My research tries to identify why very preterm newborns are at high risk for brain damage. My goal is to identify exposures whose elimination or minimization might reduce the risk for this brain damage and its consequences. I had been the principal investigator of the 14-center ELGAN (Extremely Low Gestational Age Newborns) study, a prospective epidemiologic study of 1,500 infants born before the 28th week of gestation.

The ELGAN investigators seek to identify changes that occur before the brain ultrasound abnormalities that predict motor, cognitive, perceptual and behavior dysfunctions in these children. Much of this study relies on biomarkers measured in the placenta, umbilical cord and blood. Each of the proteins assessed has a role in inflammation, which is linked to oligodendrocyte damage and/or dysfunction or to processes that ameliorate damage/dysfunction.

By identifying biomarkers that indicate increased risk of cerebral damage, the ELGAN study should enable researchers to better design clinical trials of measures to reduce the occurrence of early brain damage and later developmental disabilities.



Alan Leviton received his MD from SUNY-Health Sciences Center at Brooklyn, College of Medicine. He trained in medicine at Kings County Hospital, Brooklyn, NY, in neurology at the Barnes Hospital/Washington University program in St. Louis, MO in neuropathology at Children's Hospital, and in epidemiology at Harvard School of Public Health.


Publications powered by Harvard Catalyst Profiles

  1. Neonatal Cranial Ultrasound Findings among Infants Born Extremely Preterm: Associations with Neurodevelopmental Outcomes at 10 Years of Age. J Pediatr. 2021 10; 237:197-205.e4. View abstract
  2. Prediction of Seizure Recurrence. A Note of Caution. Front Neurol. 2021; 12:675728. View abstract
  3. Prenatal tobacco smoke exposure and neurological impairment at 10 years of age among children born extremely preterm: a prospective cohort. BJOG. 2021 Sep; 128(10):1586-1597. View abstract
  4. Caffeine exposure during pregnancy: Is it safe? Semin Fetal Neonatal Med. 2020 12; 25(6):101174. View abstract
  5. Identifying cerebral palsy phenotypes objectively. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2020 09; 62(9):1006. View abstract
  6. Histologic chorioamnionitis and risk of neurodevelopmental impairment at age 10 years among extremely preterm infants born before 28 weeks of gestation. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2020 11; 223(5):745.e1-745.e10. View abstract
  7. Neonatal white matter damage and the fetal inflammatory response. Semin Fetal Neonatal Med. 2020 08; 25(4):101111. View abstract
  8. Neurocognitive and social-communicative function of children born very preterm at 10 years of age: Associations with microorganisms recovered from the placenta parenchyma. J Perinatol. 2020 02; 40(2):306-315. View abstract
  9. Characteristics of Future Models of Integrated Outpatient Care. Healthcare (Basel). 2019 Apr 27; 7(2). View abstract
  10. Antecedents of epilepsy and seizures among children born at extremely low gestational age. J Perinatol. 2019 06; 39(6):774-783. View abstract
  11. Socioeconomic status and early blood concentrations of inflammation-related and neurotrophic proteins among extremely preterm newborns. PLoS One. 2019; 14(3):e0214154. View abstract
  12. Early Postnatal IGF-1 and IGFBP-1 Blood Levels in Extremely Preterm Infants: Relationships with Indicators of Placental Insufficiency and with Systemic Inflammation. Am J Perinatol. 2019 12; 36(14):1442-1452. View abstract
  13. Neurocognitive function of 10-year-old multiples born less than 28 weeks of gestational age. J Perinatol. 2019 02; 39(2):237-247. View abstract
  14. Antecedents of Obesity Among Children Born Extremely Preterm. Pediatrics. 2018 11; 142(5). View abstract
  15. Caring electronically for young outpatients who have epilepsy. Epilepsy Behav. 2018 10; 87:226-232. View abstract
  16. Executive Dysfunction Early Postnatal Biomarkers among Children Born Extremely Preterm. J Neuroimmune Pharmacol. 2019 06; 14(2):188-199. View abstract
  17. Risk factors for chronic lung disease and asthma differ among children born extremely preterm. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2018 11; 53(11):1533-1540. View abstract
  18. Biases Inherent in Studies of Coffee Consumption in Early Pregnancy and the Risks of Subsequent Events. Nutrients. 2018 Aug 23; 10(9). View abstract
  19. Behavioural dysfunctions of 10-year-old children born extremely preterm associated with corticotropin-releasing hormone expression in the placenta. Acta Paediatr. 2018 11; 107(11):1932-1936. View abstract
  20. Neurocognitive and Health Correlates of Overweight and Obesity among Ten-Year-Old Children Born Extremely Preterm. J Pediatr. 2018 09; 200:84-90.e4. View abstract
  21. Elevated protein concentrations in newborn blood and the risks of autism spectrum disorder, and of social impairment, at age 10 years among infants born before the 28th week of gestation. Transl Psychiatry. 2018 06 08; 8(1):115. View abstract
  22. Accuracy of the Bayley-II mental development index at 2 years as a predictor of cognitive impairment at school age among children born extremely preterm. J Perinatol. 2018 07; 38(7):908-916. View abstract
  23. Cognitive Development and Quality of Life Associated With BPD in 10-Year-Olds Born Preterm. Pediatrics. 2018 06; 141(6). View abstract
  24. The risk of neurodevelopmental disorders at age 10?years associated with blood concentrations of interleukins 4 and 10 during the first postnatal month of children born extremely preterm. Cytokine. 2018 10; 110:181-188. View abstract
  25. Socioemotional dysfunctions at age 10?years in extremely preterm newborns with late-onset bacteremia. Early Hum Dev. 2018 06; 121:1-7. View abstract
  26. Can a collaborative healthcare network improve the care of people with epilepsy? Epilepsy Behav. 2018 05; 82:189-193. View abstract
  27. Antenatal and neonatal antecedents of learning limitations in 10-year old children born extremely preterm. Early Hum Dev. 2018 03; 118:8-14. View abstract
  28. Neonatal systemic inflammation and the risk of low scores on measures of reading and mathematics achievement at age 10 years among children born extremely preterm. Int J Dev Neurosci. 2018 May; 66:45-53. View abstract
  29. Circulating biomarkers in extremely preterm infants associated with ultrasound indicators of brain damage. Eur J Paediatr Neurol. 2018 May; 22(3):440-450. View abstract
  30. Antenatal and Neonatal Antecedents of Executive Dysfunctions in Extremely Preterm Children. J Child Neurol. 2018 03; 33(3):198-208. View abstract
  31. Are Extremely Low Gestational Age Newborns Born to Obese Women at Increased Risk of Cerebral Palsy at 2 Years? J Child Neurol. 2018 03; 33(3):216-224. View abstract
  32. Hand Preference and Cognitive, Motor, and Behavioral Functioning in 10-Year-Old Extremely Preterm Children. J Pediatr. 2018 04; 195:279-282.e3. View abstract
  33. Elevations of inflammatory proteins in neonatal blood are associated with obesity and overweight among 2-year-old children born extremely premature. Pediatr Res. 2018 06; 83(6):1110-1119. View abstract
  34. Antecedents of Screening Positive for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Ten-Year-Old Children Born Extremely Preterm. Pediatr Neurol. 2018 04; 81:25-30. View abstract
  35. Systemic Inflammation-Associated Proteins and Retinopathy of Prematurity in Infants Born Before the 28th Week of Gestation. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2017 12 01; 58(14):6419-6428. View abstract
  36. Social Responsiveness Scale Assessment of the Preterm Behavioral Phenotype in 10-Year-Olds Born Extremely Preterm. J Dev Behav Pediatr. 2017 Nov/Dec; 38(9):697-705. View abstract
  37. Neurodevelopment at Age 10 Years of Children Born <28 Weeks With Fetal Growth Restriction. Pediatrics. 2017 Nov; 140(5). View abstract
  38. Maternal obesity and attention-related symptoms in the preterm offspring. Early Hum Dev. 2017 12; 115:9-15. View abstract
  39. Hypoxia-ischemia is not an antecedent of most preterm brain damage: the illusion of validity. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2018 02; 60(2):120-125. View abstract
  40. Cognitive functioning at the age of 10?years among children born extremely preterm: a latent profile approach. Pediatr Res. 2017 Oct; 82(4):614-619. View abstract
  41. Both antenatal and postnatal inflammation contribute information about the risk of brain damage in extremely preterm newborns. Pediatr Res. 2017 Oct; 82(4):691-696. View abstract
  42. Cumulative Incidence of Seizures and Epilepsy in Ten-Year-Old Children Born Before 28 Weeks' Gestation. Pediatr Neurol. 2017 Aug; 73:13-19. View abstract
  43. Neurocognitive Outcomes at 10 Years of Age in Extremely Preterm Newborns with Late-Onset Bacteremia. J Pediatr. 2017 08; 187:43-49.e1. View abstract
  44. Observer variability identifying attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder in 10-year-old children born extremely preterm. Acta Paediatr. 2017 Aug; 106(8):1317-1322. View abstract
  45. Antecedents and early correlates of high and low concentrations of angiogenic proteins in extremely preterm newborns. Clin Chim Acta. 2017 Aug; 471:1-5. View abstract
  46. Neurocognitive Correlates of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms in Children Born at Extremely Low Gestational Age. J Dev Behav Pediatr. 2017 May; 38(4):249-259. View abstract
  47. Systemic Inflammation during the First Postnatal Month and the Risk of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Characteristics among 10 year-old Children Born Extremely Preterm. J Neuroimmune Pharmacol. 2017 09; 12(3):531-543. View abstract
  48. Newborn blood gas derangements of children born extremely preterm and neurocognitive dysfunctions at age 10 years. Respir Physiol Neurobiol. 2017 08; 242:66-72. View abstract
  49. Antecedents and correlates of blood concentrations of neurotrophic growth factors in very preterm newborns. Cytokine. 2017 06; 94:21-28. View abstract
  50. The Relationship of Maternal Prepregnancy Body Mass Index and Pregnancy Weight Gain to Neurocognitive Function at Age 10 Years among Children Born Extremely Preterm. J Pediatr. 2017 08; 187:50-57.e3. View abstract
  51. Postnatal systemic inflammation and neuro-ophthalmologic dysfunctions in extremely low gestational age children. Acta Paediatr. 2017 Mar; 106(3):454-457. View abstract
  52. Early postnatal illness severity scores predict neurodevelopmental impairments at 10 years of age in children born extremely preterm. J Perinatol. 2017 05; 37(5):606-614. View abstract
  53. Extremely low gestational age and very low birthweight for gestational age are risk factors for autism spectrum disorder in a large cohort study of 10-year-old children born at 23-27 weeks' gestation. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2017 Mar; 216(3):304.e1-304.e16. View abstract
  54. Antenatal glucocorticoids and neonatal inflammation-associated proteins. Cytokine. 2016 12; 88:199-208. View abstract
  55. Predictive Validity of the Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT) Born Very Preterm. J Pediatr. 2016 Nov; 178:101-107.e2. View abstract
  56. Prevalence and associated features of autism spectrum disorder in extremely low gestational age newborns at age 10 years. Autism Res. 2017 Feb; 10(2):224-232. View abstract
  57. The antecedents and correlates of necrotizing enterocolitis and spontaneous intestinal perforation among infants born before the 28th week of gestation. J Neonatal Perinatal Med. 2016 May 19; 9(2):159-70. View abstract
  58. Systemic endogenous erythropoietin and associated disorders in extremely preterm newborns. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2016 Sep; 101(5):F458-63. View abstract
  59. Duration of Systemic Inflammation in the First Postnatal Month Among Infants Born Before the 28th Week of Gestation. Inflammation. 2016 Apr; 39(2):672-7. View abstract
  60. Neurocognitive and Academic Outcomes at Age 10 Years of Extremely Preterm Newborns. Pediatrics. 2016 Apr; 137(4). View abstract
  61. Girls and Boys Born before 28 Weeks Gestation: Risks of Cognitive, Behavioral, and Neurologic Outcomes at Age 10 Years. J Pediatr. 2016 Jun; 173:69-75.e1. View abstract
  62. Reply to Commentary by Strandvik: 'The development of infants born to obese mothers might be related to omega-3 fatty acid status'. Acta Paediatr. 2016 Mar; 105(3):e93. View abstract
  63. Systemic inflammation on postnatal days 21 and 28 and indicators of brain dysfunction 2years later among children born before the 28th week of gestation. Early Hum Dev. 2016 Feb; 93:25-32. View abstract
  64. Antecedents of inflammation biomarkers in preterm newborns on days 21 and 28. Acta Paediatr. 2016 Mar; 105(3):274-80. View abstract
  65. The Development of Extremely Preterm Infants Born to Women Who Had Genitourinary Infections During Pregnancy. Am J Epidemiol. 2016 Jan 01; 183(1):28-35. View abstract
  66. Brain disorders associated with corticotropin-releasing hormone expression in the placenta among children born before the 28th week of gestation. Acta Paediatr. 2016 Jan; 105(1):e7-11. View abstract
  67. Weight Status in the First 2 Years of Life and Neurodevelopmental Impairment in Extremely Low Gestational Age Newborns. J Pediatr. 2016 Jan; 168:30-35.e2. View abstract
  68. The role of systemic inflammation linking maternal BMI to neurodevelopment in children. Pediatr Res. 2016 Jan; 79(1-1):3-12. View abstract
  69. Strabismus at Age 2 Years in Children Born Before 28 Weeks' Gestation: Antecedents and Correlates. J Child Neurol. 2016 Mar; 31(4):451-60. View abstract
  70. Antecedents of the child behavior checklist-dysregulation profile in children born extremely preterm. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2015 Oct; 54(10):816-23. View abstract
  71. Maternal obesity and development of the preterm newborn at 2 years. Acta Paediatr. 2015 Sep; 104(9):900-3. View abstract
  72. Systems approach to the study of brain damage in the very preterm newborn. Front Syst Neurosci. 2015; 9:58. View abstract
  73. Elevated endogenous erythropoietin concentrations are associated with increased risk of brain damage in extremely preterm neonates. PLoS One. 2015; 10(3):e0115083. View abstract
  74. Systems Epidemiology: What's in a Name? Online J Public Health Inform. 2014; 6(3):e198. View abstract
  75. Are preterm newborns who have relative hyperthyrotropinemia at increased risk of brain damage? J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 2014 Nov; 27(11-12):1077-88. View abstract
  76. Prethreshold retinopathy in premature infants with intrauterine growth restriction. Acta Paediatr. 2015 Jan; 104(1):27-31. View abstract
  77. The breadth and type of systemic inflammation and the risk of adverse neurological outcomes in extremely low gestation newborns. Pediatr Neurol. 2015 Jan; 52(1):42-8. View abstract
  78. Antecedents and correlates of visual field deficits in children born extremely preterm. Eur J Paediatr Neurol. 2015 Jan; 19(1):56-63. View abstract
  79. Antenatal and early postnatal antecedents of parent-reported attention problems at 2 years of age. J Pediatr. 2015 Jan; 166(1):20-5. View abstract
  80. Systemic inflammation in the extremely low gestational age newborn following maternal genitourinary infections. Am J Reprod Immunol. 2015 Feb; 73(2):162-74. View abstract
  81. The relationship between TSH and systemic inflammation in extremely preterm newborns. Endocrine. 2015 Mar; 48(2):595-602. View abstract
  82. Endogenous erythropoietin varies significantly with inflammation-related proteins in extremely premature newborns. Cytokine. 2014 Sep; 69(1):22-8. View abstract
  83. Retinopathy of prematurity and brain damage in the very preterm newborn. J AAPOS. 2014 Jun; 18(3):241-7. View abstract
  84. Early blood gas predictors of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in extremely low gestational age newborns. Int J Pediatr. 2014; 2014:210218. View abstract
  85. Elevated blood levels of inflammation-related proteins are associated with an attention problem at age 24 mo in extremely preterm infants. Pediatr Res. 2014 Jun; 75(6):781-7. View abstract
  86. Systemic inflammation and cerebral palsy risk in extremely preterm infants. J Child Neurol. 2014 Dec; 29(12):1692-8. View abstract
  87. Impaired visual fixation at the age of 2 years in children born before the twenty-eighth week of gestation. Antecedents and correlates in the multicenter ELGAN study. Pediatr Neurol. 2014 Jul; 51(1):36-42. View abstract
  88. Lenticulostriate vasculopathy in extremely low gestational age newborns: Inter-rater variability of cranial ultrasound readings, antecedents and postnatal characteristics. J Pediatr Neurol. 2014; 12(4):183-193. View abstract
  89. Development and implementation of a quality improvement curriculum for child neurology residents: lessons learned. Pediatr Neurol. 2014 May; 50(5):452-7. View abstract
  90. Intermittent or sustained systemic inflammation and the preterm brain. Pediatr Res. 2014 Mar; 75(3):376-80. View abstract
  91. Risk factors and correlates of neonatal growth velocity in extremely low gestational age newborns: the ELGAN Study. Neonatology. 2013; 104(4):298-304. View abstract
  92. Comparison of frozen and unfrozen blood spots for gene expression studies. J Pediatr. 2014 Jan; 164(1):189-191.e1. View abstract
  93. Social-emotional delays at 2 years in extremely low gestational age survivors: correlates of impaired orientation/engagement and emotional regulation. Early Hum Dev. 2013 Dec; 89(12):925-30. View abstract
  94. Is maternal obesity associated with sustained inflammation in extremely low gestational age newborns? Early Hum Dev. 2013 Dec; 89(12):949-55. View abstract
  95. Perinatal systemic inflammatory responses of growth-restricted preterm newborns. Acta Paediatr. 2013 Oct; 102(10):e439-42. View abstract
  96. Antecedents of perinatal cerebral white matter damage with and without intraventricular hemorrhage in very preterm newborns. Pediatr Neurol. 2013 Aug; 49(2):88-96. View abstract
  97. Candidate gene analysis: severe intraventricular hemorrhage in inborn preterm neonates. J Pediatr. 2013 Nov; 163(5):1503-6.e1. View abstract
  98. Visual aids to medical data and computational diagnostics: new frontiers in pediatric neurology. Epilepsy Behav. 2013 Aug; 28(2):258-60. View abstract
  99. Early nutrition and weight gain in preterm newborns and the risk of retinopathy of prematurity. PLoS One. 2013; 8(5):e64325. View abstract
  100. Clinical practice guidelines and practice parameters for the child neurologist. J Child Neurol. 2013 Jul; 28(7):917-25. View abstract
  101. Should readmission within 30 days after discharge of children hospitalized for a neurologic disorder be considered a quality assurance failure? J Child Neurol. 2013 Jun; 28(6):758-61. View abstract
  102. Pregnancy disorders appear to modify the risk for retinopathy of prematurity associated with neonatal hyperoxemia and bacteremia. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2013 May; 26(8):811-8. View abstract
  103. Inflammation-initiating illnesses, inflammation-related proteins, and cognitive impairment in extremely preterm infants. Brain Behav Immun. 2013 Mar; 29:104-112. View abstract
  104. Two-hit model of brain damage in the very preterm newborn: small for gestational age and postnatal systemic inflammation. Pediatr Res. 2013 Mar; 73(3):362-70. View abstract
  105. Systemic inflammation associated with mechanical ventilation among extremely preterm infants. Cytokine. 2013 Jan; 61(1):315-22. View abstract
  106. Systemic inflammation, intraventricular hemorrhage, and white matter injury. J Child Neurol. 2013 Dec; 28(12):1637-45. View abstract
  107. Systemic inflammation associated with severe intestinal injury in extremely low gestational age newborns. Fetal Pediatr Pathol. 2013 Jun; 32(3):222-34. View abstract
  108. Why the term neonatal encephalopathy should be preferred over neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2013 Mar; 208(3):176-80. View abstract
  109. Brain damage in preterm newborns and maternal medication: the ELGAN Study. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2012 Sep; 207(3):192.e1-9. View abstract
  110. Birth weight- and fetal weight-growth restriction: impact on neurodevelopment. Early Hum Dev. 2012 Sep; 88(9):765-71. View abstract
  111. Antenatal antecedents of cognitive impairment at 24 months in extremely low gestational age newborns. Pediatrics. 2012 Mar; 129(3):494-502. View abstract
  112. Intraventricular hemorrhage and developmental outcomes at 24 months of age in extremely preterm infants. J Child Neurol. 2012 Jan; 27(1):22-9. View abstract
  113. Fetal-placental inflammation, but not adrenal activation, is associated with extreme preterm delivery. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2012 Mar; 206(3):236.e1-8. View abstract
  114. Systemic responses of preterm newborns with presumed or documented bacteraemia. Acta Paediatr. 2012 Apr; 101(4):355-9. View abstract
  115. Neonatal bacteremia and retinopathy of prematurity: the ELGAN study. Arch Ophthalmol. 2011 Dec; 129(12):1555-63. View abstract
  116. Relationships among the concentrations of 25 inflammation-associated proteins during the first postnatal weeks in the blood of infants born before the 28th week of gestation. Cytokine. 2012 Jan; 57(1):182-90. View abstract
  117. Elevated concentrations of inflammation-related proteins in postnatal blood predict severe developmental delay at 2 years of age in extremely preterm infants. J Pediatr. 2012 Mar; 160(3):395-401.e4. View abstract
  118. What is quality improvement and why should child neurologists care? J Child Neurol. 2012 Feb; 27(2):251-7. View abstract
  119. Patterns of blood protein concentrations of ELGANs classified by three patterns of respiratory disease in the first 2 postnatal weeks. Pediatr Res. 2011 Sep; 70(3):292-6. View abstract
  120. Placenta microbiology and histology and the risk for severe retinopathy of prematurity. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011 Sep 01; 52(10):7052-8. View abstract
  121. Blood protein concentrations in the first two postnatal weeks associated with early postnatal blood gas derangements among infants born before the 28th week of gestation. The ELGAN Study. Cytokine. 2011 Nov; 56(2):392-8. View abstract
  122. Persistence after birth of systemic inflammation associated with umbilical cord inflammation. J Reprod Immunol. 2011 Aug; 90(2):235-43. View abstract
  123. Quality improvement specific for child neurology. J Child Neurol. 2011 Jun; 26(6):673-4. View abstract
  124. Cluster analysis of placental inflammatory proteins can distinguish preeclampsia from preterm labor and premature membrane rupture in singleton deliveries less than 28 weeks of gestation. Am J Reprod Immunol. 2011 Dec; 66(6):488-94. View abstract
  125. Blood protein concentrations in the first two postnatal weeks that predict bronchopulmonary dysplasia among infants born before the 28th week of gestation. Pediatr Res. 2011 Apr; 69(4):347-53. View abstract
  126. The Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers in extremely low gestational age newborns: individual items associated with motor, cognitive, vision and hearing limitations. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol. 2011 Jul; 25(4):366-76. View abstract
  127. Blood protein profiles of infants born before 28 weeks differ by pregnancy complication. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2011 May; 204(5):418.e1-418.e12. View abstract
  128. Early postnatal blood concentrations of inflammation-related proteins and microcephaly two years later in infants born before the 28th post-menstrual week. Early Hum Dev. 2011 May; 87(5):325-30. View abstract
  129. Early postnatal hypotension is not associated with indicators of white matter damage or cerebral palsy in extremely low gestational age newborns. J Perinatol. 2011 Aug; 31(8):524-34. View abstract
  130. Maternal microbe-specific modulation of inflammatory response in extremely low-gestational-age newborns. mBio. 2011 Jan 18; 2(1):e00280-10. View abstract
  131. The relationship between early concentrations of 25 blood proteins and cerebral white matter injury in preterm newborns: the ELGAN study. J Pediatr. 2011 Jun; 158(6):897-903.e1-5. View abstract
  132. Relationship Between Neonatal Blood Protein Concentrations and Placenta Histologic Characteristics in Extremely Low GA Newborns. Pediatr Res. 2011 Jan; 69(1):68-73. View abstract
  133. Early postnatal hypotension and developmental delay at 24 months of age among extremely low gestational age newborns. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2011 Sep; 96(5):F321-8. View abstract
  134. The challenge of causal inference. Ann Neurol. 2010 Nov; 68(5):770. View abstract
  135. Inflammation-related proteins in the blood of extremely low gestational age newborns. The contribution of inflammation to the appearance of developmental regulation. Cytokine. 2011 Jan; 53(1):66-73. View abstract
  136. Reader variability in the use of diagnostic terms to describe white matter lesions seen on cranial scans of severely premature infants: the ELGAN study. J Clin Ultrasound. 2010 Oct; 38(8):409-19. View abstract
  137. The clustering of disorders in infants born before the 28th week of gestation. Acta Paediatr. 2010 Dec; 99(12):1795-800. View abstract
  138. Early blood gas abnormalities and the preterm brain. Am J Epidemiol. 2010 Oct 15; 172(8):907-16. View abstract
  139. Does bronchopulmonary dysplasia contribute to the occurrence of cerebral palsy among infants born before 28 weeks of gestation? Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2011 Jan; 96(1):F20-9. View abstract
  140. Early cranial ultrasound lesions predict microcephaly at age 2 years in preterm infants. J Child Neurol. 2011 Feb; 26(2):188-94. View abstract
  141. Presumed and definite bacteremia in extremely low gestational age newborns. Acta Paediatr. 2011 Jan; 100(1):36-41. View abstract
  142. Antecedents of chronic lung disease following three patterns of early respiratory disease in preterm infants. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2011 Mar; 96(2):F114-20. View abstract
  143. Antenatal antecedents of a small head circumference at age 24-months post-term equivalent in a sample of infants born before the 28th post-menstrual week. Early Hum Dev. 2010 Aug; 86(8):515-21. View abstract
  144. Blood gases and retinopathy of prematurity: the ELGAN Study. Neonatology. 2011; 99(2):104-11. View abstract
  145. Fears and promises of comparative effectiveness research. Acta Paediatr. 2010 Sep; 99(9):1311-3. View abstract
  146. Neurodevelopment of extremely preterm infants who had necrotizing enterocolitis with or without late bacteremia. J Pediatr. 2010 Nov; 157(5):751-6.e1. View abstract
  147. A review of the epidemiologic evidence concerning the reproductive health effects of caffeine consumption: a 2000-2009 update. Food Chem Toxicol. 2010 Oct; 48(10):2549-76. View abstract
  148. Factors associated with small head circumference at birth among infants born before the 28th week. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2010 Aug; 203(2):138.e1-8. View abstract
  149. Mechanisms of injury to white matter adjacent to a large intraventricular hemorrhage in the preterm brain. J Clin Ultrasound. 2010 Jun; 38(5):254-8. View abstract
  150. Microbiologic and histologic characteristics of the extremely preterm infant's placenta predict white matter damage and later cerebral palsy. the ELGAN study. Pediatr Res. 2010 Jan; 67(1):95-101. View abstract
  151. Endoplasmic reticulum stress, inflammation, and perinatal brain damage. Pediatr Res. 2009 Nov; 66(5):487-94. View abstract
  152. Interinstitutional variation in prediction of death by SNAP-II and SNAPPE-II among extremely preterm infants. Pediatrics. 2009 Nov; 124(5):e1001-6. View abstract
  153. The ELGAN study of the brain and related disorders in extremely low gestational age newborns. Early Hum Dev. 2009 Nov; 85(11):719-25. View abstract
  154. Maternal antenatal complications and the risk of neonatal cerebral white matter damage and later cerebral palsy in children born at an extremely low gestational age. Am J Epidemiol. 2009 Oct 01; 170(7):819-28. View abstract
  155. Fetal growth restriction and chronic lung disease among infants born before the 28th week of gestation. Pediatrics. 2009 Sep; 124(3):e450-8. View abstract
  156. SNAP-II and SNAPPE-II and the risk of structural and functional brain disorders in extremely low gestational age newborns: the ELGAN study. Neonatology. 2010; 97(2):71-82. View abstract
  157. Nutritional practices and growth velocity in the first month of life in extremely premature infants. Pediatrics. 2009 Aug; 124(2):649-57. View abstract
  158. Chronic lung disease and developmental delay at 2 years of age in children born before 28 weeks' gestation. Pediatrics. 2009 Aug; 124(2):637-48. View abstract
  159. Developmental correlates of head circumference at birth and two years in a cohort of extremely low gestational age newborns. J Pediatr. 2009 Sep; 155(3):344-9.e1-3. View abstract
  160. Perinatal correlates of Ureaplasma urealyticum in placenta parenchyma of singleton pregnancies that end before 28 weeks of gestation. Pediatrics. 2009 May; 123(5):1329-36. View abstract
  161. Patterns of respiratory disease during the first 2 postnatal weeks in extremely premature infants. Pediatrics. 2009 Apr; 123(4):1124-31. View abstract
  162. Positive screening on the Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT) in extremely low gestational age newborns. J Pediatr. 2009 Apr; 154(4):535-540.e1. View abstract
  163. Cranial ultrasound lesions in the NICU predict cerebral palsy at age 2 years in children born at extremely low gestational age. J Child Neurol. 2009 Jan; 24(1):63-72. View abstract
  164. Even tension-type headaches doesn't sound right. Acta Paediatr. 2008 Oct; 97(10):1344-5. View abstract
  165. Neonatal cranial ultrasound lesions and developmental delays at 2 years of age among extremely low gestational age children. Pediatrics. 2008 Sep; 122(3):e662-9. View abstract
  166. Pregnancy disorders that lead to delivery before the 28th week of gestation: an epidemiologic approach to classification. Am J Epidemiol. 2008 Nov 01; 168(9):980-9. View abstract
  167. An algorithm for identifying and classifying cerebral palsy in young children. J Pediatr. 2008 Oct; 153(4):466-72. View abstract
  168. Histological characteristics of singleton placentas delivered before the 28th week of gestation. Pathology. 2008 Jun; 40(4):372-6. View abstract
  169. Colonization of second-trimester placenta parenchyma. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2008 Jul; 199(1):52.e1-52.e10. View abstract
  170. Characterization of chorioamnionitis in 2nd-trimester C-section placentas and correlation with microorganism recovery from subamniotic tissues. Pediatr Dev Pathol. 2008 Jan-Feb; 11(1):15-22. View abstract
  171. Detection of bacteria in placental tissues obtained from extremely low gestational age neonates. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2008 Jan; 198(1):110.e1-7. View abstract
  172. Neuregulin-1: a potential endogenous protector in perinatal brain white matter damage. Neonatology. 2008; 93(3):182-7. View abstract
  173. Observer variability assessing US scans of the preterm brain: the ELGAN study. Pediatr Radiol. 2007 Dec; 37(12):1201-8. View abstract
  174. Neuronal damage accompanies perinatal white-matter damage. Trends Neurosci. 2007 Sep; 30(9):473-8. View abstract
  175. Intraventricular haemorrhage grading scheme: time to abandon? Acta Paediatr. 2007 Sep; 96(9):1254-6. View abstract
  176. Reference weights for placentas delivered before the 28th week of gestation. Placenta. 2007 Oct; 28(10):987-90. View abstract
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