Conneman N, Fischer C, Eichenwald E, Warfield S, Mulkern RV, Huppi P, Rivkin MJ. Effectiveness of individualized developmental care for preterm infants: Neurobehavioral and neurostructural evidence. Abstract Proceedings, Biennial Meeting for the Society for Research in Child Development, Tampa, FL. 2003.
  36. Duffy FH, Als H, McAnulty GB. Infant EEG spectral coherence data during quiet sleep: unrestricted principal components analysis--relation of factors to gestational age, medical risk, and neurobehavioral status. Clin Electroencephalogr. 2003 Apr; 34(2):54-69.
  37. Als H, Duffy FH, McAnulty GB, Kosta S, Fischer C, Conneman N, Butler S, Rivkin MJ, Warfield S, Vajapeyam S, Mulkern RV, Eichenwald E, Mazzawi J, Metcalfe M, Blickman J, Huppi P, Inder TE, Chen H. Earliest brain development and experience: Behavior, qEEG, and MRI. Abstract Proceedings, Thirteenth Annual NIDCAP Trainers Meeting, NIDCAP Federation International, Williamsburg, VA. 2002.
  38. Vajapeyam S, Rivkin MJ, McAnulty G, Fischer C, Butler S, Conneman N, Wolraich D, Robertson R, Mulkern RV, Maier S, Als H. DTI Study of the Premature Infant Brain Shows that Change in Diffusion Properties of White Matter may Precede Myelination. Proceedings of the ISMRM 10th Scientific Meeting. 2002.
  39. Als H, Freschi M. Identification clinique du stress chez le nouveau-né: application aux soins. Medécine & Hygiène. 2002; 2379:343-5.
  40. Rivkin MJ, Als H, McAnulty G, Butler S, Conneman N, Fischer C, Vajapeyam S, Wolraich D, Mulkern RV. Prolonged T2 Values in Newborn vs Adult brain: Implications for fMRI Studies of Newborns. Proceedings of the ISMRM 10th Scientific Meeting. 2002.
  41. Vajapeyam S MR, Wolraich D, Robertson R, Maier S, Fischer C, Als H, Rivkin MJ. Use of diffusion tensor imaging to study white matter maturation after birth. Ann Neurol. 2001; S98.
  42. Als H. Neurobehavioral development of the preterm infant. Fanaroff A, Martin R, editors, Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine. 2001; 1:947-72.
  43. Mouradian LE, Als H, Coster WJ. Neurobehavioral functioning of healthy preterm infants of varying gestational ages. J Dev Behav Pediatr. 2000 Dec; 21(6):408-16.
  44. Als H. Reading the premature infant. Goldson E, editor. Developmental Interventions in the Neonatal Intensive Care Nursery. 1999; 18-85.
  45. Als H. Developmental care in the newborn intensive care unit. Curr Opin Pediatr. 1998 Apr; 10(2):138-42.
  46. Als H, Gilkerson L. The role of relationship-based developmentally supportive newborn intensive care in strengthening outcome of preterm infants. Semin Perinatol. 1997 Jun; 21(3):178-89.
  47. Als H. Neurobehavioral development of the preterm infant. Fanaroff AA, Martin RJ, editors. Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine. 1997; 2:964-89.
  48. Als H, Duffy FH, McAnulty GB. Effectiveness of individualized neurodevelopmental care in the newborn intensive care unit (NICU). Acta Paediatr Suppl. 1996 Oct; 416:21-30.
  49. Als H. Earliest intervention for preterm infants in the newborn intensive care unit. Guralnick MJ, editor. The Effectiveness of Early Intervention. 1996; 47-76.
  50. Als H. Earliest rehabilitation in the newborn period. Written testimony prepared for the Long Range Plan Steering Committee, NIDRR, U.S. Department of Education. Public Hearing on Disability Research. 1995.
  51. Buehler DM, Als H, Duffy FH, McAnulty GB, Liederman J. Effectiveness of individualized developmental care for low-risk preterm infants: behavioral and electrophysiologic evidence. Pediatrics. 1995 Nov; 96(5 Pt 1):923-32.
  52. Als H. Medical and neurobehavioral outcome of developmental NICU care. Proceedings, Biennial Meeting of the Society for Research in Child Development. 1995; 21.
  53. Als H. The preterm infant: A model for the study of fetal brain expectation. Lecanuet J-P, Krasnegor NA, Fifer W, Smotherman W, editors. Fetal Brain Development: A Psychobiological Perspective. 1995; 439-71.
  54. Als H. Behavior and pain management. Fanaroff AA, Klaus MH, editors. The Year in Neonatal and Perinatal Medicine. 1995; 187-9.
  55. Als H. Individualized, family-focused developmental care for high and low risk preterm infants in the NICU. Proceedings, Biennial Meeting of the Society for Research in Child Development. 1995; 21-22.
  56. Als H, Lawhorn G, Duffy FH, McAnulty GB, Gibes-Grossman R, Blickman JG. Developmental care for very low-birth-weight infants. Journal of the American Medical Association. 1995; 273:1577-78.
  57. Als H, Gilkerson L. Developmentally supportive care in the neonatal intensive care unit. Zero to Three. 1995; 15:1-10.
  58. Gilkerson L, Als H. Role of reflective process in the implementation of developmentally supportive care in the NICU. Infants Young Child. 1995; 7:20-8..
  59. Als H, Lawhon G, Duffy FH, McAnulty GB, Gibes-Grossman R, Blickman JG. Individualized developmental care for the very low-birth-weight preterm infant. Medical and neurofunctional effects. JAMA. 1994 Sep 21; 272(11):853-8.
  60. Mouradian LE, Als H. The influence of neonatal intensive care unit caregiving practices on motor functioning of preterm infants. Am J Occup Ther. 1994 Jun; 48(6):527-33.
  61. Als H. Neurobehavioral development of the premature infant. Avery ME, First LR, editors. Pediatric Medicine. 1994; 155-60.
  62. Als H. Neurobehavioral observation and assessment of the preterm infant. Infant Behavior and Development. 1994; 177(Special ICIS Issue).
  63. Duffy FH, McAnulty GB, Jones K, Als H, Albert M. Brain electrical correlates of psychological measures: strategies and problems. Brain Topogr. 1993; 5(4):399-412.
  64. Als H. Individualizing developmental care in the NICU: Estimating expectation for co-regulation. Infant Behavior and Development 15. 1992; 13(Special ICIS Issue).
  65. Als H. Organization and adaptation of the medically fragil infant. Infant Behavior and Development 17. 1992; 130(Special ICIS Issue).
  66. Als H. The importance of touch in early infancy. Infant Behavior and Development 15. 1992; 9(Special ICIS Issue).
  67. Als, H. Individualized, family-focused developmental care for the very low birthweight preterm infant in the NICU. Adv App Dev Psych. 1992; 6:341-88..
  68. Als H. Organization and adaptation of the medically fragile infant. Infant Behavior and Development 15. 1992; 130(Special ICIS Issue).
  69. Als H. Neurobehavioral organization of the newborn: opportunity for assessment and intervention. NIDA Res Monogr. 1991; 114:106-16.
  70. Badian NA, Duffy FH, Als H, McAnulty GB. Linguistic profiles of dyslexics and good readers. Ann Dyslexia. 1991; 41:221-45..
  71. Als H. Neurobehavioral organization of the newborn: Opportunity for assessment and intervention. Methodological Issues in Controlled Studies on the Effects of Prenatal Exposure to Drugs of Abuse. National Institute on Drug Abuse. 1991; Research Monograph 114:106-116.
  72. Badian NA, Duffy FH, Als H, McAnulty GB. Linguistic profiles of dyslexic and good readers. Ann Dyslexia. 1991 Jan; 41(1):221-45.
  73. Duffy FH, Als H, McAnulty GB. Behavioral and electrophysiological evidence for gestational age effects in healthy preterm and fullterm infants studied two weeks after expected due date. Child Dev. 1990 Aug; 61(4):271-86.
  74. Duffy FH, Jones K, Bartels P, Albert M, McAnulty GB, Als H. Quantified neurophysiology with mapping: statistical inference, exploratory and confirmatory data analysis. Brain Topogr. 1990; 3(1):3-12.
  75. Badian NA, McAnulty GB, Duffy FH, Als H. Prediction of dyslexia in kindergarten boys. Ann Dyslexia. 1990; 40:152-69..
  76. Als H, Duffy FH, McAnulty GB. Neurobehavioral regulation disorder of prematurity. Infant Behavior and Development 13. 1990; 159(Special ICIS Issue).
  77. Badian NA, McAnulty GB, Duffy FH, Als H. Prediction of dyslexia in kindergarten boys. Ann Dyslexia. 1990 Jan; 40(1):152-69.
  78. Als H, Duffy FH. Neurobehavioral assessment in the newborn period: opportunity for early detection of later learning disabilities and for early intervention. Birth Defects Orig Artic Ser. 1989; 25(6):127-52.
  79. Duffy FH, Als H. Brain organization in infants: electrical activity mapping. Birth Defects Orig Artic Ser. 1989; 25(6):33-46.
  80. Als H, Duffy FH. Neurobehavioral assessment in the newborn period: Opportunity for early detection of later learning disabilities and for early intervention. Paul N, editor. Research in Infant Assessment. 1989; 25(6):127-52.
  81. Als H, Duffy FH, McAnulty GB, Badian N. Continuity of neurobehavioral functioning in preterm and full-term newborns. Bornstein MH, Krasnegor NA, editors. Stability and Continuity in Mental Development. 1989; 3-28.
  82. Duffy FH, Als H. Brain organization in infants: Electrical activity mapping. Paul N, editor. Research in Infant Assessment. 1989; 25(6):33-46.
  83. Als H. Self-regulation and motor development in preterm infants. Lockman J, Hazen N, editors. Action in Social Context. Perspectives on Early Development. 1989; 65-97.
  84. Als H. Caring for the preterm infant. Bottos M, Brazelton TB, Ferrari A, Dalla Barba B, Zacchello F, editors. Neurological Lesions in Infancy: Early Diagnosis and Intervention. 1989; 201-16.
  85. Als H. Continuity and consequences of behavior in preterm infants. von Euler C, Forssberg H, Lagercrantz H, editors, Neurobiology of Early Infant Behaviour. 1989; 55: 87-106.
  86. Als H, Lawhon G, Gibes R, Duffy FH, Jolesz FA, Als H, McAnulty GB, Blickman JG. Individualized behavioral and environmental care for the VLBW preterm infant at high risk for bronchopulmonary dysplasia and intraventricular hemorrahage. Study II: NICU outcome. Presented to New England Perinatal Society, Woodstock, VT. 1988.
  87. Als H, Duffy FH, McAnulty G. The APIB, an assessment of functional competence in preterm and fullterm newborns regardless of gestational age at birth. Infant Behav Dev. 1988; 11:319-31.
  88. Duffy FH, Als H. Neural plasticity and the effect of a supportive hospital environment on premature newborns. Kavanagh JF, editor. Understanding Mental Retardation. Research Accomplishments and New Frontiers. 1988; 179-206.
  89. Als H, Duffy FH, McAnulty G. Behavioral differences between preterm and fullterm newborns as measured with the APIB system scores. Infant Behav Dev. 1988; 11:305-18..
  90. Als H. Neurobehavioral development of the premature infant and the environment of the neonatal intensive care unit. Avery ME, First L, editors. Pediatric Medicine. 1988; 125-29.
  91. Becker M, Kindlon DJ, Duffy FH, Jolesz FA, Als H, McAnulty GB, Rodier DW, Ploski C, Taeusch HW. Outcome 5-7 years after sever perinatal asphyxia (SPA) in term infants. Pediatric Research 21. 1987; 5(391A).
  92. Als H, Lawhon G, Brown E, Gibes R, Duffy FH, McAnulty G, Blickman JG. Individualized behavioral and environmental care for the very low birth weight preterm infant at high risk for bronchopulmonary dysplasia: neonatal intensive care unit and developmental outcome. Pediatrics. 1986 Dec; 78(6):1123-32.
  93. Als H, Lawhon G, Gibes R, Duffy FH, McAnulty GB, Blickman JG. Individualized behavioral and environmental care for the VLBW preterm infant at high risk for bronchopulmonary dysplasia: I. NICU outcome. New England Perinatal Society, Woodstock VT. 1986.
  94. Als, H. A synactive model of neonatal behavioral organization: Framework for the assessment and support of the neurobehavioral development of the premature infant and his parents in the environment of the neonatal intensive care unit. Phys Occup Ther Pediatr. 1986; 6:3-55..
  95. Als H. Patterns of infant behavior: Analogs of later organizational difficulties?. Duffy FH, Geschwind N, editors. Dyslexia: A Neuroscientific Approach to Clinical Evaluation. 1985; 67-92.
  96. Mintzer D, Als H, Tronick EZ, Brazelton TB. Parenting an infant with a birth defect: The regulation of self-esteem. Zero to Three, The National Center for Clinical Infant Programs. 1985; 5(5):1-8.
  97. Als H. Reciprocity and autonomy: Parenting a blind infant. Zero to Three, The National Center for Clinical Infant Programs. 1985; 5(5):8-10.
  98. Mintzer D, Als H, Tronick EZ, Brazelton TB. Parenting an infant with a birth defect. The regulation of self-esteem. Psychoanal Study Child. 1984; 39:561-89.
  99. Als H. Newborn behavioral assessment. Burns WJ, Lavigne JV, editors. Progress in Pediatric Psychology. 1984; 1:1-46.
  100. Brazelton TB, Als H. Vier vroege stadia in de ontwikkeling van de interactie tussen moeder en kind. Psychotherapeutisch Paspoort. 1984; 4.
  101. Als H, Poland N, Moore ML, Feldman H. The sensational baby: Sensory development of the newborn. Part two: From birth on. [Slide tape presentation]. 1984.
  102. Duffy FH, Mower G, Jensen F, Als H. Neural plasticity: A new frontier for infant development. Fitzgerald HE, Lester BM, Yogman MW, editors. Theory and Research in Behavioral Pediatrics. 1984; II:67-96.
  103. Als H, Poland N, Moore ML, Feldman H. The sensational baby: Sensory development of the newborn. Part one: From the beginning to birth[Slide tape presentation]. 1984.
  104. Duffy FH, Als H. Neurophysiological assessment of the neonate: An approach combining brain electrical activity mapping (BEAM) with behavioral assessment (APIB). Brazelton TB, Lester BM, editors. New Approaches to Developmental Screening of Infants. 1983; 175-96.
  105. Als H. Infant individuality: Assessing patterns of very early development. Call J, Galenson E, Tyson RL, editors. Frontiers in Infant Psychiatry. 1983; 363-78.
  106. Als H, Thompson Linton P. Prematurely yours: The behavior and personality of your premature infant [Slide-tape presentation]. 1983.
  107. Als H. Assessment, intervention, and remediation: The study of the development of a blind infant in interaction with her mother. Mulholland ME, Wurster MV, editors. Help Me Become Everything I Can Be. 1983; 27-32.
  108. Als H. Assessing infant individuality. Brown CC, editor. Infants at Risk. 1983; 24-31.
  109. Als H, Duffy FH. The behavior of the premature infant: A theoretical framework for a systematic assessment. Brazelton TB, Lester BM, editors. New Approaches to Developmental Screening of Infants. 1983; 153-74.
  110. Als H, Duffy FH. Conceptualizing and assessing the behavior of the fetal newborn. Slaton DS, editor. Caring for Special Babies. 1983; 35-95.
  111. Lester BM, Als H, Brazelton TB. Regional obstetric anesthesia and newborn behavior: a reanalysis toward synergistic effects. Child Dev. 1982 Jun; 53(3):687-92.
  112. Als H, Lester BM, Tronick E, Brazelton TB. Towards a research instrument for the assessment of preterm infants’ behavior (APIB). Fitzgerald HE, Lester BM, Yogman MW, editors. Theory and Research in Behavioral Pediatrics. 1982; 1:35-63.
  113. Yogman MW, Cole P, Als H, Lester BM. Behavior of newborns of diabetic mothers. Infant Behav Dev. 1982; 5:331-40..
  114. Als, H. Towards a synactive theory of development: promise for the assessment of infant individuality. Infant Ment Health J. 1982; 3:229-43..
  115. Als H, Duffy FH. The behavior of the fetal newborn: Theoretical considerations and practical suggestions for the use of the APIB. Waldstein A, Gilderman D, Taylor-Hershel D, Prestridge S, and Anderson J, editors. Issues in Neonatal Care. 1982; 21-60.
  116. Als H, Lester BM, Tronick E, Brazelton TB. Manual for the assessment of preterm infants’ behavior (APIB). Fitzgerald HE, Lester BM, Yogman MW, editors. Theory and Research in Behavioral Pediatrics. 1982; 1:65-132.
  117. Als H. The unfolding of behavioral organization in the face of a biological violation. Tronick EZ, editor. Social Interchange in Infancy. 1982; 125-60.
  118. Dixon SD, Yogman M, Tronick E, Adamson L, Als H, Brazelton TB. Early infant social interaction with parents and strangers. J Am Acad Child Psychiatry. 1981; 20(1):32-52.
  119. Als H, Brazelton TB. A new model of assessing the behavioral organization in preterm and fullterm infants: two case studies. J Am Acad Child Psychiatry. 1981; 20(2):239-63.
  120. Brazelton TB, Als H. [4 precocious stages in the development of mother-infant relations]. Psychiatr Enfant. 1981; 24(2):397-418.
  121. Telzrow RW, Snyder DM, Tronick E, Als H, Brazelton TB. The behavior of jaundiced infants undergoing phototherapy. Dev Med Child Neurol. 1980 Jun; 22(3):317-26.
  122. Als H, Tronick E, Brazelton TB. Affective reciprocity and the development of autonomy: the study of a blind infant. J Am Acad Child Psychiatry. 1980; 19(1):22-40.
  123. Tronick E, Als H, Brazelton TB. The infant’s communicative competencies and the achievement of intersubjectivity. Ritchie R, editor. The Relationship of Verbal and Nonverbal Communication. 1980; 317-26.
  124. Als H, Tronick E, Brazelton TB. Stages of early behavioral organization: The study of a blind infant and a sighted infant in interaction with their mothers. Field TM, Goldberg S, Stern D, Sostek A, editors. High-Risk Infants and Children, Adult and Peer Interactions. 1980; 181-204.
  125. Tronick E, Als H, Brazelton TB. Monadic phases: A structural descriptive analysis of infant-mother face to face interaction. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly of Behavior and Development. 1980; 26(1):3-24.
  126. Brazelton TB, Als H. Four early stages in the development of mother-infant interaction. Psychoanal Study Child. 1979; 34:349-69.
  127. Als H. Social interaction: Dynamic matrix for developing behavioral organization. In Uzgiris IC (ed). Social Interaction and Communication in Infancy. New Directions for Child Development. 1979; 4:21-41.
  128. Als H, Tronick E, Lester BM, Brazelton TB. The Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (BNBAS). Osofsky J, editor. Handbook of Infant Development. 1979; 185-216.
  129. Als H, Tronick E, Brazelton TB. Analysis of face to face interaction in infant-adult dyads. Lamb ME, Suomi SJ, Stephenson GR, editors. Social Interaction Analysis: Methodological Issues. 1979; 33-77.
  130. Als H, Lester BM, Brazelton TB. Dynamics of the behavioral organization of the premature infant: A theoretical perspective. Field TM, Sostek AM, Goldberg S, Shuman HH, editors. Infants Born at Risk. 1979; 173-92.
  131. Tronick E, Als H, Brazelton TB. Early development of neonatal and infant behavior. Falkner F, Tanner JM, editors. Human Growth. 1979; 3:305-28.
  132. Tronick E, Als H, Adamson L. Structure of early face-to-face communicative interaction. Bullowa M, editor. Before Speech: The Beginnings of Interpersonal Communication. 1979; 349-72.
  133. Brazelton TB, Yogman MW, Als H, Tronick E. The infant as a focus for family reciprocity. Lewis M, Rosenblum LA, editors. The Child and His Family. 1979; 29-43.
  134. Brazelton TB, Yogman MW, Als H, Lester BM. Interazioni Madre-Padre-Bambino. Estratto da Atti del IV congressor Biennale della Issbd. International society for the STudy of Behavioral Development, Aspetti biosociali dello sviluppo. 1979; 1.
  135. Als H. II. Assessing an assessment: conceptual considerations, methodological issues, and a perspective on the future of the Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale. Monogr Soc Res Child Dev. 1978; 43(5-6):14-28.
  136. Tronick E, Als H, Adamson L, Wise S, Brazelton TB. The infant's response to entrapment between contradictory messages in face-to-face interaction. J Am Acad Child Psychiatry. 1978; 17(1):1-13.
  137. Als H. The newborn communicates. J Commun. 1977; 27(2):66-73.
  138. Adamson L, Als H, Tronick E, Brazelton TB. The development of social reciprocity between a sighted infant and her blind parents. A case study. J Am Acad Child Psychiatry. 1977; 16(2):194-207.
  139. Tronick ED, Als H, Brazelton TB. Mutuality in mother-infant interaction. J Commun. 1977; 27(2):74-9.
  140. Als H, Tronick E, Lester BM, Brazelton TB. The Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (BNBAS). J Abnorm Child Psychol. 1977; 5(3):215-31.
  141. Brazelton TB, Tronick E, Als H. Newborn learning and the effect of appropriate stimulation. Gluck L, editor. Intrauterine Asphyxia and the Developing Fetal Brain. 1977; 443-53.
  142. Als H, Tronick E, Adamson L, Brazelton TB. The behavior of the full-term but underweight newborn infant. Dev Med Child Neurol. 1976 Oct; 18(5):590-602.
  143. Tronick E, Wise S, Als H, Adamson L, Scanlon J, Brazelton TB. Regional obstetric anesthesia and newborn behavior: effect over the first ten days of life. Pediatrics. 1976 Jul; 58(1):94-100.
  144. Brazelton TB, Tronick E, Adamson L, Als H, Wise S. Early mother-infant reciprocity. Ciba Found Symp. 1975; (33):137-54.
  145. Als H. The newborn and its mother: An ethological study of their interaction. Dissertation Abstracts International. 1975; 36(5).
  146. Brazelton TB, Tronick E, Adamson L, Als H, Wise S. Early mother-infant reciprocity. Parent-Infant Interaction. 1975; 33:137-54.
  147. Als H, Brazelton TB. Comprehensive neonatal assessment. Birth Family J. 1975; 2:3-11..
  148. Rivinus HA. Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale. Proceedings on the Conference on the Diagnosis and Management of the Infant at Risk: Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina. 1974.
  149. Rivinus HA. DOT, a device for observational timing (Note on instrumentation). Developmental Pscychobiology. 1974; 7:96.
  150. Katz SH, Rivinus HA, Barker W. Physical anthropology and the biobehavioral approach to child growth and development. American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 1973; 38:105 - 108.
  151. Rivinus HA. Evolution, newborn behavior and maternal attachment. Comments on Contemporary Psychiatry. 1972; 2:95 - 104.
  152. Blickman JG, Brown ER, Als H, Lawhon G, Gibes R. Imaging procedures and developmental outcomes in the neonatal intensive care unit. J Perinatol. 1990 Sep; 10(3):304-6.
  153. Mewes AU, Zöllei L, Hüppi PS, Als H, McAnulty GB, Inder TE, Wells WM, Warfield SK. Displacement of brain regions in preterm infants with non-synostotic dolichocephaly investigated by MRI. Neuroimage. 2007 Jul 15; 36(4):1074-85.
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