ABOUT THE RESEARCHER

OVERVIEW

Lois Smith MD, PhD, has been Professor of Ophthalmology since 2007. Dr. Smith’s research accomplishments include the development and standardization of the mouse model of oxygen-induced retinopathy; basic mechanisms of vascular growth and translation to the clinic via VEGF; growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor in retinopathy; the role of omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids and other lipids in photoreceptor metabolism driving angiogenesis; and photoreceptor energy deficiency as cause of neovascular AMD. Dr. Smith’s notable recent accomplishments include development of mitochondrial functional mapping of the retina and optic nerve, development of FGF21 as a treatment for diseases with depressed mitochondrial function including retinal degenerations (retinitis pigmentosa), AMD, diabetic retinopathy and ROP, the development of GPR40 and GPR120 as targets for improving mitochondrial function in disease, and SOCS3 as a modulator of inflammation in photoreceptor signaling.

BACKGROUND

Lois Smith received her MD from Boston University School of Medicine. She completed an internship at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, a residency at Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, and a fellowship at Children's Hospital Boston.

PUBLICATIONS

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  1. Müller glial responses compensate for degenerating photoreceptors in retinitis pigmentosa. Exp Mol Med. 2021 11; 53(11):1748-1758. View abstract
  2. Association of Docosahexaenoic Acid and Arachidonic Acid Serum Levels With Retinopathy of Prematurity in Preterm Infants. JAMA Netw Open. 2021 10 01; 4(10):e2128771. View abstract
  3. Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 in the Preterm Rabbit Pup: Characterization of Cerebrovascular Maturation following Administration of Recombinant Human Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1/Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1-Binding Protein 3. Dev Neurosci. 2021; 43(5):281-295. View abstract
  4. Development and validation of a new clinical decision support tool to optimize screening for retinopathy of prematurity. Br J Ophthalmol. 2021 May 12. View abstract
  5. Sphingolipidomics of serum in extremely preterm infants: Association between low sphingosine-1-phosphate levels and severe retinopathy of prematurity. Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Biol Lipids. 2021 07; 1866(7):158939. View abstract
  6. Cellular senescence in pathologic retinal angiogenesis. Trends Endocrinol Metab. 2021 07; 32(7):415-416. View abstract
  7. Effect of Enteral Lipid Supplement on Severe Retinopathy of Prematurity: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA Pediatr. 2021 04 01; 175(4):359-367. View abstract
  8. Retinal glial remodeling by FGF21 preserves retinal function during photoreceptor degeneration. iScience. 2021 Apr 23; 24(4):102376. View abstract
  9. Decreased Platelet Counts and Serum Levels of VEGF-A, PDGF-BB, and BDNF in Extremely Preterm Infants Developing Severe ROP. Neonatology. 2021; 118(1):18-27. View abstract
  10. Fatty acid oxidation and photoreceptor metabolic needs. J Lipid Res. 2021; 62:100035. View abstract
  11. Vitreous metabolomics profiling of proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Diabetologia. 2021 01; 64(1):70-82. View abstract
  12. Notice of Withdrawal: Retinal Vasculature in Development and Diseases. Annu Rev Vis Sci. 2020 10 15; 0. View abstract
  13. Randomized Control Trial of Postnatal rhIGF-1/rhIGFBP-3 Replacement in Preterm Infants: Post-hoc Analysis of Its Effect on Brain Injury. Front Pediatr. 2020; 8:517207. View abstract
  14. An Ex Vivo Choroid Sprouting Assay of Ocular Microvascular Angiogenesis. J Vis Exp. 2020 08 06; (162). View abstract
  15. Association between low fatty acid levels and platelet count in infants with Retinopathy of Prematurity. Acta Paediatr. 2020 12; 109(12):2547-2548. View abstract
  16. Validation of the Retinopathy of Prematurity Activity Scale (ROP-ActS) using retrospective clinical data. Acta Ophthalmol. 2021 Mar; 99(2):201-206. View abstract
  17. Free fatty acid receptor 4 activation protects against choroidal neovascularization in mice. Angiogenesis. 2020 08; 23(3):385-394. View abstract
  18. Sphingosine 1-Phosphate Receptor Signaling Establishes AP-1 Gradients to Allow for Retinal Endothelial Cell Specialization. Dev Cell. 2020 03 23; 52(6):779-793.e7. View abstract
  19. Long-Acting FGF21 Inhibits Retinal Vascular Leakage in In Vivo and In Vitro Models. Int J Mol Sci. 2020 Feb 11; 21(4). View abstract
  20. Individual Risk Prediction for Sight-Threatening Retinopathy of Prematurity Using Birth Characteristics. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2020 01 01; 138(1):21-29. View abstract
  21. Pathophysiology of Diabetic Retinopathy: Contribution and Limitations of Laboratory Research. Ophthalmic Res. 2019; 62(4):196-202. View abstract
  22. Leucocytosis is associated with retinopathy of prematurity in extremely preterm infants. Acta Paediatr. 2019 07; 108(7):1357-1358. View abstract
  23. Tailored vs Static Oxygen Saturation Targets to Prevent Retinopathy of Prematurity. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2019 04 01; 137(4):423-424. View abstract
  24. Development of a Retinopathy of Prematurity Activity Scale and Clinical Outcome Measures for Use in Clinical Trials. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2019 03 01; 137(3):305-311. View abstract
  25. Review shows that donor milk does not promote the growth and development of preterm infants as well as maternal milk. Acta Paediatr. 2019 06; 108(6):998-1007. View abstract
  26. Association of Somatic GNAQ Mutation With Capillary Malformations in a Case of Choroidal Hemangioma. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2019 01 01; 137(1):91-95. View abstract
  27. rhIGF-1/rhIGFBP-3 in Preterm Infants: A Phase 2 Randomized Controlled Trial. J Pediatr. 2019 03; 206:56-65.e8. View abstract
  28. Erythropoietin serum levels, versus anaemia as risk factors for severe retinopathy of prematurity. Pediatr Res. 2019 08; 86(2):276-282. View abstract
  29. Retinal Vasculature in Development and Diseases. Annu Rev Vis Sci. 2018 09 15; 4:101-122. View abstract
  30. A Dosing Study of Bevacizumab for Retinopathy of Prematurity: Late Recurrences and Additional Treatments. Ophthalmology. 2018 12; 125(12):1961-1966. View abstract
  31. Influence of Human Milk and Parenteral Lipid Emulsions on Serum Fatty Acid Profiles in Extremely Preterm Infants. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 2019 01; 43(1):152-161. View abstract
  32. Relation of Retinopathy of Prematurity to Brain Volumes at Term Equivalent Age and Developmental Outcome at 2 Years of Corrected Age in Very Preterm Infants. Neonatology. 2018; 114(1):46-52. View abstract
  33. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids decline rapidly in milk from mothers delivering extremely preterm indicating the need for supplementation. Acta Paediatr. 2018 06; 107(6):1020-1027. View abstract
  34. Association of Retinopathy of Prematurity With Low Levels of Arachidonic Acid: A Secondary Analysis of a Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2018 03 01; 136(3):271-277. View abstract
  35. Comparing Alternative Ranibizumab Dosages for Safety and Efficacy in Retinopathy of Prematurity: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA Pediatr. 2018 03 01; 172(3):278-286. View abstract
  36. Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 Protects Photoreceptor Function in Type 1 Diabetic Mice. Diabetes. 2018 05; 67(5):974-985. View abstract
  37. PPARa is essential for retinal lipid metabolism and neuronal survival. BMC Biol. 2017 Nov 28; 15(1):113. View abstract
  38. Increased postnatal concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines are associated with reduced IGF-I levels and retinopathy of prematurity. Growth Horm IGF Res. 2018 04; 39:19-24. View abstract
  39. Implementing higher oxygen saturation targets reduced the impact of poor weight gain as a predictor for retinopathy of prematurity. Acta Paediatr. 2018 05; 107(5):767-773. View abstract
  40. VEGF amplifies transcription through ETS1 acetylation to enable angiogenesis. Nat Commun. 2017 08 29; 8(1):383. View abstract
  41. Adiponectin Mediates Dietary Omega-3 Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Protection Against Choroidal Neovascularization in Mice. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2017 08 01; 58(10):3862-3870. View abstract
  42. Cerebellar Exposure to Cell-Free Hemoglobin Following Preterm Intraventricular Hemorrhage: Causal in Cerebellar Damage? Transl Stroke Res. 2017 Jun 10. View abstract
  43. Assessment of Lower Doses of Intravitreous Bevacizumab for Retinopathy of Prematurity: A Phase 1 Dosing Study. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2017 06 01; 135(6):654-656. View abstract
  44. Effects of a lipid emulsion containing fish oil on polyunsaturated fatty acid profiles, growth and morbidities in extremely premature infants: A randomized controlled trial. Clin Nutr ESPEN. 2017 Aug; 20:17-23. View abstract
  45. Inflammatory signals from photoreceptor modulate pathological retinal angiogenesis via c-Fos. J Exp Med. 2017 06 05; 214(6):1753-1767. View abstract
  46. Special Commentary: Early Clinical Development of Cell Replacement Therapy: Considerations for the National Eye Institute Audacious Goals Initiative. Ophthalmology. 2017 07; 124(7):926-934. View abstract
  47. Sema3f Protects Against Subretinal Neovascularization In Vivo. EBioMedicine. 2017 Apr; 18:281-287. View abstract
  48. FGF21 Administration Suppresses Retinal and Choroidal Neovascularization in Mice. Cell Rep. 2017 02 14; 18(7):1606-1613. View abstract
  49. IGF-1 as a Drug for Preterm Infants: A Step-Wise Clinical Development. Curr Pharm Des. 2017; 23(38):5964-5970. View abstract
  50. Fenofibrate Inhibits Cytochrome P450 Epoxygenase 2C Activity to Suppress Pathological Ocular Angiogenesis. EBioMedicine. 2016 Nov; 13:201-211. View abstract
  51. IGF-I in the clinics: Use in retinopathy of prematurity. Growth Horm IGF Res. 2016 Oct - Dec; 30-31:75-80. View abstract
  52. IGF-1 in retinopathy of prematurity, a CNS neurovascular disease. Early Hum Dev. 2016 11; 102:13-19. View abstract
  53. Aggressive Posterior Retinopathy of Prematurity Is Associated with Multiple Infectious Episodes and Thrombocytopenia. Neonatology. 2017; 111(1):79-85. View abstract
  54. Role of Insulinlike Growth Factor 1 in Fetal Development and in the Early Postnatal Life of Premature Infants. Am J Perinatol. 2016 09; 33(11):1067-71. View abstract
  55. Neurovascular cross talk in diabetic retinopathy: Pathophysiological roles and therapeutic implications. . 2016 09 01; 311(3):H738-49. View abstract
  56. Cytochrome P450 Oxidase 2C Inhibition Adds to ?-3 Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Protection Against Retinal and Choroidal Neovascularization. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2016 09; 36(9):1919-27. View abstract
  57. Corrigendum: Retinal lipid and glucose metabolism dictates angiogenesis through the lipid sensor Ffar1. Nat Med. 2016 06 07; 22(6):692. View abstract
  58. Review: adiponectin in retinopathy. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2016 08; 1862(8):1392-400. View abstract
  59. Retinal lipid and glucose metabolism dictates angiogenesis through the lipid sensor Ffar1. Nat Med. 2016 Apr; 22(4):439-45. View abstract
  60. Insulin-like growth factor 1 has multisystem effects on foetal and preterm infant development. Acta Paediatr. 2016 Jun; 105(6):576-86. View abstract
  61. The Eyes Absent Proteins in Developmental and Pathological Angiogenesis. Am J Pathol. 2016 Mar; 186(3):568-78. View abstract
  62. SOCS3 in retinal neurons and glial cells suppresses VEGF signaling to prevent pathological neovascular growth. Sci Signal. 2015 Sep 22; 8(395):ra94. View abstract
  63. Serum concentrations of vascular endothelial growth factor in relation to retinopathy of prematurity. Pediatr Res. 2016 Jan; 79(1-1):70-5. View abstract
  64. Optimization of an Image-Guided Laser-Induced Choroidal Neovascularization Model in Mice. PLoS One. 2015; 10(7):e0132643. View abstract
  65. Hypoxia-induced expression of phosducin-like 3 regulates expression of VEGFR-2 and promotes angiogenesis. Angiogenesis. 2015 Oct; 18(4):449-62. View abstract
  66. Netrin-1 - DCC Signaling Systems and Age-Related Macular Degeneration. PLoS One. 2015; 10(5):e0125548. View abstract
  67. Effect of Preterm Birth on Postnatal Apolipoprotein and Adipocytokine Profiles. Neonatology. 2015; 108(1):16-22. View abstract
  68. Dietary ?-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids decrease retinal neovascularization by adipose-endoplasmic reticulum stress reduction to increase adiponectin. Am J Clin Nutr. 2015 Apr; 101(4):879-88. View abstract
  69. Low birth weight is a risk factor for severe retinopathy of prematurity depending on gestational age. PLoS One. 2014; 9(10):e109460. View abstract
  70. Insulin-like growth factor-1 and anti-vascular endothelial growth factor in retinopathy of prematurity: has the time come? Neonatology. 2014; 106(3):254-60. View abstract
  71. Omega-3 supplementation combined with anti-vascular endothelial growth factor lowers vitreal levels of vascular endothelial growth factor in wet age-related macular degeneration. Am J Ophthalmol. 2014 Nov; 158(5):1071-78. View abstract
  72. Weight at first detection of retinopathy of prematurity predicts disease severity. Br J Ophthalmol. 2014 Nov; 98(11):1565-9. View abstract
  73. Cytochrome P450 2C8 ?3-long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolites increase mouse retinal pathologic neovascularization--brief report. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2014 Mar; 34(3):581-6. View abstract
  74. Sirtuin1 over-expression does not impact retinal vascular and neuronal degeneration in a mouse model of oxygen-induced retinopathy. PLoS One. 2014; 9(1):e85031. View abstract
  75. WINROP identifies severe retinopathy of prematurity at an early stage in a nation-based cohort of extremely preterm infants. PLoS One. 2013; 8(9):e73256. View abstract
  76. Neuronal sirtuin1 mediates retinal vascular regeneration in oxygen-induced ischemic retinopathy. Angiogenesis. 2013 Oct; 16(4):985-92. View abstract
  77. Choroid sprouting assay: an ex vivo model of microvascular angiogenesis. PLoS One. 2013; 8(7):e69552. View abstract
  78. Retinopathy of prematurity. Lancet. 2013 Oct 26; 382(9902):1445-57. View abstract
  79. The biology of retinopathy of prematurity: how knowledge of pathogenesis guides treatment. Clin Perinatol. 2013 Jun; 40(2):201-14. View abstract
  80. Semaphorin 3F forms an anti-angiogenic barrier in outer retina. FEBS Lett. 2013 Jun 05; 587(11):1650-5. View abstract
  81. Altered cholesterol homeostasis in aged macrophages linked to neovascular macular degeneration. Cell Metab. 2013 Apr 02; 17(4):471-2. View abstract
  82. Nutrition, insulin-like growth factor-1 and retinopathy of prematurity. Semin Fetal Neonatal Med. 2013 Jun; 18(3):136-142. View abstract
  83. DNA sequence variants in PPARGC1A, a gene encoding a coactivator of the ?-3 LCPUFA sensing PPAR-RXR transcription complex, are associated with NV AMD and AMD-associated loci in genes of complement and VEGF signaling pathways. PLoS One. 2013; 8(1):e53155. View abstract
  84. Author response: Different efficacy of propranolol in mice with oxygen-induced retinopathy: could differential effects of propranolol be related to differences in mouse strains? Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2012 Nov 19; 53(12):7728-9. View abstract
  85. Longitudinal infusion of a complex of insulin-like growth factor-I and IGF-binding protein-3 in five preterm infants: pharmacokinetics and short-term safety. Pediatr Res. 2013 Jan; 73(1):68-74. View abstract
  86. Importance of early postnatal weight gain for normal retinal angiogenesis in very preterm infants: a multicenter study analyzing weight velocity deviations for the prediction of retinopathy of prematurity. Arch Ophthalmol. 2012 Aug; 130(8):992-9. View abstract
  87. LRP5 regulates development of lung microvessels and alveoli through the angiopoietin-Tie2 pathway. PLoS One. 2012; 7(7):e41596. View abstract
  88. SOCS3 is an endogenous inhibitor of pathologic angiogenesis. Blood. 2012 Oct 04; 120(14):2925-9. View abstract
  89. Propranolol inhibition of ß-adrenergic receptor does not suppress pathologic neovascularization in oxygen-induced retinopathy. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2012 May 17; 53(6):2968-77. View abstract
  90. Protective inflammasome activation in AMD. Nat Med. 2012 May 04; 18(5):658-60. View abstract
  91. Retinal expression of Wnt-pathway mediated genes in low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 (Lrp5) knockout mice. PLoS One. 2012; 7(1):e30203. View abstract
  92. Wnt signaling mediates pathological vascular growth in proliferative retinopathy. Circulation. 2011 Oct 25; 124(17):1871-81. View abstract
  93. Restraint of angiogenesis by zinc finger transcription factor CTCF-dependent chromatin insulation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011 Sep 13; 108(37):15231-6. View abstract
  94. Ghrelin modulates physiologic and pathologic retinal angiogenesis through GHSR-1a. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011 Jul 23; 52(8):5376-86. View abstract
  95. Maternal and neonatal factors associated with poor early weight gain and later retinopathy of prematurity. Acta Paediatr. 2011 Dec; 100(12):1528-33. View abstract
  96. Resveratrol inhibits pathologic retinal neovascularization in Vldlr(-/-) mice. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011 Apr; 52(5):2809-16. View abstract
  97. Current update on retinopathy of prematurity: screening and treatment. Curr Opin Pediatr. 2011 Apr; 23(2):173-8. View abstract
  98. Lipid metabolites in the pathogenesis and treatment of neovascular eye disease. Br J Ophthalmol. 2011 Nov; 95(11):1496-501. View abstract
  99. Ischemic neurons prevent vascular regeneration of neural tissue by secreting semaphorin 3A. Blood. 2011 Jun 02; 117(22):6024-35. View abstract
  100. 5-Lipoxygenase metabolite 4-HDHA is a mediator of the antiangiogenic effect of ?-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Sci Transl Med. 2011 Feb 09; 3(69):69ra12. View abstract
  101. Analysis of candidate genes for macular telangiectasia type 2. Mol Vis. 2010 Dec 14; 16:2718-26. View abstract
  102. Postnatal weight gain modifies severity and functional outcome of oxygen-induced proliferative retinopathy. Am J Pathol. 2010 Dec; 177(6):2715-23. View abstract
  103. Predicting proliferative retinopathy in a Brazilian population of preterm infants with the screening algorithm WINROP. Arch Ophthalmol. 2010 Nov; 128(11):1432-6. View abstract
  104. Vitreal levels of erythropoietin are increased in patients with retinal vein occlusion and correlate with vitreal VEGF and the extent of macular edema. Retina. 2010 Oct; 30(9):1524-9. View abstract
  105. Calpain inhibitors reduce retinal hypoxia in ischemic retinopathy by improving neovascular architecture and functional perfusion. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2011 Apr; 1812(4):549-57. View abstract
  106. Moderate GSK-3ß inhibition improves neovascular architecture, reduces vascular leakage, and reduces retinal hypoxia in a model of ischemic retinopathy. Angiogenesis. 2010 Sep; 13(3):269-77. View abstract
  107. An eye for discovery. J Clin Invest. 2010 Sep; 120(9):3008-11. View abstract
  108. SIRT1 is essential for normal cognitive function and synaptic plasticity. J Neurosci. 2010 Jul 21; 30(29):9695-707. View abstract
  109. Short communication: PPAR gamma mediates a direct antiangiogenic effect of omega 3-PUFAs in proliferative retinopathy. Circ Res. 2010 Aug 20; 107(4):495-500. View abstract
  110. The mouse retina as an angiogenesis model. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2010 Jun; 51(6):2813-26. View abstract
  111. High or low oxygen saturation and severe retinopathy of prematurity: a meta-analysis. Pediatrics. 2010 Jun; 125(6):e1483-92. View abstract
  112. Longitudinal postnatal weight measurements for the prediction of retinopathy of prematurity. Arch Ophthalmol. 2010 Apr; 128(4):443-7. View abstract
  113. Quantification of oxygen-induced retinopathy in the mouse: a model of vessel loss, vessel regrowth and pathological angiogenesis. Nat Protoc. 2009; 4(11):1565-73. View abstract
  114. A pharmacokinetic and dosing study of intravenous insulin-like growth factor-I and IGF-binding protein-3 complex to preterm infants. Pediatr Res. 2009 May; 65(5):574-9. View abstract
  115. Validation of a new retinopathy of prematurity screening method monitoring longitudinal postnatal weight and insulinlike growth factor I. Arch Ophthalmol. 2009 May; 127(5):622-7. View abstract
  116. Early weight gain predicts retinopathy in preterm infants: new, simple, efficient approach to screening. Pediatrics. 2009 Apr; 123(4):e638-45. View abstract
  117. Retinopathy of prematurity: current concepts in molecular pathogenesis. Semin Ophthalmol. 2009 Mar-Apr; 24(2):77-81. View abstract
  118. Emerging treatments for retinopathy of prematurity. Semin Ophthalmol. 2009 Mar-Apr; 24(2):82-6. View abstract
  119. A mechanosensitive transcriptional mechanism that controls angiogenesis. Nature. 2009 Feb 26; 457(7233):1103-8. View abstract
  120. Quantification and localization of the IGF/insulin system expression in retinal blood vessels and neurons during oxygen-induced retinopathy in mice. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2009 Apr; 50(4):1831-7. View abstract
  121. Suppression of retinal neovascularization by erythropoietin siRNA in a mouse model of proliferative retinopathy. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2009 Mar; 50(3):1329-35. View abstract
  122. Use of Bayesian networks to probabilistically model and improve the likelihood of validation of microarray findings by RT-PCR. J Biomed Inform. 2009 Apr; 42(2):287-95. View abstract
  123. Through the eyes of a child: understanding retinopathy through ROP the Friedenwald lecture. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2008 Dec; 49(12):5177-82. View abstract
  124. A double-edged sword: erythropoietin eyed in retinopathy of prematurity. J AAPOS. 2008 Jun; 12(3):221-2. View abstract
  125. Erythropoietin deficiency decreases vascular stability in mice. J Clin Invest. 2008 Feb; 118(2):526-33. View abstract
  126. Overstaying their welcome: defective CX3CR1 microglia eyed in macular degeneration. J Clin Invest. 2007 Oct; 117(10):2758-62. View abstract
  127. Increased dietary intake of omega-3-polyunsaturated fatty acids reduces pathological retinal angiogenesis. Nat Med. 2007 Jul; 13(7):868-873. View abstract
  128. IGFBP3 suppresses retinopathy through suppression of oxygen-induced vessel loss and promotion of vascular regrowth. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 Jun 19; 104(25):10589-94. View abstract
  129. Retinopathy of prematurity. Angiogenesis. 2007; 10(2):133-40. View abstract
  130. Longitudinal postnatal weight and insulin-like growth factor I measurements in the prediction of retinopathy of prematurity. Arch Ophthalmol. 2006 Dec; 124(12):1711-8. View abstract
  131. Postnatal head growth deficit among premature infants parallels retinopathy of prematurity and insulin-like growth factor-1 deficit. Pediatrics. 2006 Jun; 117(6):1930-8. View abstract
  132. Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Retinopathy of Prematurity: an update on ROP from the lab to the nursery (November 2003, Anaheim, California). Mol Vis. 2006 May 23; 12:532-80. View abstract
  133. A radically twisted lipid regulates vascular death. Nat Med. 2005 Dec; 11(12):1275-6. View abstract
  134. Quantitative multi-gene transcriptional profiling using real-time PCR with a master template. Exp Mol Pathol. 2005 Aug; 79(1):14-22. View abstract
  135. Pigment epithelium-derived factor is a substrate for matrix metalloproteinase type 2 and type 9: implications for downregulation in hypoxia. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2005 Aug; 46(8):2736-47. View abstract
  136. IGF-1 and retinopathy of prematurity in the preterm infant. Biol Neonate. 2005; 88(3):237-44. View abstract
  137. Periorbital lymphatic malformation: clinical course and management in 42 patients. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2005 Jan; 115(1):22-30. View abstract
  138. Mechanical stretch is a highly selective regulator of gene expression in human bladder smooth muscle cells. Physiol Genomics. 2004 Dec 15; 20(1):36-44. View abstract
  139. Bone marrow-derived stem cells preserve cone vision in retinitis pigmentosa. J Clin Invest. 2004 Sep; 114(6):755-7. View abstract
  140. Can we restore aspects of the in utero environment in premature infants to prevent disease? Pediatrics. 2004 Aug; 114(2):491. View abstract
  141. Pathogenesis of retinopathy of prematurity. Growth Horm IGF Res. 2004 Jun; 14 Suppl A:S140-4. View abstract
  142. Transforming growth factor beta1 induction of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1: mechanism of pericyte-induced vascular survival in vivo. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003 Dec 23; 100(26):15859-64. View abstract
  143. Pathogenesis of retinopathy of prematurity. Semin Neonatol. 2003 Dec; 8(6):469-73. View abstract
  144. Adipose tissue growth and regression are regulated by angiopoietin-1. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2003 Nov 21; 311(3):563-71. View abstract
  145. Postnatal serum insulin-like growth factor I deficiency is associated with retinopathy of prematurity and other complications of premature birth. Pediatrics. 2003 Nov; 112(5):1016-20. View abstract
  146. Selective stimulation of VEGFR-1 prevents oxygen-induced retinal vascular degeneration in retinopathy of prematurity. J Clin Invest. 2003 Jul; 112(1):50-7. View abstract
  147. Inhibition of the mammary carcinoma angiogenic switch in C3(1)/SV40 transgenic mice by a mutated form of human endostatin. Int J Cancer. 2002 Sep 20; 101(3):224-34. View abstract
  148. Stem cells go for the eyes. Nat Med. 2002 Sep; 8(9):932-4. View abstract
  149. IGF-I is critical for normal vascularization of the human retina. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002 Jul; 87(7):3413-6. View abstract
  150. Molecular profiling of angiogenesis markers. Am J Pathol. 2002 Jul; 161(1):35-41. View abstract
  151. RP-forme fruste. J Perinatol. 2002 Apr-May; 22(3):257; author reply 257-8. View abstract
  152. Pathogenesis of retinopathy of prematurity. Acta Paediatr Suppl. 2002; 91(437):26-8. View abstract
  153. Heat shock protein 90 in retinal ganglion cells: association with axonally transported proteins. Vis Neurosci. 2001 May-Jun; 18(3):429-36. View abstract
  154. Nonvascular role for VEGF: VEGFR-1, 2 activity is critical for neural retinal development. FASEB J. 2001 May; 15(7):1215-7. View abstract
  155. Low IGF-I suppresses VEGF-survival signaling in retinal endothelial cells: direct correlation with clinical retinopathy of prematurity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001 May 08; 98(10):5804-8. View abstract
  156. Angiogenesis as a potential biomarker in prostate cancer chemoprevention trials. Urology. 2001 Apr; 57(4 Suppl 1):143-7. View abstract
  157. Oligonucleotide-based inhibition of embryonic gene expression. Nat Biotechnol. 1999 Dec; 17(12):1184-7. View abstract
  158. Regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor-dependent retinal neovascularization by insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor. Nat Med. 1999 Dec; 5(12):1390-5. View abstract
  159. Progressive juvenile onset punctate cataracts caused by mutation of the gamma D crystalline gene. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1999; 96(3):1008-1012. View abstract
  160. Vascular endothelial growth factor-induced retinal permeability is mediated by protein kinase C in vivo and suppressed by an orally effective beta-isoform-selective inhibitor. Diabetes. 1997 Sep; 46(9):1473-80. View abstract
  161. Essential role of growth hormone in ischemia-induced retinal neovascularization. Science. 1997 Jun 13; 276(5319):1706-9. View abstract
  162. Histopathology and vascular endothelial growth factor in untreated and diode laser-treated retinopathy of prematurity. J AAPOS. 1997 Jun; 1(2):105-10. View abstract
  163. Regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor by oxygen in a model of retinopathy of prematurity. Arch Ophthalmol. 1996 Oct; 114(10):1219-28. View abstract
  164. Oligodeoxynucleotides inhibit retinal neovascularization in a murine model of proliferative retinopathy. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996 May 14; 93(10):4851-6. View abstract
  165. Suppression of retinal neovascularization in vivo by inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) using soluble VEGF-receptor chimeric proteins. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995 Nov 07; 92(23):10457-61. View abstract
  166. Enamel hypoplasia, bilateral cataracts, and aqueductal stenosis: a new syndrome? Am J Med Genet. 1995 Sep 25; 58(4):371-3. View abstract
  167. Conjunctival biopsy in patients with Kawasaki disease. Pediatr Pathol Lab Med. 1995 Jul-Aug; 15(4):547-53. View abstract
  168. Vascular endothelial growth factor/vascular permeability factor expression in a mouse model of retinal neovascularization. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995 Jan 31; 92(3):905-9. View abstract
  169. Effect of light on oxygen-induced retinopathy in the mouse. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1994 Jan; 35(1):112-9. View abstract
  170. Oxygen-induced retinopathy in the mouse. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1994 Jan; 35(1):101-11. View abstract
  171. Microscopic visualization of the retina by angiography with high-molecular-weight fluorescein-labeled dextrans in the mouse. Microvasc Res. 1993 Sep; 46(2):135-42. View abstract
  172. Alterations in endothelial superoxide dismutase levels as a function of growth state in vitro. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1992 Jan; 33(1):36-41. View abstract
  173. Kawasaki Syndrome in the Eye. Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal. 1989; 8:116-118. View abstract
  174. Characterization of vascular development in the mouse retina. Microvasc Res. 1988 Nov; 36(3):275-90. View abstract
  175. Ophthalmic evaluation of survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Ophthalmology. 1988 Feb; 95(2):151-5. View abstract
  176. Neuroanatomy of the human visual system: part II- Retinal projections to the superior colliculus and pulvinar. Neuro-ophthalmology. 1986; 6(6):362-370. View abstract
  177. A retinohypothalamic pathway in man: light mediation of circadian rhythms. Brain Res. 1984 Jun 08; 302(2):371-7. View abstract
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