Bladder Exstrophy and Epispadias | Symptoms and Causes

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What are the symptoms of bladder exstrophy?

The most commonly associated defect is epispadias, a malformation in which the inner lining of the urethra is exposed and visible on the top surface of the penis (in boys) or between the labia (in girls).

Other associated defects include:

  • displacement of the belly button, usually immediately above the defect and lower than normal on the abdominal wall
  • narrow vaginal opening, wide-spread labia and short urethra in girls
  • outwardly rotated legs and feet

What causes exstrophy of the bladder?

The cause of bladder exstrophy is unknown. Some studies show a clustering of the condition in families, suggesting that there’s an inherited factor. However, the chance for parents to have another child with exstrophy of the bladder is less than one percent.

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