ABOUT THE RESEARCHER

OVERVIEW

Research in our laboratory centers on innate immunity of immunocompromised patients to microbial infection. Our interest in this area traces to my doctoral training during which I isolated and studied human neutrophil-derived antimicrobial proteins and peptides including cathelicidins and the bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI) that possesses antibacterial and endotoxin-neutralizing activity against Gram-negative bacteria. Spurred by an interest in the functional immaturity of neutrophil function at birth, we have discovered that neutrophils of human newborns are deficient in BPI, that possesses cytotoxic and endotoxin-neutralizing activity towards Gram-negative bacteria. Supplementing human newborn cord blood with recombinant BPI in vitro enhances bactericidal activity against Gram-negative bacteria and markedly reduces bacteria-induced cytokine release, raising the possibility that BPI might represent a potential therapy for newborns with invasive Gram-negative bacterial infection and/or endotoxemia.

Translational work in our lab has recently demonstrated the importance of endotoxin-directed innate immunity in triggering graft-versus-host-disease in neutropenic pediatric and adult patients undergoing myeloablative chemotherapy for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (bone marrow transplantation). Together with collaborators at the Dana Farber Cancer Institute, we are currently conducting a clinical trial of recombinant BPI (rBPI21, XOMA (U.S.) LLC) as a novel endotoxin antagonist, assessing safety, pharmacokinetics, and impact on endotoxin-directed innate immunity.

Another major innate immune focus of our laboratory is the expression and function of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) system in human newborns. Greater than 2,000,000 infants under the age of 6 months die every year of infection and therefore characterizing mechanisms of susceptibility and approaches to modulating neonatal host defense to prevent and or treat infection are global health priorities. We have discovered a marked impairment in TLR-mediated production of the Th1-polarizing cytokine TNF by human newborn blood monocytes. Remarkably, newborn plasma inhibits TLR2-mediated TNF production from monocytes, reflecting the presence of adenosine, an endogenous purine metabolite. Adenosine induces the secondary messenger cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), that suppresses TLR-induced TNF production but preserves synthesis of the anti-inflammatory and Th2-polarizing cytokine IL-6. Skewed TLR-induced cytokine responses may significantly contribute to immature neonatal immunity.

In marked contrast to impaired neonatal responses to most TLR agonists, we have discovered that TLR8 agonists, including single stranded viral RNAs and synthetic nucleoside imidazoquinoline compounds, fully activate robust production of TNF and IL-12 by human neonatal antigen-presenting cells, corresponding to robust activation of NF-kB and p38 MAP kinase pathways. Preservation of responses to TLR8 agonists may present unique opportunities for augmenting immunity in the human newborn, particularly as novel vaccine adjuvants that may be active at birth- a major public health priority. We have recently expanded this work to include a tissue engineering approach for in vitro modeling of neonatal antigen-presenting cell and lymphocyte responses to novel vaccine formulations incorporating TLR agonists and nanoparticles.

The overall goal of our work is to identify innate immune pathway defects as potential targets of immunomodulatory therapies to prevent and treat infection in newborns and those exposed to chemoradio-therapy.

 

BACKGROUND

Ofer Levy received his MD and PhD degrees from New York University. He completed internship, residency, and clinical fellowship training at Children's Hospital, Boston and a research fellowship at Brigham and Women's Hospital.

CERTIFICATIONS

  • American Board of Pediatrics, General Pediatrics

PUBLICATIONS

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  1. An aluminum hydroxide:CpG adjuvant enhances protection elicited by a SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding domain vaccine in aged mice. Sci Transl Med. 2021 Nov 16; eabj5305. View abstract
  2. BCG vaccine's off-target effects on allergic, inflammatory, and autoimmune diseases: Worth another shot? J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2022 Jan; 149(1):51-54. View abstract
  3. Ontogeny of plasma cytokine and chemokine concentrations across the first week of human life. Cytokine. 2021 12; 148:155704. View abstract
  4. SARS-CoV-2 mRNA Vaccine Attitudes as Expressed in U.S. FDA Public Commentary: Need for a Public-Private Partnership in a Learning Immunization System. Front Public Health. 2021; 9:695807. View abstract
  5. Human Newborn Monocytes Demonstrate Distinct BCG-Induced Primary and Trained Innate Cytokine Production and Metabolic Activation In Vitro. Front Immunol. 2021; 12:674334. View abstract
  6. Bell's palsy and SARS-CoV-2 vaccines-an unfolding story - Authors' reply. Lancet Infect Dis. 2021 09; 21(9):1211-1212. View abstract
  7. Plasma Adenosine Deaminase (ADA)-1 and -2 Demonstrate Robust Ontogeny Across the First Four Months of Human Life. Front Immunol. 2021; 12:578700. View abstract
  8. Alum:CpG adjuvant enables SARS-CoV-2 RBD-induced protection in aged mice and synergistic activation of human elder type 1 immunity. bioRxiv. 2021 May 21. View abstract
  9. Human Blood Plasma Shapes Distinct Neonatal TLR-Mediated Dendritic Cell Activation via Expression of the MicroRNA Let-7g. Immunohorizons. 2021 04 30; 5(4):246-256. View abstract
  10. Considering Mandatory Vaccination of Children for COVID-19. Pediatrics. 2021 06; 147(6). View abstract
  11. Bell's palsy and SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. Lancet Infect Dis. 2021 04; 21(4):450-452. View abstract
  12. The Fifth International Neonatal and Maternal Immunization Symposium (INMIS 2019): Securing Protection for the Next Generation. mSphere. 2021 01 27; 6(1). View abstract
  13. Vaccination of Term and Preterm Infants. Neoreviews. 2020 12; 21(12):e817-e827. View abstract
  14. Integrative Metabolomics to Identify Molecular Signatures of Responses to Vaccines and Infections. Metabolites. 2020 Nov 30; 10(12). View abstract
  15. Ensuring vaccine safety. Science. 2020 12 11; 370(6522):1274-1275. View abstract
  16. Corrigendum: Clinical Protocol for a Longitudinal Cohort Study Employing Systems Biology to Identify Markers of Vaccine Immunogenicity in Newborn Infants in The Gambia and Papua New Guinea. Front Pediatr. 2020; 8:610461. View abstract
  17. Neonatal monocytes demonstrate impaired homeostatic extravasation into a microphysiological human vascular model. Sci Rep. 2020 10 20; 10(1):17836. View abstract
  18. Preparing for Life: Plasma Proteome Changes and Immune System Development During the First Week of Human Life. Front Immunol. 2020; 11:578505. View abstract
  19. Towards Precision Vaccines: Lessons From the Second International Precision Vaccines Conference. Front Immunol. 2020; 11:590373. View abstract
  20. A Neonatal Murine Escherichia coli Sepsis Model Demonstrates That Adjunctive Pentoxifylline Enhances the Ratio of Anti- vs. Pro-inflammatory Cytokines in Blood and Organ Tissues. Front Immunol. 2020; 11:577878. View abstract
  21. A cloud-based bioinformatic analytic infrastructure and Data Management Core for the Expanded Program on Immunization Consortium. J Clin Transl Sci. 2020 Sep 22; 5(1):e52. View abstract
  22. Posterior shoulder fracture-dislocation: A systematic review of the literature and current aspects of management. Chin J Traumatol. 2021 Feb; 24(1):18-24. View abstract
  23. BCG vaccination-induced emergency granulopoiesis provides rapid protection from neonatal sepsis. Sci Transl Med. 2020 05 06; 12(542). View abstract
  24. Clinical Protocol for a Longitudinal Cohort Study Employing Systems Biology to Identify Markers of Vaccine Immunogenicity in Newborn Infants in The Gambia and Papua New Guinea. Front Pediatr. 2020; 8:197. View abstract
  25. Staphylococcus epidermidis Sensitizes Perinatal Hypoxic-Ischemic Brain Injury in Male but Not Female Mice. Front Immunol. 2020; 11:516. View abstract
  26. Early antiretroviral therapy-treated perinatally HIV-infected seronegative children demonstrate distinct long-term persistence of HIV-specific T-cell and B-cell memory. AIDS. 2020 04 01; 34(5):669-680. View abstract
  27. Phosphoric Metabolites Link Phosphate Import and Polysaccharide Biosynthesis for Candida albicans Cell Wall Maintenance. mBio. 2020 03 17; 11(2). View abstract
  28. BCG as a Case Study for Precision Vaccine Development: Lessons From Vaccine Heterogeneity, Trained Immunity, and Immune Ontogeny. Front Microbiol. 2020; 11:332. View abstract
  29. Vancomycin Is Protective in a Neonatal Mouse Model of Staphylococcus epidermidis-Potentiated Hypoxic-Ischemic Brain Injury. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2020 02 21; 64(3). View abstract
  30. The TLR5 Agonist Flagellin Shapes Phenotypical and Functional Activation of Lung Mucosal Antigen Presenting Cells in Neonatal Mice. Front Immunol. 2020; 11:171. View abstract
  31. Toward precision adjuvants: optimizing science and safety. Curr Opin Pediatr. 2020 02; 32(1):125-138. View abstract
  32. Licensed Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) formulations differ markedly in bacterial viability, RNA content and innate immune activation. Vaccine. 2020 02 24; 38(9):2229-2240. View abstract
  33. Immunological mechanisms of inducing HIV immunity in infants. Vaccine. 2020 01 16; 38(3):411-415. View abstract
  34. Immunometabolic approaches to prevent, detect, and treat neonatal sepsis. Pediatr Res. 2020 01; 87(2):399-405. View abstract
  35. Cyclic AMP in human preterm infant blood is associated with increased TLR-mediated production of acute-phase and anti-inflammatory cytokines in vitro. Pediatr Res. 2020 11; 88(5):717-725. View abstract
  36. Vascular Endothelium in Neonatal Sepsis: Basic Mechanisms and Translational Opportunities. Front Pediatr. 2019; 7:340. View abstract
  37. AIDS Vaccine Research Subcommittee (AVRS) Consultation: Early-Life Immunization Strategies against HIV Acquisition. mSphere. 2019 07 17; 4(4). View abstract
  38. OMIC Technologies and Vaccine Development: From the Identification of Vulnerable Individuals to the Formulation of Invulnerable Vaccines. J Immunol Res. 2019; 2019:8732191. View abstract
  39. Dynamic molecular changes during the first week of human life follow a robust developmental trajectory. Nat Commun. 2019 03 12; 10(1):1092. View abstract
  40. PVRIG and PVRL2 Are Induced in Cancer and Inhibit CD8+ T-cell Function. Cancer Immunol Res. 2019 02; 7(2):257-268. View abstract
  41. Pentoxifylline Alone or in Combination with Gentamicin or Vancomycin Inhibits Live Microbe-Induced Proinflammatory Cytokine Production in Human Cord Blood and Cord Blood Monocytes In Vitro. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2018 12; 62(12). View abstract
  42. Increasing FIM2/3 antigen-content improves efficacy of Bordetella pertussis vaccines in mice in vivo without altering vaccine-induced human reactogenicity biomarkers in vitro. Vaccine. 2019 01 03; 37(1):80-89. View abstract
  43. Microphysiologic Human Tissue Constructs Reproduce Autologous Age-Specific BCG and HBV Primary Immunization in vitro. Front Immunol. 2018; 9:2634. View abstract
  44. The Fourth International Neonatal and Maternal Immunization Symposium (INMIS 2017): Toward Integrating Maternal and Infant Immunization Programs. mSphere. 2018 11 07; 3(6). View abstract
  45. First International Precision Vaccines Conference: Multidisciplinary Approaches to Next-Generation Vaccines. mSphere. 2018 08 01; 3(4). View abstract
  46. Immunomodulation to Prevent or Treat Neonatal Sepsis: Past, Present, and Future. Front Pediatr. 2018; 6:199. View abstract
  47. Early Life HIV-1 Immunization: Providing a Window for Protection Before Sexual Debut. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2018 10; 34(10):823-827. View abstract
  48. Antimicrobial peptide LL-37 and recombinant human mannose-binding lectin express distinct age- and pathogen-specific antimicrobial activity in human newborn cord blood in vitro. F1000Res. 2018; 7:616. View abstract
  49. Pentoxifylline, dexamethasone and azithromycin demonstrate distinct age-dependent and synergistic inhibition of TLR- and inflammasome-mediated cytokine production in human newborn and adult blood in vitro. PLoS One. 2018; 13(5):e0196352. View abstract
  50. A Cost-Effective High-Throughput Plasma and Serum Proteomics Workflow Enables Mapping of the Molecular Impact of Total Pancreatectomy with Islet Autotransplantation. J Proteome Res. 2018 05 04; 17(5):1983-1992. View abstract
  51. Neonatal Immunization: Rationale, Current State, and Future Prospects. Front Immunol. 2018; 9:532. View abstract
  52. Hepatic Legionella pneumophila Infection in an Infant With Severe Combined Immunodeficiency. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2018 04; 37(4):356-358. View abstract
  53. Adjuvant Effect of Bacille Calmette-Guérin on Hepatitis B Vaccine Immunogenicity in the Preterm and Term Newborn. Front Immunol. 2018; 9:29. View abstract
  54. Identification and Characterization of Stimulator of Interferon Genes As a Robust Adjuvant Target for Early Life Immunization. Front Immunol. 2017; 8:1772. View abstract
  55. Gp96 Peptide Antagonist gp96-II Confers Therapeutic Effects in Murine Intestinal Inflammation. Front Immunol. 2017; 8:1531. View abstract
  56. Stemless Prosthesis for Total Shoulder Arthroplasty. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 2017 Dec; 25(12):e291-e300. View abstract
  57. The "Parachute" Technique: A Simple and Effective Single-Row Procedure to Achieve an Increased Contact Area Between the Cuff-Tendon and Its Footprint. Arthrosc Tech. 2017 Oct; 6(5):e1903-e1909. View abstract
  58. The "Purse String" Procedure for Recurrent Anterior Glenohumeral Instability: A Simple Technique to Achieve Bankart Repair, Capsular Shift, and a Good Labral Bumper. Arthrosc Tech. 2017 Aug; 6(4):e1245-e1251. View abstract
  59. Waning Immunity and Microbial Vaccines-Workshop of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2017 Jul; 24(7). View abstract
  60. Human alkaline phosphatase dephosphorylates microbial products and is elevated in preterm neonates with a history of late-onset sepsis. PLoS One. 2017; 12(4):e0175936. View abstract
  61. TLR7/8 adjuvant overcomes newborn hyporesponsiveness to pneumococcal conjugate vaccine at birth. JCI Insight. 2017 03 23; 2(6):e91020. View abstract
  62. Toll-like receptor 8 agonist nanoparticles mimic immunomodulating effects of the live BCG vaccine and enhance neonatal innate and adaptive immune responses. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2017 Nov; 140(5):1339-1350. View abstract
  63. Protecting the Newborn and Young Infant from Infectious Diseases: Lessons from Immune Ontogeny. Immunity. 2017 03 21; 46(3):350-363. View abstract
  64. The "Purse-string" Technique for Shoulder Stabilization, Description of the Technique, Long term Results and Literature Review. Open Orthop J. 2017; 11:183-188. View abstract
  65. Pentoxifylline inhibits TLR- and inflammasome-mediated in vitro inflammatory cytokine production in human blood with greater efficacy and potency in newborns. Pediatr Res. 2017 May; 81(5):806-816. View abstract
  66. A Meningococcal Outer Membrane Vesicle Vaccine Incorporating Genetically Attenuated Endotoxin Dissociates Inflammation from Immunogenicity. Front Immunol. 2016; 7:562. View abstract
  67. Human newborn B cells mount an interferon-a/ß receptor-dependent humoral response to respiratory syncytial virus. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2017 06; 139(6):1997-2000.e4. View abstract
  68. Age-Specific Adjuvant Synergy: Dual TLR7/8 and Mincle Activation of Human Newborn Dendritic Cells Enables Th1 Polarization. J Immunol. 2016 12 01; 197(11):4413-4424. View abstract
  69. Antimicrobial Proteins and Peptides in Early Life: Ontogeny and Translational Opportunities. Front Immunol. 2016; 7:309. View abstract
  70. "Owl" Technique for All-Arthroscopic Augmentation of a Massive or Large Rotator Cuff Tear With Extracellular Matrix Graft. Arthrosc Tech. 2016 Aug; 5(4):e717-e724. View abstract
  71. Complications of Hip Arthroscopy: Patient Perspectives. Orthop Nurs. 2016 Jul-Aug; 35(4):208-13. View abstract
  72. Heterologous vaccine effects. Vaccine. 2016 07 25; 34(34):3923-30. View abstract
  73. Distinct TLR-mediated cytokine production and immunoglobulin secretion in human newborn naïve B cells. Innate Immun. 2016 08; 22(6):433-43. View abstract
  74. Harnessing the beneficial heterologous effects of vaccination. Nat Rev Immunol. 2016 06; 16(6):392-400. View abstract
  75. Use of cidofovir in pediatric patients with adenovirus infection. F1000Res. 2016; 5:758. View abstract
  76. In vitro cytokine induction by TLR-activating vaccine adjuvants in human blood varies by age and adjuvant. Cytokine. 2016 07; 83:99-109. View abstract
  77. The impact of concomitant fibromyalgia on visual analogue scales of pain, fatigue and function in patients with various rheumatic disorders. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2016 Mar-Apr; 34(2 Suppl 96):S120-4. View abstract
  78. Circulating Human Neonatal Naïve B Cells are Deficient in CD73 Impairing Purine Salvage. Front Immunol. 2016; 7:121. View abstract
  79. Changing oral vaccine to inactivated polio vaccine might increase mortality. Lancet. 2016 Mar 12; 387(10023):1054-1055. View abstract
  80. Adjuvant-induced Human Monocyte Secretome Profiles Reveal Adjuvant- and Age-specific Protein Signatures. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2016 06; 15(6):1877-94. View abstract
  81. Pilot experience with opebacan/rBPI 21 in myeloablative hematopoietic cell transplantation. F1000Res. 2015; 4:1480. View abstract
  82. Pediatric Vaccine Adjuvants: Components of the Modern Vaccinologist's Toolbox. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2015 Dec; 34(12):1395-8. View abstract
  83. Oral antibiotics increase blood neutrophil maturation and reduce bacteremia and necrotizing enterocolitis in the immediate postnatal period of preterm pigs. Innate Immun. 2016 Jan; 22(1):51-62. View abstract
  84. The Imidazoquinoline Toll-Like Receptor-7/8 Agonist Hybrid-2 Potently Induces Cytokine Production by Human Newborn and Adult Leukocytes. PLoS One. 2015; 10(8):e0134640. View abstract
  85. Systems vaccinology: a promise for the young and the poor. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2015 Jun 19; 370(1671). View abstract
  86. Staphylococcus epidermidis Bacteremia Induces Brain Injury in Neonatal Mice via Toll-like Receptor 2-Dependent and -Independent Pathways. J Infect Dis. 2015 Nov 01; 212(9):1480-90. View abstract
  87. Ready to benefit from training: heterologous effects of early life immunization. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2015 Jan; 109(1):3-4. View abstract
  88. Soluble mediators regulating immunity in early life. Front Immunol. 2014; 5:457. View abstract
  89. The effect of stable macromolecular complexes of ionic polyphosphazene on HIV Gag antigen and on activation of human dendritic cells and presentation to T-cells. Biomaterials. 2014 Oct; 35(31):8876-8886. View abstract
  90. Thoracoscapular Fusion for Winging of the Scapula with Screw Fixation for Fascioscapulohumeral Dystrophy (Modified Copeland-Howard Procedure). JBJS Essent Surg Tech. 2014 Jun; 4(2):e12. View abstract
  91. Ontogeny of early life immunity. Trends Immunol. 2014 Jul; 35(7):299-310. View abstract
  92. Infection-induced inflammation and cerebral injury in preterm infants. Lancet Infect Dis. 2014 Aug; 14(8):751-762. View abstract
  93. Tocilizumab in adult-onset Still's disease: the Israeli experience. J Rheumatol. 2014 Feb; 41(2):244-7. View abstract
  94. A prime time for trained immunity: innate immune memory in newborns and infants. Neonatology. 2014; 105(2):136-41. View abstract
  95. Fc gamma receptors in respiratory syncytial virus infections: implications for innate immunity. Rev Med Virol. 2014 Jan; 24(1):55-70. View abstract
  96. Innate immune memory: implications for development of pediatric immunomodulatory agents and adjuvanted vaccines. Pediatr Res. 2014 Jan; 75(1-2):184-8. View abstract
  97. Identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms in hematopoietic cell transplant patients affecting early recognition of, and response to, endotoxin. Innate Immun. 2014 Oct; 20(7):697-711. View abstract
  98. Soluble ecto-5'-nucleotidase (5'-NT), alkaline phosphatase, and adenosine deaminase (ADA1) activities in neonatal blood favor elevated extracellular adenosine. J Biol Chem. 2013 Sep 20; 288(38):27315-27326. View abstract
  99. Neonatal host defense against Staphylococcal infections. Clin Dev Immunol. 2013; 2013:826303. View abstract
  100. Vaccine-induced immunity in early life. Vaccine. 2013 May 17; 31(21):2481-2. View abstract
  101. Management of first-time dislocations of the shoulder in patients older than 40 years: the prevalence of iatrogenic fracture. J Orthop Trauma. 2013 Apr; 27(4):190-3. View abstract
  102. The ultra-potent and selective TLR8 agonist VTX-294 activates human newborn and adult leukocytes. PLoS One. 2013; 8(3):e58164. View abstract
  103. Role of innate immunity in neonatal infection. Am J Perinatol. 2013 Feb; 30(2):105-12. View abstract
  104. Plasma-mediated immune suppression: a neonatal perspective. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2013 Mar; 24(2):102-13. View abstract
  105. Innate immune function by Toll-like receptors: distinct responses in newborns and the elderly. Immunity. 2012 Nov 16; 37(5):771-83. View abstract
  106. Immune response to vaccine adjuvants during the first year of life. Vaccine. 2013 May 17; 31(21):2500-5. View abstract
  107. A neonatal model of intravenous Staphylococcus epidermidis infection in mice <24 h old enables characterization of early innate immune responses. PLoS One. 2012; 7(9):e43897. View abstract
  108. Innate immune activation in neonatal tracheal aspirates suggests endotoxin-driven inflammation. Pediatr Res. 2012 Aug; 72(2):203-11. View abstract
  109. Imidazoquinoline Toll-like receptor 8 agonists activate human newborn monocytes and dendritic cells through adenosine-refractory and caspase-1-dependent pathways. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2012 Jul; 130(1):195-204.e9. View abstract
  110. Responsiveness of human monocytes to the commensal bacterium Staphylococcus epidermidis develops late in gestation. Pediatr Res. 2012 Jul; 72(1):10-8. View abstract
  111. Neonatal plasma polarizes TLR4-mediated cytokine responses towards low IL-12p70 and high IL-10 production via distinct factors. PLoS One. 2012; 7(3):e33419. View abstract
  112. Bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (rBPI21) and fluoroquinolone mitigate radiation-induced bone marrow aplasia and death. Sci Transl Med. 2011 Nov 23; 3(110):110ra118. View abstract
  113. Toll2011 at Lago di Garda: studying danger sensors by the guard towers at the lake. Nat Immunol. 2011 Aug 18; 12(9):805-8. View abstract
  114. Deficient expression of bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein in immunocompromised hosts: translational potential of replacement therapy. Biochem Soc Trans. 2011 Aug; 39(4):994-9. View abstract
  115. Development of newborn and infant vaccines. Sci Transl Med. 2011 Jul 06; 3(90):90ps27. View abstract
  116. 17(R)-Resolvin D1 differentially regulates TLR4-mediated responses of primary human macrophages to purified LPS and live E. coli. J Leukoc Biol. 2011 Sep; 90(3):459-70. View abstract
  117. Systemic stimulation of TLR2 impairs neonatal mouse brain development. PLoS One. 2011 May 06; 6(5):e19583. View abstract
  118. "Put your 'extended' finger on the bleeder": the use of direct pressure from the shaver blade to achieve hemostasis. Arthroscopy. 2011 Jun; 27(6):867-9. View abstract
  119. Age-dependent maturation of Toll-like receptor-mediated cytokine responses in Gambian infants. PLoS One. 2011 Apr 13; 6(4):e18185. View abstract
  120. Challenges in infant immunity: implications for responses to infection and vaccines. Nat Immunol. 2011 Mar; 12(3):189-94. View abstract
  121. Adenosine modulates Toll-like receptor function: basic mechanisms and translational opportunities. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2011 Feb; 9(2):261-9. View abstract
  122. Human neonatal peripheral blood leukocytes demonstrate pathogen-specific coordinate expression of TLR2, TLR4/MD2, and MyD88 during bacterial infection in vivo. Pediatr Res. 2010 Dec; 68(6):479-83. View abstract
  123. Clinical features and outcome of patients with IRAK-4 and MyD88 deficiency. Medicine (Baltimore). 2010 Nov; 89(6):403-425. View abstract
  124. Method of bacterial killing differentially affects the human innate immune response to Staphylococcus epidermidis. Innate Immun. 2011 Dec; 17(6):508-16. View abstract
  125. Role of innate host defenses in susceptibility to early-onset neonatal sepsis. Clin Perinatol. 2010 Jun; 37(2):307-37. View abstract
  126. TLR2 mediates recognition of live Staphylococcus epidermidis and clearance of bacteremia. PLoS One. 2010 Apr 09; 5(4):e10111. View abstract
  127. Neonatal innate immunity in allergy development. Curr Opin Pediatr. 2009 Dec; 21(6):762-9. View abstract
  128. The interaction of TIGIT with PVR and PVRL2 inhibits human NK cell cytotoxicity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 Oct 20; 106(42):17858-63. View abstract
  129. Neonatal vaccination: a once in a lifetime opportunity. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2009 Sep; 28(9):833-5. View abstract
  130. Peptides modulating conformational changes in secreted chaperones: from in silico design to preclinical proof of concept. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 Aug 18; 106(33):13797-801. View abstract
  131. Endotoxin-directed innate immunity in tracheal aspirates of mechanically ventilated human neonates. Pediatr Res. 2009 Aug; 66(2):191-6. View abstract
  132. The active elevation lag sign and the triangle sign: new clinical signs of trapezius palsy. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2009 Jul-Aug; 18(4):573-6. View abstract
  133. Developmental biology of the innate immune response: implications for neonatal and infant vaccine development. Pediatr Res. 2009 May; 65(5 Pt 2):98R-105R. View abstract
  134. Safety and efficacy of neonatal vaccination. Eur J Immunol. 2009 Jan; 39(1):36-46. View abstract
  135. Bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI) and BPI homologs at mucosal sites. Trends Immunol. 2008 Nov; 29(11):541-7. View abstract
  136. Novel vaccines: bridging research, development and production. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2008 Nov; 7(9):1321-4. View abstract
  137. Allogeneic transplantation successfully corrects immune defects, but not susceptibility to colitis, in a patient with nuclear factor-kappaB essential modulator deficiency. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2008 Dec; 122(6):1113-1118.e1. View abstract
  138. The role of anterior deltoid reeducation in patients with massive irreparable degenerative rotator cuff tears. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2008 Nov-Dec; 17(6):863-70. View abstract
  139. Defective innate immunity predisposes murine neonates to poor sepsis outcome but is reversed by TLR agonists. Blood. 2008 Sep 01; 112(5):1750-8. View abstract
  140. Immunostimulatory activity of Toll-like receptor 8 agonists towards human leucocytes: basic mechanisms and translational opportunities. Biochem Soc Trans. 2007 Dec; 35(Pt 6):1485-91. View abstract
  141. Evidence of a bactericidal permeability increasing protein in an invertebrate, the Crassostrea gigas Cg-BPI. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 Nov 06; 104(45):17759-64. View abstract
  142. Bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein in host defense and its efficacy in the treatment of bacterial sepsis. Curr Infect Dis Rep. 2007 Oct; 3(5):407-12. View abstract
  143. Selective predisposition to bacterial infections in IRAK-4-deficient children: IRAK-4-dependent TLRs are otherwise redundant in protective immunity. J Exp Med. 2007 Oct 01; 204(10):2407-22. View abstract
  144. Neonatal immune responses to coagulase-negative staphylococci. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2007 Aug; 20(4):370-5. View abstract
  145. Innate immunity of the newborn: basic mechanisms and clinical correlates. Nat Rev Immunol. 2007 May; 7(5):379-90. View abstract
  146. Recombinant bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein rBPI21 protects against pneumococcal disease. Infect Immun. 2007 Jan; 75(1):342-9. View abstract
  147. Subacromial plica as a cause of impingement in the shoulder. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2006 Nov-Dec; 15(6):697-700. View abstract
  148. TCR zeta down-regulation under chronic inflammation is mediated by myeloid suppressor cells differentially distributed between various lymphatic organs. J Immunol. 2006 Oct 01; 177(7):4763-72. View abstract
  149. The adenosine system selectively inhibits TLR-mediated TNF-alpha production in the human newborn. J Immunol. 2006 Aug 01; 177(3):1956-66. View abstract
  150. Innate immunity of the human newborn is polarized toward a high ratio of IL-6/TNF-alpha production in vitro and in vivo. Pediatr Res. 2006 Aug; 60(2):205-9. View abstract
  151. Unique efficacy of Toll-like receptor 8 agonists in activating human neonatal antigen-presenting cells. Blood. 2006 Aug 15; 108(4):1284-90. View abstract
  152. Neonatal babesiosis: case report and review of the literature. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2006 Feb; 25(2):169-73. View abstract
  153. Functional and biochemical characterization of epithelial bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2006 Mar; 290(3):G557-67. View abstract
  154. Posttraumatic locked dislocation of congenital pseudarthrosis of the clavicle. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2005 May-Jun; 14(3):336-7. View abstract
  155. Geometrical analysis of Copeland surface replacement shoulder arthroplasty in relation to normal anatomy. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2005 Mar-Apr; 14(2):186-92. View abstract
  156. Human disease resulting from gene mutations that interfere with appropriate nuclear factor-kappaB activation. Immunol Rev. 2005 Feb; 203:21-37. View abstract
  157. Innate immunity of the human newborn: distinct cytokine responses to LPS and other Toll-like receptor agonists. J Endotoxin Res. 2005; 11(2):113-6. View abstract
  158. Selective impairment of TLR-mediated innate immunity in human newborns: neonatal blood plasma reduces monocyte TNF-alpha induction by bacterial lipopeptides, lipopolysaccharide, and imiquimod, but preserves the response to R-848. J Immunol. 2004 Oct 01; 173(7):4627-34. View abstract
  159. Human nuclear factor kappa B essential modulator mutation can result in immunodeficiency without ectodermal dysplasia. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2004 Sep; 114(3):650-6. View abstract
  160. Antimicrobial proteins and peptides: anti-infective molecules of mammalian leukocytes. J Leukoc Biol. 2004 Nov; 76(5):909-25. View abstract
  161. Cementless surface replacement arthroplasty (Copeland CSRA) for osteoarthritis of the shoulder. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2004 May-Jun; 13(3):266-71. View abstract
  162. Copeland surface replacement arthroplasty of the shoulder in rheumatoid arthritis. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2004 Mar; 86(3):512-8. View abstract
  163. Genetic screening for susceptibility to infection in the NICU setting. Pediatr Res. 2004 Apr; 55(4):546-8. View abstract
  164. Mechanical properties of regenerated coracoacromial ligament after subacromial decompression. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2004 Jan-Feb; 13(1):51-6. View abstract
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