ABOUT THE RESEARCHER

OVERVIEW

Hannah Kinney's research is directed at defining the causes of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Dr. Kinney and colleagues are testing the idea that SIDS, or a subset of SIDS, is due to a developmental brainstem defect in autonomic and/or respiratory control during sleep. Focusing specifically on the arcuate nucleus in the ventral medulla area of the brainstem -- important in the detection of carbon dioxide and other respiratory and blood pressure responses -- her team is identifying abnormalities that put an infant at risk for sudden death during sleep. While continuing to study the anatomy and neurochemistry of the ventral medulla in SIDS victims, Dr. Kinney's team is also looking at the function and pathology of the ventral medulla in animal models. The ultimate goals of this research are to define ventral medullary abnormalities in living infants and to suggest ways of preventing the abnormalities from leading to sudden infant death. Her studies have also detected serotonergic binding deficiencies in SIDS victims in six functionally and developmentally related components of ventral medulla--all regions critically involved in chemoreception, respiratory drive, blood pressure responses, upper airway reflexes, and/or thermoregulation.

Four of the six affected regions, including the caudal raph? and arcuate nucleus, are considered derivatives of the rhombic lip and five of the six regions contain serotonergic neurons in the developing human brain. These studies have led to an expanded hypothesis concerning the role of the developing ventral medulla in SIDS: SIDS, or a subset of SIDS, is due to a developmental abnormality in a ventral network composed of rhombic-lip derived, serotonergic neurons, and that this abnormality results in a failure of protective responses to life-threatening challenges (e.g., asphyxia, hypoxia, hypercapnia) during sleep. About Hannah Kinney Hannah Kinney received her MD from Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine. She completed an internship and residencies in anatomic and clinical pathology and in pediatrics at Duke University Medical Center and a fellowship in pediatrics at Children's Hospital of Philadelphia.

PUBLICATIONS

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  1. Concurrent prenatal drinking and smoking increases risk for SIDS: Safe Passage Study report. EClinicalMedicine. 2020 Feb; 19:100247. View abstract
  2. The Serotonin Brainstem Hypothesis for the Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2019 09 01; 78(9):765-779. View abstract
  3. Mutations in NRXN1 and NRXN2 in a patient with early-onset epileptic encephalopathy and respiratory depression. Cold Spring Harb Mol Case Stud. 2019 02; 5(1). View abstract
  4. Pre-loss personal factors and prolonged grief disorder in bereaved mothers. Psychol Med. 2019 10; 49(14):2370-2378. View abstract
  5. The Grief of Mothers After the Sudden Unexpected Death of Their Infants. Pediatrics. 2018 05; 141(5). View abstract
  6. SCN1A variants associated with sudden infant death syndrome. Epilepsia. 2018 04; 59(4):e56-e62. View abstract
  7. White matter spongiosis with vigabatrin therapy for infantile spasms. Epilepsia. 2018 04; 59(4):e40-e44. View abstract
  8. Bereaved mothers' attitudes regarding autopsy of their stillborn baby. S Afr J Obstet Gynaecol (1999). 2017 Dec; 23(3):93-96. View abstract
  9. A New Approach to the Investigation of Sudden Unexpected Death. Pediatrics. 2017 08; 140(2). View abstract
  10. High serum serotonin in sudden infant death syndrome. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017 07 18; 114(29):7695-7700. View abstract
  11. Drinking and smoking patterns during pregnancy: Development of group-based trajectories in the Safe Passage Study. Alcohol. 2017 08; 62:49-60. View abstract
  12. A modified Timeline Followback assessment to capture alcohol exposure in pregnant women: Application in the Safe Passage Study. Alcohol. 2017 08; 62:17-27. View abstract
  13. The Lateral Temporal Lobe in Early Human Life. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2017 Jun 01; 76(6):424-438. View abstract
  14. Race, Ethnicity, and SIDS. Pediatrics. 2017 06; 139(6). View abstract
  15. The Stillbirth Classification System for the Safe Passage Study. Pediatr Dev Pathol. 2017 Mar-Apr; 20(2):120-132. View abstract
  16. Serotonin Receptors in the Medulla Oblongata of the Human Fetus and Infant: The Analytic Approach of the International Safe Passage Study. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2016 Nov 01; 75(11):1048-1057. View abstract
  17. The Institution of a Standardized Investigation Protocol for Sudden Infant Death in the Eastern Metropole, Cape Town, South Africa,. J Forensic Sci. 2016 Nov; 61(6):1508-1514. View abstract
  18. Hippocampal Formation Maldevelopment and Sudden Unexpected Death across the Pediatric Age Spectrum. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2016 Oct; 75(10):981-997. View abstract
  19. Sudden Unexpected Death in Fetal Life Through Early Childhood. Pediatrics. 2016 06; 137(6). View abstract
  20. The Stillbirth Classification System for the Safe Passage Study: Incorporating Mechanism, Etiology, and Recurrence. Pediatr Dev Pathol. 2016 Apr 26. View abstract
  21. In Memoriam: F. Stephen Vogel, MD. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2016 06; 75(6):555-7. View abstract
  22. Response to Letter to the Editor from Ackerman MJ, et al. Forensic Sci Med Pathol. 2016 06; 12(2):232-5. View abstract
  23. Sudden unexpected death in early childhood: general observations in a series of 151 cases: Part 1 of the investigations of the San Diego SUDC Research Project. Forensic Sci Med Pathol. 2016 Mar; 12(1):4-13. View abstract
  24. Hippocampal malformation associated with sudden death in early childhood: a neuropathologic study: Part 2 of the investigations of The San Diego SUDC Research Project. Forensic Sci Med Pathol. 2016 Mar; 12(1):14-25. View abstract
  25. The Structural Connectome of the Human Central Homeostatic Network. Brain Connect. 2016 Apr; 6(3):187-200. View abstract
  26. Overall Postneonatal Mortality and Rates of SIDS. Pediatrics. 2016 Jan; 137(1). View abstract
  27. A Century of Germinal Matrix Intraventricular Hemorrhage in Autopsied Premature Infants: A Historical Account. Pediatr Dev Pathol. 2016 Mar-Apr; 19(2):108-14. View abstract
  28. Toward an In Vivo Neuroimaging Template of Human Brainstem Nuclei of the Ascending Arousal, Autonomic, and Motor Systems. Brain Connect. 2015 Dec; 5(10):597-607. View abstract
  29. Dentate gyrus abnormalities in sudden unexplained death in infants: morphological marker of underlying brain vulnerability. Acta Neuropathol. 2015 Jan; 129(1):65-80. View abstract
  30. Prenatal nicotine exposure selectively affects nicotinic receptor expression in primary and associative visual cortices of the fetal baboon. Brain Pathol. 2015 Mar; 25(2):171-81. View abstract
  31. The safe passage study: design, methods, recruitment, and follow-up approach. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol. 2014 Sep; 28(5):455-65. View abstract
  32. Authors' reply. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2014 Mar; 73(3):268-9. View abstract
  33. Fetal alcohol syndrome and secondary schizophrenia: a unique neuropathologic study. J Child Neurol. 2015 Apr; 30(5):601-5. View abstract
  34. Serotonin metabolites in the cerebrospinal fluid in sudden infant death syndrome. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2014 Feb; 73(2):115-22. View abstract
  35. PSYCHOSOCIAL IMPLICATIONS OF STILLBIRTH FOR THE MOTHER AND HER FAMILY: A CRISIS-SUPPORT APPROACH. Social Work (Stellenbosch). 2014; 50(4). View abstract
  36. Potential asphyxia and brainstem abnormalities in sudden and unexpected death in infants. Pediatrics. 2013 Dec; 132(6):e1616-25. View abstract
  37. Neuropathologic studies of the encephalopathy of prematurity in the late preterm infant. Clin Perinatol. 2013 Dec; 40(4):707-22. View abstract
  38. Witnessed sleep-related seizure and sudden unexpected death in infancy: a case report. Forensic Sci Med Pathol. 2013 Sep; 9(3):418-21. View abstract
  39. Development of brainstem 5-HT1A receptor-binding sites in serotonin-deficient mice. J Neurochem. 2013 Sep; 126(6):749-57. View abstract
  40. Disconnection of the ascending arousal system in traumatic coma. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2013 Jun; 72(6):505-23. View abstract
  41. The Human Connectome Project and beyond: initial applications of 300 mT/m gradients. Neuroimage. 2013 Oct 15; 80:234-45. View abstract
  42. Whole genome sequencing identifies SCN2A mutation in monozygotic twins with Ohtahara syndrome and unique neuropathologic findings. Epilepsia. 2013 May; 54(5):e81-5. View abstract
  43. Expression of EAAT2 in neurons and protoplasmic astrocytes during human cortical development. J Comp Neurol. 2012 Dec 01; 520(17):3912-32. View abstract
  44. Radial coherence of diffusion tractography in the cerebral white matter of the human fetus: neuroanatomic insights. Cereb Cortex. 2014 Mar; 24(3):579-92. View abstract
  45. Caffeine improves the ability of serotonin-deficient (Pet-1-/-) mice to survive episodic asphyxia. Pediatr Res. 2013 Jan; 73(1):38-45. View abstract
  46. Metabolic maturation of the human brain from birth through adolescence: insights from in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Cereb Cortex. 2013 Dec; 23(12):2944-55. View abstract
  47. Sudden and unexpected death in early life: proceedings of a symposium in honor of Dr. Henry F. Krous. Forensic Sci Med Pathol. 2012 Dec; 8(4):414-25. View abstract
  48. Subtle alterations in breathing and heart rate control in the 5-HT1A receptor knockout mouse in early postnatal development. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2012 Nov; 113(10):1585-93. View abstract
  49. Hippocampal asymmetry and sudden unexpected death in infancy: a case report. Forensic Sci Med Pathol. 2012 Dec; 8(4):441-6. View abstract
  50. Neuroanatomic connectivity of the human ascending arousal system critical to consciousness and its disorders. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2012 Jun; 71(6):531-46. View abstract
  51. Modeling the encephalopathy of prematurity in animals: the important role of translational research. Neurol Res Int. 2012; 2012:295389. View abstract
  52. Inheritance of febrile seizures in sudden unexplained death in toddlers. Pediatr Neurol. 2012 Apr; 46(4):235-9. View abstract
  53. Risk factor changes for sudden infant death syndrome after initiation of Back-to-Sleep campaign. Pediatrics. 2012 Apr; 129(4):630-8. View abstract
  54. Neuron deficit in the white matter and subplate in periventricular leukomalacia. Ann Neurol. 2012 Mar; 71(3):397-406. View abstract
  55. Brainstem deficiency of the 14-3-3 regulator of serotonin synthesis: a proteomics analysis in the sudden infant death syndrome. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2012 Jan; 11(1):M111.009530. View abstract
  56. Late development of the GABAergic system in the human cerebral cortex and white matter. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2011 Oct; 70(10):841-58. View abstract
  57. Decreased GABAA receptor binding in the medullary serotonergic system in the sudden infant death syndrome. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2011 Sep; 70(9):799-810. View abstract
  58. Aberrant upregulation of astroglial ceramide potentiates oligodendrocyte injury. Brain Pathol. 2012 Jan; 22(1):41-57. View abstract
  59. Reprint of "The developing oligodendrocyte: key cellular target in brain injury in the premature infant". Int J Dev Neurosci. 2011 Oct; 29(6):565-82. View abstract
  60. Failed heart rate recovery at a critical age in 5-HT-deficient mice exposed to episodic anoxia: implications for SIDS. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2011 Sep; 111(3):825-33. View abstract
  61. The serotonergic anatomy of the developing human medulla oblongata: implications for pediatric disorders of homeostasis. J Chem Neuroanat. 2011 Jul; 41(4):182-99. View abstract
  62. The developing oligodendrocyte: key cellular target in brain injury in the premature infant. Int J Dev Neurosci. 2011 Jun; 29(4):423-40. View abstract
  63. Potential neuronal repair in cerebral white matter injury in the human neonate. Pediatr Res. 2011 Jan; 69(1):62-7. View abstract
  64. Consent for autopsy research for unexpected death in early life. Obstet Gynecol. 2011 Jan; 117(1):167-171. View abstract
  65. Lack of association of the serotonin transporter polymorphism with the sudden infant death syndrome in the San Diego Dataset. Pediatr Res. 2010 Nov; 68(5):409-13. View abstract
  66. Maternal dietary tryptophan deficiency alters cardiorespiratory control in rat pups. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2011 Feb; 110(2):318-28. View abstract
  67. Abnormal microstructure of the atrophic thalamus in preterm survivors with periventricular leukomalacia. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2011 Jan; 32(1):185-91. View abstract
  68. Progressive primary pulmonary tuberculosis presenting as the sudden unexpected death in infancy: a case report. Forensic Sci Int. 2011 Mar 20; 206(1-3):e27-30. View abstract
  69. The cerebral cortex overlying periventricular leukomalacia: analysis of pyramidal neurons. Brain Pathol. 2010 Jul; 20(4):803-14. View abstract
  70. Brainstem serotonergic deficiency in sudden infant death syndrome. JAMA. 2010 Feb 03; 303(5):430-7. View abstract
  71. Potential Mechanisms of Failure in the Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. Curr Pediatr Rev. 2010 Feb 01; 6(1):39-47. View abstract
  72. The encephalopathy of prematurity: one pediatric neuropathologist's perspective. Semin Pediatr Neurol. 2009 Dec; 16(4):179-90. View abstract
  73. Serotonin-related FEV gene variant in the sudden infant death syndrome is a common polymorphism in the African-American population. Pediatr Res. 2009 Dec; 66(6):631-5. View abstract
  74. Neuroanatomic relationships between the GABAergic and serotonergic systems in the developing human medulla. Auton Neurosci. 2010 Apr 19; 154(1-2):30-41. View abstract
  75. Sudden death, febrile seizures, and hippocampal and temporal lobe maldevelopment in toddlers: a new entity. Pediatr Dev Pathol. 2009 Nov-Dec; 12(6):455-63. View abstract
  76. Novel neuropathologic findings in the Haddad syndrome. Acta Neuropathol. 2010 Feb; 119(2):261-9. View abstract
  77. Prenatal nicotine-exposure alters fetal autonomic activity and medullary neurotransmitter receptors: implications for sudden infant death syndrome. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2009 Nov; 107(5):1579-90. View abstract
  78. The sudden infant death syndrome. N Engl J Med. 2009 Aug 20; 361(8):795-805. View abstract
  79. A practical classification schema incorporating consideration of possible asphyxia in cases of sudden unexpected infant death. Forensic Sci Med Pathol. 2009 Dec; 5(4):254-60. View abstract
  80. Nitrosative stress and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression in periventricular leukomalacia. Acta Neuropathol. 2009 Sep; 118(3):391-9. View abstract
  81. Thalamic damage in periventricular leukomalacia: novel pathologic observations relevant to cognitive deficits in survivors of prematurity. Pediatr Res. 2009 May; 65(5):524-9. View abstract
  82. Interleukin-6 and the serotonergic system of the medulla oblongata in the sudden infant death syndrome. Acta Neuropathol. 2009 Oct; 118(4):519-30. View abstract
  83. Brainstem mechanisms underlying the sudden infant death syndrome: evidence from human pathologic studies. Dev Psychobiol. 2009 Apr; 51(3):223-33. View abstract
  84. Neuropathology provides new insight in the pathogenesis of the sudden infant death syndrome. Acta Neuropathol. 2009 Mar; 117(3):247-55. View abstract
  85. The brainstem and serotonin in the sudden infant death syndrome. Annu Rev Pathol. 2009; 4:517-50. View abstract
  86. The development of nicotinic receptors in the human medulla oblongata: inter-relationship with the serotonergic system. Auton Neurosci. 2008 Dec 15; 144(1-2):61-75. View abstract
  87. Structural abnormalities in the brainstem and cerebellum in congenital central hypoventilation syndrome: commentary on the article by Kumar et al. on page 275. Pediatr Res. 2008 Sep; 64(3):226-7. View abstract
  88. Diffuse axonal injury in periventricular leukomalacia as determined by apoptotic marker fractin. Pediatr Res. 2008 Jun; 63(6):656-61. View abstract
  89. Glutamate transporter EAAT2 expression is up-regulated in reactive astrocytes in human periventricular leukomalacia. J Comp Neurol. 2008 May 10; 508(2):238-48. View abstract
  90. Fetal mechanisms in neurodevelopmental disorders. Pediatr Neurol. 2008 Mar; 38(3):163-76. View abstract
  91. Myelin abnormalities without oligodendrocyte loss in periventricular leukomalacia. Brain Pathol. 2008 Apr; 18(2):153-63. View abstract
  92. Sudden death in toddlers with viral meningitis, massive cerebral edema, and neurogenic pulmonary edema and hemorrhage: report of two cases. Pediatr Dev Pathol. 2007 Nov-Dec; 10(6):463-9. View abstract
  93. The effect of maternal smoking and drinking during pregnancy upon (3)H-nicotine receptor brainstem binding in infants dying of the sudden infant death syndrome: initial observations in a high risk population. Brain Pathol. 2008 Jan; 18(1):21-31. View abstract
  94. Gray matter injury associated with periventricular leukomalacia in the premature infant. Acta Neuropathol. 2007 Dec; 114(6):619-31. View abstract
  95. Sudden death in toddlers associated with developmental abnormalities of the hippocampus: a report of five cases. Pediatr Dev Pathol. 2007 May-Jun; 10(3):208-23. View abstract
  96. The glutamate transporter EAAT2 is transiently expressed in developing human cerebral white matter. J Comp Neurol. 2007 Apr 20; 501(6):879-90. View abstract
  97. Sudden unexpected death in childhood associated with cardiac rhabdomyoma, involuting adrenal ganglioneuroma, and megalencephaly: another expression of tuberous sclerosis? Pediatr Dev Pathol. 2007 Mar-Apr; 10(2):129-33. View abstract
  98. The development of the medullary serotonergic system in early human life. Auton Neurosci. 2007 Mar 30; 132(1-2):81-102. View abstract
  99. The late preterm infant and the control of breathing, sleep, and brainstem development: a review. Clin Perinatol. 2006 Dec; 33(4):883-914; abstract x. View abstract
  100. Is the late preterm infant more vulnerable to gray matter injury than the term infant? Clin Perinatol. 2006 Dec; 33(4):915-33; abstract x-xi. View abstract
  101. Multiple serotonergic brainstem abnormalities in sudden infant death syndrome. JAMA. 2006 Nov 01; 296(17):2124-32. View abstract
  102. Lipid peroxidation during human cerebral myelination. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2006 Sep; 65(9):894-904. View abstract
  103. Development of microglia in the cerebral white matter of the human fetus and infant. J Comp Neurol. 2006 Jul 10; 497(2):199-208. View abstract
  104. Ventilatory response to hypercapnia and hypoxia after extensive lesion of medullary serotonergic neurons in newborn conscious piglets. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2006 Oct; 101(4):1177-88. View abstract
  105. The near-term (late preterm) human brain and risk for periventricular leukomalacia: a review. Semin Perinatol. 2006 Apr; 30(2):81-8. View abstract
  106. Subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord in cblC disorder despite treatment with B12. Mol Genet Metab. 2006 Jun; 88(2):138-45. View abstract
  107. Serotonergic and glutamatergic neurons at the ventral medullary surface of the human infant: Observations relevant to central chemosensitivity in early human life. Auton Neurosci. 2006 Jan 30; 124(1-2):112-24. View abstract
  108. Serotonin transporter abnormality in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus in Rett syndrome: potential implications for clinical autonomic dysfunction. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2005 Nov; 64(11):1018-27. View abstract
  109. Hypoxic-ischemic brain injury in infants with congenital heart disease dying after cardiac surgery. Acta Neuropathol. 2005 Dec; 110(6):563-78. View abstract
  110. Abnormalities of the brainstem serotonergic system in the sudden infant death syndrome: a review. Pediatr Dev Pathol. 2005 Sep-Oct; 8(5):507-24. View abstract
  111. Subtle autonomic and respiratory dysfunction in sudden infant death syndrome associated with serotonergic brainstem abnormalities: a case report. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2005 Aug; 64(8):689-94. View abstract
  112. Sudden Infant Death Syndrome: increased carotid-body dopamine and noradrenaline content. Pediatr Dev Pathol. 2005 May-Jun; 8(3):258-67. View abstract
  113. Comparative anatomical assessment of the piglet as a model for the developing human medullary serotonergic system. Brain Res Brain Res Rev. 2005 Dec 01; 50(1):169-83. View abstract
  114. Mechanism of JCV entry into oligodendrocytes. Science. 2005 Jul 15; 309(5733):381-2. View abstract
  115. Oxidative and nitrative injury in periventricular leukomalacia: a review. Brain Pathol. 2005 Jul; 15(3):225-33. View abstract
  116. Axonal development in the cerebral white matter of the human fetus and infant. J Comp Neurol. 2005 Apr 04; 484(2):156-67. View abstract
  117. Human myelination and perinatal white matter disorders. J Neurol Sci. 2005 Feb 15; 228(2):190-2. View abstract
  118. Developmental lag in superoxide dismutases relative to other antioxidant enzymes in premyelinated human telencephalic white matter. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2004 Sep; 63(9):990-9. View abstract
  119. Chronic fluoxetine microdialysis into the medullary raphe nuclei of the rat, but not systemic administration, increases the ventilatory response to CO2. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2004 Nov; 97(5):1763-73. View abstract
  120. Interferon-gamma expression in periventricular leukomalacia in the human brain. Brain Pathol. 2004 Jul; 14(3):265-74. View abstract
  121. Differential development of 5-HT receptor and the serotonin transporter binding in the human infant medulla. J Comp Neurol. 2004 Apr 26; 472(2):221-31. View abstract
  122. The development of the medullary serotonergic system in the piglet. Auton Neurosci. 2004 Feb 27; 110(2):65-80. View abstract
  123. Serotonergic brainstem abnormalities in Northern Plains Indians with the sudden infant death syndrome. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2003 Nov; 62(11):1178-91. View abstract
  124. Anatomic relationships of the human nucleus of the solitary tract in the medulla oblongata: a DiI labeling study. Auton Neurosci. 2003 May 30; 105(2):131-44. View abstract
  125. Nitrosative and oxidative injury to premyelinating oligodendrocytes in periventricular leukomalacia. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2003 May; 62(5):441-50. View abstract
  126. Nicotine, serotonin, and sudden infant death syndrome. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2002 Dec 15; 166(12 Pt 1):1530-1. View abstract
  127. Risk factors for sudden infant death syndrome among northern plains Indians. JAMA. 2002 Dec 04; 288(21):2717-23. View abstract
  128. Subtle developmental abnormalities in the inferior olive: an indicator of prenatal brainstem injury in the sudden infant death syndrome. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2002 May; 61(5):427-41. View abstract
  129. Arrested oligodendrocyte lineage progression during human cerebral white matter development: dissociation between the timing of progenitor differentiation and myelinogenesis. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2002 Feb; 61(2):197-211. View abstract
  130. Neuropathology associated with stillbirth. Semin Perinatol. 2002 Feb; 26(1):83-8. View abstract
  131. Volumetric brain differences in children with periventricular T2-signal hyperintensities: a grouping by gestational age at birth. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2001 Sep; 177(3):695-702. View abstract
  132. Anatomic relationships of the human nucleus paragigantocellularis lateralis: a DiI labeling study. Auton Neurosci. 2001 Jun 20; 89(1-2):110-24. View abstract
  133. Distribution of alpha 2-adrenergic receptor binding in the developing human brain stem. Pediatr Dev Pathol. 2001 May-Jun; 4(3):222-36. View abstract
  134. Medullary serotonergic network deficiency in the sudden infant death syndrome: review of a 15-year study of a single dataset. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2001 Mar; 60(3):228-47. View abstract
  135. Late oligodendrocyte progenitors coincide with the developmental window of vulnerability for human perinatal white matter injury. J Neurosci. 2001 Feb 15; 21(4):1302-12. View abstract
  136. Alpha2 receptor binding in the medulla oblongata in the sudden infant death syndrome. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2001 Feb; 60(2):141-6. View abstract
  137. Differential expression of glutamate receptor subtypes in human brainstem sites involved in perinatal hypoxia-ischemia. J Comp Neurol. 2000 Nov 13; 427(2):196-208. View abstract
  138. Decreased serotonergic receptor binding in rhombic lip-derived regions of the medulla oblongata in the sudden infant death syndrome. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2000 May; 59(5):377-84. View abstract
  139. Sleep influences on homeostatic functions: implications for sudden infant death syndrome. Respir Physiol. 2000 Feb; 119(2-3):123-32. View abstract
  140. Early developmental changes in the chemoarchitecture of the human inferior olive: a review. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 1999 Jan; 58(1):1-11. View abstract
  141. Brainstem 3H-nicotine receptor binding in the sudden infant death syndrome. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 1998 Nov; 57(11):1018-25. View abstract
  142. 3-Dimensional anatomic relationship of serotonergic and muscarinic receptor binding in the pontine reticular formation of the human infant brainstem. Clin Neuropathol. 1998 Nov-Dec; 17(6):318-25. View abstract
  143. Human oligodendroglial development: relationship to periventricular leukomalacia. Semin Pediatr Neurol. 1998 Sep; 5(3):180-9. View abstract
  144. Tritiated-naloxone binding to brainstem opioid receptors in the sudden infant death syndrome. J Auton Nerv Syst. 1998 Apr 30; 69(2-3):156-63. View abstract
  145. Developmental changes in heterogeneous patterns of neurotransmitter receptor binding in the human interpeduncular nucleus. J Comp Neurol. 1998 Jan 19; 390(3):322-32. View abstract
  146. Decreased kainate receptor binding in the arcuate nucleus of the sudden infant death syndrome. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 1997 Nov; 56(11):1253-61. View abstract
  147. Anatomic relationships of the human arcuate nucleus of the medulla: a DiI-labeling study. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 1997 May; 56(5):509-22. View abstract
  148. Expression of the homeobox-containing genes EN1 and EN2 in human fetal midgestational medulla and cerebellum. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 1997 Mar; 56(3):236-42. View abstract
  149. Reciprocal entorhinal-hippocampal connections established by human fetal midgestation. J Comp Neurol. 1996 Aug 26; 372(3):384-94. View abstract
  150. Brainstem tegmental necrosis and olivary hypoplasia: a lethal entity associated with congenital apnea. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 1996 Jul; 55(7):841-9. View abstract
  151. Developmental changes in neurotransmitter receptor binding in the human periaqueductal gray. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 1996 Apr; 55(4):409-18. View abstract
  152. Developmental changes in [3H]lysergic acid diethylamide ([3H]LSD) binding to serotonin receptors in the human brainstem. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 1996 Jan; 55(1):114-26. View abstract
  153. Three-dimensional distribution of [3H]quinuclidinyl benzilate binding to muscarinic cholinergic receptors in the developing human brainstem. J Comp Neurol. 1995 Nov 20; 362(3):350-67. View abstract
  154. Massive opioid resistance in an infant with a localized metastasis to the midbrain periaqueductal gray. Pain. 1995 Nov; 63(2):271-275. View abstract
  155. Decreased muscarinic receptor binding in the arcuate nucleus in sudden infant death syndrome. Science. 1995 Sep 08; 269(5229):1446-50. View abstract
  156. Developmental changes in [3H]kainate binding in human brainstem sites vulnerable to perinatal hypoxia-ischemia. Neuroscience. 1995 Jul; 67(2):441-54. View abstract
  157. Sudden infant death syndrome and brainstem research. Pediatr Ann. 1995 Jul; 24(7):379-83. View abstract
  158. Control of severe pain in children with terminal malignancy. J Pediatr. 1995 Apr; 126(4):653-7. View abstract
  159. Neuropathology of the persistent vegetative state. A review. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 1994 Nov; 53(6):548-58. View abstract
  160. Myelination in the developing human brain: biochemical correlates. Neurochem Res. 1994 Aug; 19(8):983-96. View abstract
  161. Neuropathological findings in the brain of Karen Ann Quinlan. The role of the thalamus in the persistent vegetative state. N Engl J Med. 1994 May 26; 330(21):1469-75. View abstract
  162. A perspective on neuropathologic findings in victims of the sudden infant death syndrome: the triple-risk model. Biol Neonate. 1994; 65(3-4):194-7. View abstract
  163. Early developmental changes in [3H]nicotine binding in the human brainstem. Neuroscience. 1993 Aug; 55(4):1127-38. View abstract
  164. Anatomic distribution of the growth-associated protein GAP-43 in the developing human brainstem. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 1993 Jan; 52(1):39-54. View abstract
  165. Arthrogryposis multiplex congenita with posterior column degeneration and peripheral neuropathy: a case report. Clin Neuropathol. 1993 Jan-Feb; 12(1):25-33. View abstract
  166. Insulin-like growth factor II expression in the developing human brain. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 1992 Jul; 51(4):464-71. View abstract
  167. Arcuate nucleus hypoplasia in the sudden infant death syndrome. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 1992 Jul; 51(4):394-403. View abstract
  168. The neuropathology of the sudden infant death syndrome. A review. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 1992 Mar; 51(2):115-26. View abstract
  169. Opioid receptors localize to the external granular cell layer of the developing human cerebellum. Neuroscience. 1991; 45(1):13-21. View abstract
  170. Delayed central nervous system myelination in the sudden infant death syndrome. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 1991 Jan; 50(1):29-48. View abstract
  171. Candidate cell populations for respiratory chemosensitive fields in the human infant medulla. J Comp Neurol. 1990 Mar 15; 293(3):448-65. View abstract
  172. Three-dimensional distribution of 3H-naloxone binding to opiate receptors in the human fetal and infant brainstem. J Comp Neurol. 1990 Jan 01; 291(1):55-78. View abstract
  173. Congenital apnea with medullary and olivary hypoplasia: a pathologic study with computer reconstructions. Clin Neuropathol. 1989 Jul-Aug; 8(4):163-73. View abstract
  174. Volumetric sampling strategies for heterogeneous brainstem nuclei. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 1989 May; 48(3):223-44. View abstract
  175. Sequence of central nervous system myelination in human infancy. II. Patterns of myelination in autopsied infants. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 1988 May; 47(3):217-34. View abstract
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