Medical School

  • Yale University School of Medicine , 1977 , New Haven , CT


  • Boston Children's Hospital , 1978 , Boston , MA


  • Boston Children's Hospital , 1980 , Boston , MA


  • Boston Children's Hospital , 1982 , Boston , MA

Philosophy of Care

Dr Rappaport's training and experience has prepared him in a round about way for his current roles. He completed his undergraduate degree in economics at the University of Pennsylvania and the London School of Economics. He then received a Masters in Education from the University of Pennsylvania, and began to teach in an alternative high school that was a joint effort of the University of Pennsylvania and the Philadelphia Public Schools. He taught for four years, and for the final two years was Head Teacher (Principal) at the school. He subsequently went back to school to take science courses and attended Yale Medical School. He completed a residency and a fellowship in Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics at Children’s Hospital, Boston. He has worked to establish the new Division of Developmental Medicine and the Developmental Medicine Center over his 35 year long career at Boston Children's Hospital.
Dr. Rappaport is committed to the highest quality of care guided by the most recent research available to guide his medical opinions. He is committed to family centered care and involving families in the complex decisions surrounding the care of children with neurodevelopmental issues.


Leonard Rappaport MD, MS is Chief of the Division of Developmental Medicine. He is a Senior Associate in Medicine at Children's Hospital and Mary Deming Scott Professor of Pediatrics at Harvard Medical School. He has directed the Fellowships in General Pediatrics and Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics for 30 years involved in the training of well over 100 fellows in DB Pediatrics and General Pediatrics and is Principal Investigator on one of nine federally funded training programs in Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics. In research, Dr Rappaport is a member of a multidisciplinary group examining the effects of cardiac surgery on neurodevelopmental outcomes through a series of randomized clinical trials. Dr Rappaport is also a member of a multidisciplinary research group in autism spectrum disorders and on the Steering Committee of the Autism Consortium of Boston. Dr Rappaport has also had a research and teaching interest in other Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics areas such as encopresis, enuresis, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and recurrent pain in childhood. Dr Rappaport had a small primary care pediatrics practice outside at Longwood Pediatrics for 27 years which he left in January, 2009 when he became division chief.


  • American Board of Pediatrics, Developmental Behavioral Pediatrics


Publications powered by Harvard Catalyst Profiles

  1. Twelve-Month Outcomes of Stand-Alone Excisional Goniotomy in Mild to Severe Glaucoma. Clin Ophthalmol. 2020; 14:1891-1897. View abstract
  2. Reintroducing Dyslexia: Early Identification and Implications for Pediatric Practice. Pediatrics. 2020 07; 146(1). View abstract
  3. Updating the neurodevelopmental profile of Alazami syndrome: Illustrating the role of developmental assessment in rare genetic disorders. . 2019 08; 179(8):1565-1569. View abstract
  4. Six-Month Outcomes of Goniotomy Performed with the Kahook Dual Blade as a Stand-Alone Glaucoma Procedure. Adv Ther. 2018 11; 35(11):2093-2102. View abstract
  5. Longitudinal Associations between Neurodevelopment and Psychosocial Health Status in Patients with Repaired D-Transposition of the Great Arteries. J Pediatr. 2019 01; 204:38-45.e1. View abstract
  6. Hey Buddy. JAMA Pediatr. 2018 08 01; 172(8):720. View abstract
  7. Congenital Zika Virus Infection: A Developmental-Behavioral Perspective. J Dev Behav Pediatr. 2017 01; 38(1):65-66. View abstract
  8. Neurodevelopmental outcome in children with congenital heart disease: a work in progress. Pediatrics. 2015 May; 135(5):926-7. View abstract
  9. Safety, pharmacokinetics, and preliminary assessment of efficacy of mecasermin (recombinant human IGF-1) for the treatment of Rett syndrome. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014 Mar 25; 111(12):4596-601. View abstract
  10. Peripheral blood gene expression signature differentiates children with autism from unaffected siblings. Neurogenetics. 2013 May; 14(2):143-52. View abstract
  11. Using whole-exome sequencing to identify inherited causes of autism. Neuron. 2013 Jan 23; 77(2):259-73. View abstract
  12. Characteristics and predictive value of blood transcriptome signature in males with autism spectrum disorders. PLoS One. 2012; 7(12):e49475. View abstract
  13. The co-morbidity burden of children and young adults with autism spectrum disorders. PLoS One. 2012; 7(4):e33224. View abstract
  14. Adolescents with d-transposition of the great arteries corrected with the arterial switch procedure: neuropsychological assessment and structural brain imaging. Circulation. 2011 Sep 20; 124(12):1361-9. View abstract
  15. Pediatrician-psychiatrist collaboration to care for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, depression, and anxiety. Clin Pediatr (Phila). 2011 Jan; 50(1):37-43. View abstract
  16. Deletions of NRXN1 (neurexin-1) predispose to a wide spectrum of developmental disorders. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2010 Jun 05; 153B(4):937-47. View abstract
  17. Clinical genetic testing for patients with autism spectrum disorders. Pediatrics. 2010 Apr; 125(4):e727-35. View abstract
  18. Behaviour at eight years in children with surgically corrected transposition: The Boston Circulatory Arrest Trial. Cardiol Young. 2009 Feb; 19(1):86-97. View abstract
  19. Randomized trial of hematocrit 25% versus 35% during hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass in infant heart surgery. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2008 Feb; 135(2):347-54, 354.e1-4. View abstract
  20. Enuresis. Oski's Pediatrics, DeAngelis C, ed. 2005. View abstract
  21. Encopresis. Oski's Pediatrics. DeAngelis C. 2005. View abstract
  22. Prediction of IQ and achievement at age 8 years from neurodevelopmental status at age 1 year in children with D-transposition of the great arteries. Pediatrics. 2004 Nov; 114(5):e572-6. View abstract
  23. Consultation with the specialist: encopresis: assessment and management. Pediatr Rev. 2004 Aug; 25(8):278-83. View abstract
  24. Effect of prenatal diagnosis on outcomes in D-transposition of the great arteries. Pediatrics. 2004 Apr; 113(4):e335-40. View abstract
  25. Recurrent abdominal pain. Behavioral and Developmental Pediatrics: A Handbook for Primary Care. Zuckerman B and Parker S, Eds. 2004. View abstract
  26. Enuresis. Behavioral and Developmental Pediatrics: A Handbook for Primary Care. Zuckerman B and Parker S, Eds. 2004. View abstract
  27. Encopresis. Behavioral and Developmental Pediatrics: A Handbook for Primary Care. 2004. View abstract
  28. The influence of hemodilution on outcome after hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass: results of a randomized trial in infants. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2003 Dec; 126(6):1765-74. View abstract
  29. The effect of duration of deep hypothermic circulatory arrest in infant heart surgery on late neurodevelopment: the Boston Circulatory Arrest Trial. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2003 Nov; 126(5):1397-403. View abstract
  30. Neurodevelopmental status at eight years in children with dextro-transposition of the great arteries: the Boston Circulatory Arrest Trial. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2003 Nov; 126(5):1385-96. View abstract
  31. Neurobehavioral factors associated with referral for learning problems in a community sample: evidence for an adaptational model for learning disorders. J Learn Disabil. 2003 Sep-Oct; 36(5):467-83. View abstract
  32. Length of stay after infant heart surgery is related to cognitive outcome at age 8 years. J Pediatr. 2003 Jul; 143(1):67-73. View abstract
  33. Visual-spatial skills in children after open-heart surgery. J Dev Behav Pediatr. 2003 Jun; 24(3):169-79. View abstract
  34. Trends in referral to a single encopresis clinic over 20 years. Pediatrics. 2003 May; 111(5 Pt 1):e604-7. View abstract
  35. Complementary and alternative therapies in childhood attention and hyperactivity problems. J Dev Behav Pediatr. 2003 Feb; 24(1):4-8. View abstract
  36. Influence of parental stress and social support on the behavioral adjustment of children with transposition of the great arteries. J Dev Behav Pediatr. 2002 Oct; 23(5):314-21. View abstract
  37. Early constipation and toilet training in children with encopresis. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2002 Apr; 34(4):385-8. View abstract
  38. Measuring quality of life in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and their families: development and evaluation of a new tool. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2002 Apr; 156(4):384-91. View abstract
  39. Development assessment and interventions. Managing Elevated Lead Levels Among Young Children, Recommendations from the Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poinoning Prevention. 2002. View abstract
  40. Recurrent abdominal pain. Behavioral and Developmental Pediatrics: A Handbook for Primary Care. Zuckerman B and Parker S, Eds. 2002. View abstract
  41. Recurrent abdominal pain. Pain Management in Children, Schecter N, Berde C, Yaster M Eds. 2002. View abstract
  42. General health status of children with D-transposition of the great arteries after the arterial switch operation. Circulation. 2001 Sep 18; 104(12 Suppl 1):I138-42. View abstract
  43. Recurrent abdominal pain. J Dev Behav Pediatr. 2001 Apr; 22(2 Suppl):S133-7. View abstract
  44. Book Reviews. J Dev Behav Pediatr. 2001 Feb; 22(1):77-78. View abstract
  45. Developmental and neurologic effects of alpha-stat versus pH-stat strategies for deep hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass in infants. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2001 Feb; 121(2):374-83. View abstract
  46. Encopresis. Ambulatory Pediatrics, Stockman J, Lohr J editors. 2001. View abstract
  47. An evaluation of an innovative multimedia educational software program for asthma management: report of a randomized, controlled trial. Pediatrics. 2000 Jul; 106(1 Pt 2):210-5. View abstract
  48. Comparison of the effects of fetal cardiomyocyte and skeletal myoblast transplantation on postinfarction left ventricular function. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2000 Jun; 119(6):1169-75. View abstract
  49. Reliability and validity of a DSM-IV based ADHD screener. Child Neuropsychol. 2000 Mar; 6(1):3-23. View abstract
  50. Epidemiologic perspectives on neuropsychological disorders in children. Handbook of Neuropsycholygy, Rapin I, Segalowitz S (Eds). 2000. View abstract
  51. Infant colic and childhood recurrent abdominal pain syndromes: is there a relationship? J Dev Behav Pediatr. 1999 Oct; 20(5):315-7. View abstract
  52. Developmental and neurological status of children at 4 years of age after heart surgery with hypothermic circulatory arrest or low-flow cardiopulmonary bypass. Circulation. 1999 Aug 03; 100(5):526-32. View abstract
  53. Addressing sexual abuse in the primary care setting. Pediatrics. 1999 Aug; 104(2 Pt 1):270-5. View abstract
  54. Recurrent pains in childhood. Developmental-Behavioral Pediatrics. Levine MD,Crocker A,Carey W, eds. 1999. View abstract
  55. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in adolescents: Special considerations. Contemporary Pediatrics. 1999. View abstract
  56. Recurrent pains in children. Ambulatory Pediatrics. M Green, R Haggerty and M Weitzman. 1999. View abstract
  57. Cellular distribution of Ca2+ pumps and Ca2+ release channels in rat cardiac hypertrophy induced by aortic stenosis. Circulation. 1998 Dec 01; 98(22):2477-86. View abstract
  58. Can cellular transplantation improve function in doxorubicin-induced heart failure? Circulation. 1998 Nov 10; 98(19 Suppl):II151-5; discussion II155-6. View abstract
  59. Relation of seizures after cardiac surgery in early infancy to neurodevelopmental outcome. Boston Circulatory Arrest Study Group. Circulation. 1998 Mar 03; 97(8):773-9. View abstract
  60. Encopresis. Ambulatory Pediatric Care. R Derchewitz, Ed. 1998. View abstract
  61. Does transplantation of cardiomyocytes improve function of infarcted myocardium? Circulation. 1997 Nov 04; 96(9 Suppl):II-188-93. View abstract
  62. Patterns of developmental dysfunction after surgery during infancy to correct transposition of the great arteries. J Dev Behav Pediatr. 1997 Apr; 18(2):75-83. View abstract
  63. Prognostic factors for alarm treatment. Scand J Urol Nephrol Suppl. 1997; 183:55-7; discussion 57-8. View abstract
  64. Encopresis in adolescents. Adolescent Medicine. Friedman S, Fisher M, Schonberg SK, eds. 1997. View abstract
  65. Can grafted cardiomyocytes colonize peri-infarct myocardial areas? Circulation. 1996 Nov 01; 94(9 Suppl):II337-40. View abstract
  66. Recurrent abdominal pain; Keeping it simple. Amb Child Health. 1996; 1:370-378. View abstract
  67. Pediatric compliance and the roles of distinct treatment characteristics, treatment attitudes, and family stress: a preliminary report. J Dev Behav Pediatr. 1995 Oct; 16(5):350-8. View abstract
  68. Accumulation of fetal fibronectin mRNAs after balloon denudation of rabbit arteries. Circulation. 1995 Aug 15; 92(4):904-11. View abstract
  69. Developmental and neurologic status of children after heart surgery with hypothermic circulatory arrest or low-flow cardiopulmonary bypass. N Engl J Med. 1995 Mar 02; 332(9):549-55. View abstract
  70. Infants tolerate spinal anesthesia with minimal overall autonomic changes: analysis of heart rate variability in former premature infants undergoing hernia repair. Anesth Analg. 1995 Jan; 80(1):20-7. View abstract
  71. Bowel and bladder control. Behavioral and Developmental Pediatrics Chapter, Boyce T, Shonkoff J, eds. Rudolph's Textrbook of Pediatrics. 1995. View abstract
  72. Enuresis. Behavioral and Developmental Pediatrics: A Handbook for Primary Care. Zuckerman B and Parker S, eds. 1995. View abstract
  73. A comparison of the developmental and neurologic status at one year of children who underwent heart surgery using hypothermic ciculatory arrest or low-flow cardiopulmonary bypass: The Boston Ciculatory Arrest Study. Brain Injury and Infant Cardiac Surgery. Jonas R, Newburger J, Volpe J, Eds. 1995. View abstract
  74. Developmental testing in outcome studies. Brain Injury and Infant Cardiac Surgery. Jonas R, Newburger J, Volpe J Eds. 1995. View abstract
  75. Recurrent abdominal pain. Behavioral and Developmental Pediatrics: A Handbook for Primary Care. Zuckerman B and Parker S, Eds. 1995. View abstract
  76. Challenging Case: Recurrent Abdominal Pain. J Dev Beh Peds. 1995; 16:277-281. View abstract
  77. Recurrent abdominal pain: evaluation and management. Inter Sem Paediatr Gastro Nutr. 1994; 3(2):2-9. View abstract
  78. The treatment of nocturnal enuresis--where are we now? Pediatrics. 1993 Sep; 92(3):465-6. View abstract
  79. Recurrent abdominal pain during childhood. Pediatr Rev. 1993 Aug; 14(8):313-9. View abstract
  80. Relation of pH strategy and developmental outcome after hypothermic circulatory arrest. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1993 Aug; 106(2):362-8. View abstract
  81. Behavioral Pediatrics. Manual of Pediatric Therapeutics. Graef, ed. 1993. View abstract
  82. Enuresis - Where are we now? What to do?. Pediatr. 1993; (92):465-466. View abstract
  83. Behavioral consequences of illness: childhood asthma as a model. Pediatrics. 1992 Nov; 90(5 Pt 2):808-15. View abstract
  84. Correlates of medical compliance among hemophilic boys. J Clin Psychol. 1992 Sep; 48(5):672-80. View abstract
  85. Enuresis in adolescents. Adolescent Medicine, Friedman S,Fisher M, Schonberg SK,Eds. 1992. View abstract
  86. Enuresis. Developmenal-Behavioral Pediatrics, Levine MD, Crocker A., Carey W.eds. 1992. View abstract
  87. Recurrent abdominal pain. Pain Management in Children and Adolescents. Schecter N,Berde C,Yaster M eds. 1992. View abstract
  88. Recurrent abdominal pain in childhood. Pediatr in Review. 1992; 14(8):313-319. View abstract
  89. Cognitive development of children following early repair of transposition of the great arteries using deep hypothermic circulatory arrest. Pediatrics. 1991 May; 87(5):701-7. View abstract
  90. Stimulant medication and attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder. The child's perspective. Am J Dis Child. 1991 Mar; 145(3):291-5. View abstract
  91. Asthma self-management programs: A guide to proper selection. J All Imm. 1990; 4:8-13. View abstract
  92. The school-age child: putting it all together. Curr Probl Pediatr. 1989 Jun; 19(6):285-323. View abstract
  93. School functioning and disease severity in boys with hemophilia. J Dev Behav Pediatr. 1989 Apr; 10(2):81-5. View abstract
  94. Effects of theophylline on behavior and learning in children with asthma. Am J Dis Child. 1989 Mar; 143(3):368-72. View abstract
  95. Recurrent abdominal pain: theories and pragmatics. Pediatrician. 1989; 16(1-2):78-84. View abstract
  96. Neurodevelopmental readiness for adolescence: studies of an assessment instrument for 9- to 14-year-old children. J Dev Behav Pediatr. 1988 Aug; 9(4):181-8. View abstract
  97. Behavioral Pediatrics In: Graef J ed. Manual of Pediatric Therapeutics. 1988. View abstract
  98. School placement. Pediatr Rev. 1987 Mar; 8(9):261-71. View abstract
  99. Concurrence of congenital ocular motor apraxia and other motor problems: an expanded syndrome. Dev Med Child Neurol. 1987 Feb; 29(1):85-90. View abstract
  100. Locus of control as predictor of compliance and outcome in treatment of encopresis. J Pediatr. 1986 Dec; 109(6):1061-4. View abstract
  101. The prevention of constipation and encopresis: a developmental model and approach. Pediatr Clin North Am. 1986 Aug; 33(4):859-69. View abstract
  102. Locus of control and self-esteem in children with encopresis. J Dev Behav Pediatr. 1986 Apr; 7(2):111-3. View abstract
  103. Recurrent abdominal pain in school children: The loneliness of the long-distance pediatrician. Pediatr Clin N Amer. 1986; 33:969-991. View abstract
  104. Pediatric management of severe treatment-resistant encopresis. J Dev Behav Pediatr. 1985 Dec; 6(6):349-51. View abstract
  105. Recurrent abdominal pain in school children: the loneliness of the long-distance physician. Pediatr Clin North Am. 1984 Oct; 31(5):969-91. View abstract
  106. A study of treatment resistance among children referred for encopresis. Clin Pediatr (Phila). 1984 Aug; 23(8):449-52. View abstract
  107. Behavioral Pediatrics, In Graef,J . and ConeT(eds). Manual of Pediatric Therapeutics. 1984. View abstract
  108. Children's descriptions of their developmental dysfunctions. Field testing of a self-administered student profile. Am J Dis Child. 1983 Apr; 137(4):369-74. View abstract