Dr. Pusic is a practicing Pediatric Emergency Medicine physician with an advanced interest in the science of learning as it applies to subspecialty and health professions education in general.

A predominant model for his team’s research involves the collection of clinical artefacts, such as images, programming of an educational intervention and the subsequent collection and analysis of assessment data.

His team has published methodological papers on the use of learning curves and signal detection theory in health professions education. They also use focus groups, hierarchical linear modelling and Item Response Theory, each of which were part of his training. They have also published several reports on the use of deliberate practice for the learning of image interpretation which forms the core of the research program. The key contention is that the improved understanding of cognitive models of learning (and their assessment) in the health professions can drive the improvement of learning efficacy and efficiency.

Dr. Pusic also has multi-institutional trials experience having previously been a site coordinator for national research networks in Canada and the U.S. and am presently Co-Investigator of an American Medical Association (AMA) funded 8-medical school consortium entitled “Reimagining Residency” where the project involves competency-based advancement of residents in 5 representative programs. Previously, Dr. Pusic had been a co-investigator on another AMA grant at the UMCE level where our project involved the development of a novel “Big Data” curriculum. Dr. Pusic co-chaired the Evaluation Committee and the Adaptive Learning Interest Group for that initiative. Dr. Pusic was the principal investigator for a Dept. Of Defense grant to develop an adaptive ECG tutor. The core investigations involved seven different sub trials recruiting over 700 learners in a two-year period.


Dr. Pusic obtained his medical degree from the University of British Columbia, residency training at the University of Toronto, a fellowship in pediatric emergency medicine at McGill, Master's Degree in Clinical Informatics and his PhD in Education from Teachers College of Columbia University. Dr. Pusic is Board-Certified in Pediatric Emergency Medicine by the American Board of Pediatrics and the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada.


Publications powered by Harvard Catalyst Profiles

  1. The critical role of infrastructure and organizational culture in implementing competency-based education and individualized pathways in undergraduate medical education. Med Teach. 2021 07; 43(sup2):S7-S16. View abstract
  2. A Target Population Derived Method for Developing a Competency Standard in Radiograph Interpretation. Teach Learn Med. 2021 May 17; 1-11. View abstract
  3. Physicians' Electrocardiogram Interpretations-Reply. JAMA Intern Med. 2021 May 01; 181(5):722-723. View abstract
  4. Assessments of Physicians' Electrocardiogram Interpretation Skill: A Systematic Review. Acad Med. 2021 Apr 27. View abstract
  5. Learning Curves in Health Professions Education Simulation Research: A Systematic Review. Simul Healthc. 2021 Apr 01; 16(2):128-135. View abstract
  6. Image interpretation: Learning analytics-informed education opportunities. AEM Educ Train. 2021 Apr; 5(2):e10592. View abstract
  7. Multi-level longitudinal learning curve regression models integrated with item difficulty metrics for deliberate practice of visual diagnosis: groundwork for adaptive learning. Adv Health Sci Educ Theory Pract. 2021 08; 26(3):881-912. View abstract
  8. Importance Ranking of Electrocardiogram Rhythms: A Primer for Curriculum Development. J Emerg Nurs. 2021 Mar; 47(2):313-320. View abstract
  9. Implicit bias in residency interview allocation? When surveys are silent. Med Educ. 2021 02; 55(2):142-144. View abstract
  10. Prepubescent Female Genital Examination Images: Evidence-Informed Learning Opportunities. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol. 2021 Apr; 34(2):117-123. View abstract
  11. Child Abuse Recognition Training for Prehospital Providers Using Deliberate Practice. Prehosp Emerg Care. 2020 Nov 11; 1-10. View abstract
  12. Workplace-based Assessment Data in Emergency Medicine: A Scoping Review of the Literature. AEM Educ Train. 2021 Jul; 5(3):e10544. View abstract
  13. Accuracy of Physicians' Electrocardiogram Interpretations: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. JAMA Intern Med. 2020 11 01; 180(11):1461-1471. View abstract
  14. Saving Lives and Improving the Quality of Pediatric Resuscitation Across the World: A 1-Day Research Accelerator Hosted by the International Network for Simulation-based Pediatric Innovation, Research, and Education and the International Pediatric Simulation Society. Simul Healthc. 2020 Aug; 15(4):295-297. View abstract
  15. Can Covid Catalyze an Educational Transformation? Competency-Based Advancement in a Crisis. N Engl J Med. 2020 Sep 10; 383(11):1003-1005. View abstract
  16. Next Steps in the Implementation of Learning Analytics in Medical Education: Consensus From an International Cohort of Medical Educators. J Grad Med Educ. 2020 Jun; 12(3):303-311. View abstract
  17. Click-level Learning Analytics in an Online Medical Education Learning Platform. Teach Learn Med. 2020 Aug-Sep; 32(4):410-421. View abstract
  18. A think-aloud study to inform the design of radiograph interpretation practice. Adv Health Sci Educ Theory Pract. 2020 10; 25(4):877-903. View abstract
  19. Building an adaptable resident curriculum for acute pediatric sexual abuse evaluations: A qualitative needs assessment. Child Abuse Negl. 2020 04; 102:104386. View abstract
  20. Deliberate practice as an educational method for learning to interpret the prepubescent female genital examination. Child Abuse Negl. 2020 03; 101:104379. View abstract
  21. Signatures of medical student applicants and academic success. PLoS One. 2020; 15(1):e0227108. View abstract
  22. The Responsibility of Physicians to Maintain Competency. JAMA. 2020 Jan 14; 323(2):117-118. View abstract
  23. Learning Analytics to Enhance Dermatopathology Education Among Dermatology Residents J Drugs Dermatol. 2019 Dec 01; 18(12):1231-1236. View abstract
  24. Speed and quality goals in procedural skills learning: A randomized experiment. Med Teach. 2020 02; 42(2):196-203. View abstract
  25. The Variable Journey in Learning to Interpret Pediatric Point-of-care Ultrasound Images: A Multicenter Prospective Cohort Study. AEM Educ Train. 2020 Apr; 4(2):111-122. View abstract
  26. Validity of the Health Systems Science Examination: Relationship Between Examinee Performance and Time of Training. Am J Med Qual. 2020 Jan/Feb; 35(1):63-69. View abstract
  27. Common Conditions Requiring Emergency Life Support. Pediatr Rev. 2019 Jun; 40(6):291-301. View abstract
  28. Games Squared: A Card Game to Learn About Using Games in Medical Education. J Grad Med Educ. 2019 06; 11(3):337-339. View abstract
  29. The effect of testing and feedback on the forgetting curves for radiograph interpretation skills. Med Teach. 2019 07; 41(7):756-764. View abstract
  30. Building Emergency Medicine Trainee Competency in Pediatric Musculoskeletal Radiograph Interpretation: A Multicenter Prospective Cohort Study. AEM Educ Train. 2019 Jul; 3(3):269-279. View abstract
  31. Pedagogical validity: The key to understanding different forms of 'good' teaching. Med Teach. 2019 06; 41(6):638-640. View abstract
  32. Utilising the Delphi Process to Develop a Proficiency-based Progression Train-the-trainer Course for Robotic Surgery Training. Eur Urol. 2019 05; 75(5):775-785. View abstract
  33. Natural Progression of Symptom Change and Recovery From Concussion in a Pediatric Population. JAMA Pediatr. 2019 01 01; 173(1):e183820. View abstract
  34. Data, Big and Small: Emerging Challenges to Medical Education Scholarship. Acad Med. 2019 01; 94(1):31-36. View abstract
  35. Neonatal resuscitation experience curves: simulation based mastery learning booster sessions and skill decay patterns among pediatric residents. J Perinat Med. 2018 Oct 25; 46(8):934-941. View abstract
  36. Development and Pilot Testing of a Computerized Asthma Kiosk to Initiate Chronic Asthma Care in a Pediatric Emergency Department. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2018 Oct; 34(10):e190-e195. View abstract
  37. Asthma-Related Educational Needs of Families With Children With Asthma in an Urban Pediatric Emergency Department. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2018 Sep; 34(9):636-640. View abstract
  38. How well is each learner learning? Validity investigation of a learning curve-based assessment approach for ECG interpretation. Adv Health Sci Educ Theory Pract. 2019 03; 24(1):45-63. View abstract
  39. Learning to balance efficiency and innovation for optimal adaptive expertise. Med Teach. 2018 08; 40(8):820-827. View abstract
  40. Exploring the characteristics and context that allow Master Adaptive Learners to thrive. Med Teach. 2018 08; 40(8):791-796. View abstract
  41. Role of Scientific Theory in Simulation Education Research. Simul Healthc. 2018 Jun; 13(3S Suppl 1):S7-S14. View abstract
  42. Is Speed a Desirable Difficulty for Learning Procedures? An Initial Exploration of the Effects of Chronometric Pressure. Acad Med. 2018 06; 93(6):920-928. View abstract
  43. Learning Analytics in Medical Education Assessment: The Past, the Present, and the Future. AEM Educ Train. 2018 Apr; 2(2):178-187. View abstract
  44. Point-of-care ultrasound and undergraduate medical education: the perils of learning a new way to see. Med Educ. 2018 02; 52(2):240. View abstract
  45. Script Concordance Testing to Determine Infant Lumbar Puncture Practice Variation. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2018 Feb; 34(2):84-92. View abstract
  46. Improving the Clinical Skills Performance of Graduating Medical Students Using "WISE OnCall," a Multimedia Educational Module. Simul Healthc. 2017 Dec; 12(6):385-392. View abstract
  47. "Yes, and …" Exploring the Future of Learning Analytics in Medical Education. Teach Learn Med. 2017 Oct-Dec; 29(4):368-372. View abstract
  48. A simulated "Night-onCall" to assess and address the readiness-for-internship of transitioning medical students. Adv Simul (Lond). 2017; 2:13. View abstract
  49. Determining the optimal place and time for procedural education. BMJ Qual Saf. 2017 Nov; 26(11):863-865. View abstract
  50. Conducting multicenter research in healthcare simulation: Lessons learned from the INSPIRE network. Adv Simul (Lond). 2017; 2:6. View abstract
  51. A Big Data and Learning Analytics Approach to Process-Level Feedback in Cognitive Simulations. Acad Med. 2017 02; 92(2):175-184. View abstract
  52. Fostering the Development of Master Adaptive Learners: A Conceptual Model to Guide Skill Acquisition in Medical Education. Acad Med. 2017 01; 92(1):70-75. View abstract
  53. Roadmap for creating an accelerated three-year medical education program. Med Educ Online. 2017; 22(1):1396172. View abstract
  54. A primer on the statistical modelling of learning curves in health professions education. Adv Health Sci Educ Theory Pract. 2017 Aug; 22(3):741-759. View abstract
  55. Midclerkship feedback in the surgical clerkship: the "Professionalism, Reporting, Interpreting, Managing, Educating, and Procedural Skills" application utilizing learner self-assessment. Am J Surg. 2017 Feb; 213(2):212-216. View abstract
  56. Reporting Guidelines for Health Care Simulation Research: Extensions to the CONSORT and STROBE Statements. Simul Healthc. 2016 Aug; 11(4):238-48. View abstract
  57. Reporting guidelines for health care simulation research: extensions to the CONSORT and STROBE statements. Adv Simul (Lond). 2016; 1:25. View abstract
  58. Applying the institutional review board data repository approach to manage ethical considerations in evaluating and studying medical education. Med Educ Online. 2016; 21:32021. View abstract
  59. Sequential dependencies in categorical judgments of radiographic images. Adv Health Sci Educ Theory Pract. 2017 Mar; 22(1):197-207. View abstract
  60. The Research on Medical Education Outcomes (ROMEO) Registry: Addressing Ethical and Practical Challenges of Using "Bigger," Longitudinal Educational Data. Acad Med. 2016 05; 91(5):690-5. View abstract
  61. Scalp Hematoma Characteristics Associated With Intracranial Injury in Pediatric Minor Head Injury. Acad Emerg Med. 2016 05; 23(5):576-83. View abstract
  62. The Correlation of Workplace Simulation-Based Assessments With Interns' Infant Lumbar Puncture Success: A Prospective, Multicenter, Observational Study. Simul Healthc. 2016 Apr; 11(2):126-33. View abstract
  63. Exploring Medical Student Learning Needs in the Pediatric Emergency Department: "What Do You Want to Learn Right Now?". Pediatr Emerg Care. 2016 Apr; 32(4):217-21. View abstract
  64. Interpretation difficulty of normal versus abnormal radiographs using a pediatric example. Can Med Educ J. 2016; 7(1):e68-77. View abstract
  65. A survey of mindset theories of intelligence and medical error self-reporting among pediatric housestaff and faculty. BMC Med Educ. 2016 Feb 11; 16:58. View abstract
  66. Learning curves in health professions education. Acad Med. 2015 Aug; 90(8):1034-42. View abstract
  67. Accuracy of self-monitoring during learning of radiograph interpretation. Med Educ. 2015 Aug; 49(8):838-46. View abstract
  68. Medical student lecture attendance versus iTunes U. Med Educ. 2015 May; 49(5):530-1. View abstract
  69. Impact of Just-in-Time and Just-in-Place Simulation on Intern Success With Infant Lumbar Puncture. Pediatrics. 2015 May; 135(5):e1237-46. View abstract
  70. Twelve tips for improving the effectiveness of web-based multimedia instruction for clinical learners. Med Teach. 2015 Mar; 37(3):239-44. View abstract
  71. Re: 'Better data » Bigger data'. Med Teach. 2014 Nov; 36(11):1009. View abstract
  72. Designing and conducting simulation-based research. Pediatrics. 2014 Jun; 133(6):1091-101. View abstract
  73. What's your best time? Chronometry in the learning of medical procedures. Med Educ. 2014 May; 48(5):479-88. View abstract
  74. Technology-enhanced simulation and pediatric education: a meta-analysis. Pediatrics. 2014 May; 133(5):e1313-23. View abstract
  75. Context matters: emergent variability in an effectiveness trial of online teaching modules. Med Educ. 2014 Apr; 48(4):386-96. View abstract
  76. Removing the rose-coloured glasses: it's high time we published the actual data. Med Educ. 2014 Mar; 48(3):334-5. View abstract
  77. Seven practical principles for improving patient education: Evidence-based ideas from cognition science. Paediatr Child Health. 2014 Mar; 19(3):119-22. View abstract
  78. Developing the role of big data and analytics in health professional education. Med Teach. 2014 Mar; 36(3):216-22. View abstract
  79. The cognitive impact of interactive design features for learning complex materials in medical education. Comput Educ. 2014 Feb; 71:198-205. View abstract
  80. Script concordance testing: assessing residents' clinical decision-making skills for infant lumbar punctures. Acad Med. 2014 Jan; 89(1):128-35. View abstract
  81. Development and pretesting of an electronic learning module to train health care professionals on the use of the Pediatric Respiratory Assessment Measure to assess acute asthma severity. Can Respir J. 2013 Nov-Dec; 20(6):435-41. View abstract
  82. The influence of cognitive biases on feedback seeking. Med Educ. 2013 Sep; 47(9):950. View abstract
  83. On showing all the ripples in the growth analysis pond. Med Educ. 2013 Jul; 47(7):643-5. View abstract
  84. Pediatric preparedness of Lebanese emergency departments. J Emerg Med. 2013 Jun; 44(6):1180-7. View abstract
  85. Are pediatric interns prepared to perform infant lumbar punctures? A multi-institutional descriptive study. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2013 Apr; 29(4):453-7. View abstract
  86. Interns' success with clinical procedures in infants after simulation training. Pediatrics. 2013 Mar; 131(3):e811-20. View abstract
  87. Medical students as human subjects in educational research. Med Educ Online. 2013 Feb 25; 18:1-6. View abstract
  88. Experience curves as an organizing framework for deliberate practice in emergency medicine learning. Acad Emerg Med. 2012 Dec; 19(12):1476-80. View abstract
  89. Short-term late-generation antibiotics versus longer term penicillin for acute streptococcal pharyngitis in children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012 Aug 15; (8):CD004872. View abstract
  90. Reinforcing outpatient medical student learning using brief computer tutorials: the Patient-Teacher-Tutorial sequence. BMC Med Educ. 2012 Aug 08; 12:70. View abstract
  91. Factors influencing medical student attrition and their implications in a large multi-center randomized education trial. Adv Health Sci Educ Theory Pract. 2013 Aug; 18(3):439-50. View abstract
  92. Evaluating cost awareness education in US pediatric emergency medicine fellowships. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2012 Jul; 28(7):655-75. View abstract
  93. Prevalence of abnormal cases in an image bank affects the learning of radiograph interpretation. Med Educ. 2012 Mar; 46(3):289-98. View abstract
  94. The education data warehouse: a transformative tool for health education research. J Grad Med Educ. 2012 Mar; 4(1):113-5. View abstract
  95. A randomized trial of simulation-based deliberate practice for infant lumbar puncture skills. Simul Healthc. 2011 Aug; 6(4):197-203. View abstract
  96. How much practice is enough? Using learning curves to assess the deliberate practice of radiograph interpretation. Acad Med. 2011 Jun; 86(6):731-6. View abstract
  97. A pediatrics-based instrument for assessing resident education in evidence-based practice. Acad Pediatr. 2010 Jul-Aug; 10(4):260-5. View abstract
  98. Using signal detection theory to model changes in serial learning of radiological image interpretation. Adv Health Sci Educ Theory Pract. 2010 Dec; 15(5):647-58. View abstract
  99. CATCH: a clinical decision rule for the use of computed tomography in children with minor head injury. CMAJ. 2010 Mar 09; 182(4):341-8. View abstract
  100. Teaching X-ray interpretation: selecting the radiographs by the target population. Med Educ. 2009 May; 43(5):434-41. View abstract
  101. Short versus standard duration antibiotic therapy for acute streptococcal pharyngitis in children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2009 Jan 21; (1):CD004872. View abstract
  102. Development of the capacity necessary to perform and promote knowledge translation research in emergency medicine. Acad Emerg Med. 2007 Nov; 14(11):978-83. View abstract
  103. Linear versus web-style layout of computer tutorials for medical student learning of radiograph interpretation. Acad Radiol. 2007 Jul; 14(7):877-89. View abstract
  104. Clinical management of fever in children younger than three years of age. Paediatr Child Health. 2007 Jul; 12(6):469-472. View abstract
  105. Calibrating urgency: triage decision-making in a pediatric emergency department. Adv Health Sci Educ Theory Pract. 2008 Nov; 13(4):503-20. View abstract
  106. Embedding medical student computer tutorials into a busy emergency department. Acad Emerg Med. 2007 Feb; 14(2):138-48. View abstract
  107. Hypocalcemic seizures and secondary bilateral femoral fractures in an adolescent with primary vitamin D deficiency. Pediatrics. 2006 Nov; 118(5):2226-30. View abstract
  108. Effect of a clinical pathway on the hospitalisation rates of children with asthma: a prospective study. Arch Dis Child. 2007 Jan; 92(1):60-6. View abstract
  109. Opportunistic screening for iron-deficiency in 6-36 month old children presenting to the Paediatric Emergency Department. BMC Pediatr. 2005 Nov 22; 5:42. View abstract
  110. Pediatric intravenous insertion in the emergency department: bevel up or bevel down? Pediatr Emerg Care. 2005 Nov; 21(11):707-11. View abstract
  111. Practice variation among pediatric emergency departments in the treatment of bronchiolitis. Acad Emerg Med. 2004 Apr; 11(4):353-60. View abstract
  112. Can we assess asthma severity using expiratory capnography in a pediatric emergency department? CJEM. 2003 May; 5(3):169-70. View abstract
  113. Wrist buckle fractures: a survey of current practice patterns and attitudes toward immobilization. CJEM. 2003 Mar; 5(2):95-100. View abstract
  114. E-mail amplification of a mock code teaching round. J Emerg Med. 2001 Apr; 20(3):307-14. View abstract
  115. Utilization of a pediatric emergency department education computer. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2001 Feb; 155(2):129-34. View abstract
  116. Ipratropium bromide added to asthma treatment in the pediatric emergency department. Pediatrics. 1999 Apr; 103(4 Pt 1):748-52. View abstract
  117. Pediatric residents: are they ready to use computer-aided instruction? Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 1998 May; 152(5):494-8. View abstract
  118. Mycobacterial brain abscess possibly due to bacille Calmette-Guérin in an immunocompromised child. Clin Infect Dis. 1992 Mar; 14(3):662-5. View abstract