ABOUT THE RESEARCHER

OVERVIEW

Dr. Grant is the Director of the Fetal-Neonatal Neuroimaging and Developmental Science Center (FNNDSC) at Children's Hospital Boston. The center's purpose is to create the infrastructure and provide the expertise needed to support and foster cutting edge clinical and translational science research involving magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), magnetoencephalography (MEG) and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) across multiple subspecialties. The center's work addresses critical needs in the pediatric population: Children are different than adults: Children's brains go through dramatic changes in size and composition, with associated physiological changes. Children need technology developed for the unique size and physiology of their brains. Children's brains are not fully "online": It is impossible, for example, to test an infant's language function, so it is important to develop imaging approaches that permit clinicians to evaluate the structures and the physiological health of regions that will promote developing functions. This will allow clinicians to better predict function in individual children. Children's brains are much more plastic than adult brains: To optimize the potential of each individual child, safe methods are needed to monitor brain growth and development as well as response to therapy. The multiple modalities employed by the center are safe and provide the most sophisticated means of monitoring brain heath. The development of a child's brain is an extremely complex process: A multidisciplinary center, where clinicians and scientists can come together and work with a common set of tools, is necessary to improve knowledge of brain development.

BACKGROUND

Dr. Grant holds a Master of Science degree in physics and an MD from the University of Toronto. She did her radiology residency at Vancouver General Hospital in British Columbia, Canada, and her fellowship in adult and pediatric neuroradiology at the University of California, San Francisco. She is now a Professor of Radiology and Pediatrics at the Harvard Medical School. Dr. Grant headed the Division of Pediatric Radiology at Massachusetts General Hospital for five years before moving to Children's Hospital Boston to become the founding director of the Fetal-Neonatal Neuroimaging and Developmental Science Center and the first incumbent of Children's Hospital Boston Chair in Neonatology. At Children's she holds appointments in the Division of Newborn Medicine and the Department of Radiology. Dr. Grant is a co-author of two popular textbooks for clinical neuroradiology and has won a number of awards for her research efforts as well as recognition for her clinical excellence.

PUBLICATIONS

Publications powered by Harvard Catalyst Profiles

  1. Numerical simulation of the radiofrequency safety of 128-channel hd-EEG nets on a 29-month-old whole-body model in a 3 Tesla MRI. IEEE Trans Electromagn Compat. 2021 Oct; 63(5):1748-1756. View abstract
  2. Development, validation, and pilot MRI safety study of a high-resolution, open source, whole body pediatric numerical simulation model. PLoS One. 2021; 16(1):e0241682. View abstract
  3. Voxelwise and Regional Brain Apparent Diffusion Coefficient Changes on MRI from Birth to 6 Years of Age. Radiology. 2021 02; 298(2):415-424. View abstract
  4. Infant FreeSurfer: An automated segmentation and surface extraction pipeline for T1-weighted neuroimaging data of infants 0-2 years. Neuroimage. 2020 09; 218:116946. View abstract
  5. Abnormalities in cerebral hemodynamics and changes with surgical intervention in neonates with congenital heart disease. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2020 05; 159(5):2012-2021. View abstract
  6. Markerless high-frequency prospective motion correction for neuroanatomical MRI. Magn Reson Med. 2019 07; 82(1):126-144. View abstract
  7. Publisher Correction: Shedding light on the neonatal brain: probing cerebral hemodynamics by diffuse optical spectroscopic methods. Sci Rep. 2018 Apr 12; 8(1):6007. View abstract
  8. MNE Scan: Software for real-time processing of electrophysiological data. J Neurosci Methods. 2018 06 01; 303:55-67. View abstract
  9. Shedding light on the neonatal brain: probing cerebral hemodynamics by diffuse optical spectroscopic methods. Sci Rep. 2017 Nov 17; 7(1):15786. View abstract
  10. Using clinically acquired MRI to construct age-specific ADC atlases: Quantifying spatiotemporal ADC changes from birth to 6-year old. Hum Brain Mapp. 2017 06; 38(6):3052-3068. View abstract
  11. Non-invasive Assessment of Cerebral Blood Flow and Oxygen Metabolism in Neonates during Hypothermic Cardiopulmonary Bypass: Feasibility and Clinical Implications. Sci Rep. 2017 03 09; 7:44117. View abstract
  12. High-angular resolution diffusion imaging tractography of cerebellar pathways from newborns to young adults. Brain Behav. 2017 01; 7(1):e00589. View abstract
  13. Reduced cerebral blood flow and oxygen metabolism in extremely preterm neonates with low-grade germinal matrix- intraventricular hemorrhage. Sci Rep. 2016 05 16; 6:25903. View abstract
  14. Brain extraction in pediatric ADC maps, toward characterizing neuro-development in multi-platform and multi-institution clinical images. Neuroimage. 2015 Nov 15; 122:246-61. View abstract
  15. Cortical somatosensory reorganization in children with spastic cerebral palsy: a multimodal neuroimaging study. Front Hum Neurosci. 2014; 8:725. View abstract
  16. Multi-shell diffusion signal recovery from sparse measurements. Med Image Anal. 2014 Oct; 18(7):1143-56. View abstract
  17. Wave-CAIPI for highly accelerated 3D imaging. Magn Reson Med. 2015 Jun; 73(6):2152-62. View abstract
  18. Diffuse correlation spectroscopy for measurement of cerebral blood flow: future prospects. Neurophotonics. 2014 Jun 20; 1(1). View abstract
  19. Time efficiency and diagnostic agreement of 2-D versus 3-D ultrasound acquisition of the neonatal brain. Ultrasound Med Biol. 2014 Aug; 40(8):1804-9. View abstract
  20. Genetic influences and neuropathological sequelae of repetitive brain injury. Reply. Ann Neurol. 2014 Apr; 75(4):618. View abstract
  21. Localization of the epileptogenic foci in tuberous sclerosis complex: a pediatric case report. Front Hum Neurosci. 2014; 8:175. View abstract
  22. Sex and the migraine brain. Neurobiol Dis. 2014 Aug; 68:200-14. View abstract
  23. Development of cerebellar connectivity in human fetal brains revealed by high angular resolution diffusion tractography. Neuroimage. 2014 Aug 01; 96:326-33. View abstract
  24. Evolutionarily dynamic alternative splicing of GPR56 regulates regional cerebral cortical patterning. Science. 2014 Feb 14; 343(6172):764-8. View abstract
  25. Maximum entropy estimation of glutamate and glutamine in MR spectroscopic imaging. Med Image Comput Comput Assist Interv. 2014; 17(Pt 2):749-56. View abstract
  26. Cerebral oxygen metabolism in neonatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy during and after therapeutic hypothermia. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2014 Jan; 34(1):87-94. View abstract
  27. Altered white matter connectivity and network organization in polymicrogyria revealed by individual gyral topology-based analysis. Neuroimage. 2014 Feb 01; 86:182-93. View abstract
  28. Clinical correlates in an experimental model of repetitive mild brain injury. Ann Neurol. 2013 Jul; 74(1):65-75. View abstract
  29. Radial and tangential neuronal migration pathways in the human fetal brain: anatomically distinct patterns of diffusion MRI coherence. Neuroimage. 2013 Oct 01; 79:412-22. View abstract
  30. Whole genome sequencing identifies SCN2A mutation in monozygotic twins with Ohtahara syndrome and unique neuropathologic findings. Epilepsia. 2013 May; 54(5):e81-5. View abstract
  31. Effects of sutures and fontanels on MEG and EEG source analysis in a realistic infant head model. Neuroimage. 2013 Aug 01; 76:282-93. View abstract
  32. Transient and persistent pain induced connectivity alterations in pediatric complex regional pain syndrome. PLoS One. 2013; 8(3):e57205. View abstract
  33. Non-invasive optical measurement of cerebral metabolism and hemodynamics in infants. J Vis Exp. 2013 Mar 14; (73):e4379. View abstract
  34. A novel syndrome caused by the E410K amino acid substitution in the neuronal ß-tubulin isotype 3. Brain. 2013 Feb; 136(Pt 2):522-35. View abstract
  35. Somatosensory evoked changes in cerebral oxygen consumption measured non-invasively in premature neonates. Neuroimage. 2014 Jan 15; 85 Pt 1:279-86. View abstract
  36. Reliable identification of deep sulcal pits: the effects of scan session, scanner, and surface extraction tool. PLoS One. 2013; 8(1):e53678. View abstract
  37. Diffusion propagator estimation from sparse measurements in a tractography framework. Med Image Comput Comput Assist Interv. 2013; 16(Pt 3):510-7. View abstract
  38. Detection of postmortem human cerebellar cortex and white matter pathways using high angular resolution diffusion tractography: a feasibility study. Neuroimage. 2013 Mar; 68:105-11. View abstract
  39. Radial coherence of diffusion tractography in the cerebral white matter of the human fetus: neuroanatomic insights. Cereb Cortex. 2014 Mar; 24(3):579-92. View abstract
  40. An inherited TUBB2B mutation alters a kinesin-binding site and causes polymicrogyria, CFEOM and axon dysinnervation. Hum Mol Genet. 2012 Dec 15; 21(26):5484-99. View abstract
  41. Quantification and discrimination of abnormal sulcal patterns in polymicrogyria. Cereb Cortex. 2013 Dec; 23(12):3007-15. View abstract
  42. A quantitative method for correlating observations of decreased apparent diffusion coefficient with elevated cerebral blood perfusion in newborns presenting cerebral ischemic insults. Neuroimage. 2012 Nov 15; 63(3):1510-8. View abstract
  43. Diffusion tensor analysis of pediatric multiple sclerosis and clinically isolated syndromes. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2013 Feb; 34(2):417-23. View abstract
  44. Regional infant brain development: an MRI-based morphometric analysis in 3 to 13 month olds. Cereb Cortex. 2013 Sep; 23(9):2100-17. View abstract
  45. Neuroanatomic connectivity of the human ascending arousal system critical to consciousness and its disorders. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2012 Jun; 71(6):531-46. View abstract
  46. Pediatric neuroimaging in early childhood and infancy: challenges and practical guidelines. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2012 Apr; 1252:43-50. View abstract
  47. Bilateral subcortical heterotopia with partial callosal agenesis in a mouse mutant. Cereb Cortex. 2013 Apr; 23(4):859-72. View abstract
  48. Regional and hemispheric asymmetries of cerebral hemodynamic and oxygen metabolism in newborns. Cereb Cortex. 2013 Feb; 23(2):339-48. View abstract
  49. Altered fetal cerebral and cerebellar development in twin-twin transfusion syndrome. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2012 Jun; 33(6):1121-6. View abstract
  50. The confounding effect of systemic physiology on the hemodynamic response in newborns. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2012; 737:103-9. View abstract
  51. Restricted diffusion in spinal cord infarction demonstrated by magnetic resonance line scan diffusion imaging. Stroke. 2012 Feb; 43(2):532-5. View abstract
  52. Near-infrared spectroscopy assessment of cerebral oxygen metabolism in the developing premature brain. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2012 Mar; 32(3):481-8. View abstract
  53. MR imaging of the term and preterm neonate with diffuse brain injury. Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am. 2011 Nov; 19(4):709-31; vii. View abstract
  54. Multimodal imaging of spike propagation: a technical case report. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2012 Jun; 33(6):E82-4. View abstract
  55. Emerging cerebral connectivity in the human fetal brain: an MR tractography study. Cereb Cortex. 2012 Feb; 22(2):455-64. View abstract
  56. Size-optimized 32-channel brain arrays for 3 T pediatric imaging. Magn Reson Med. 2011 Dec; 66(6):1777-87. View abstract
  57. Quantitative comparison and analysis of sulcal patterns using sulcal graph matching: a twin study. Neuroimage. 2011 Aug 01; 57(3):1077-86. View abstract
  58. Assessment of the frequency-domain multi-distance method to evaluate the brain optical properties: Monte Carlo simulations from neonate to adult. Biomed Opt Express. 2011 Feb 11; 2(3):552-67. View abstract
  59. Diffusion-weighted imaging in neonates. Neuroimaging Clin N Am. 2011 Feb; 21(1):127-51, viii. View abstract
  60. The relationship between the presence of sulcal pits and intelligence in human brains. Neuroimage. 2011 Apr 15; 55(4):1490-6. View abstract
  61. Acute liver failure and reversible leukoencephalopathy in a pediatric patient with homocystinuria. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2010 Nov; 51(5):668-71. View abstract
  62. Fetal MR imaging evidence of prolonged apparent diffusion coefficient decrease in fetal death. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2011 Aug; 32(7):E126-8. View abstract
  63. In vivo proton beam range verification using spine MRI changes. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2010 Sep 01; 78(1):268-75. View abstract
  64. Noninvasive optical measures of CBV, StO(2), CBF index, and rCMRO(2) in human premature neonates' brains in the first six weeks of life. Hum Brain Mapp. 2010 Mar; 31(3):341-52. View abstract
  65. MR connectomics: Principles and challenges. J Neurosci Methods. 2010 Dec 15; 194(1):34-45. View abstract
  66. Tract-based analysis of callosal, projection, and association pathways in pediatric patients with multiple sclerosis: a preliminary study. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2010 Jan; 31(1):121-8. View abstract
  67. Associations between the size of the amygdala in infancy and language abilities during the preschool years in normally developing children. Neuroimage. 2010 Feb 01; 49(3):2791-9. View abstract
  68. New directions in clinical imaging of cortical dysplasias. Epilepsia. 2009 Oct; 50 Suppl 9:9-18. View abstract
  69. Development of cerebral fiber pathways in cats revealed by diffusion spectrum imaging. Neuroimage. 2010 Jan 15; 49(2):1231-40. View abstract
  70. Changes in white matter microstructure in patients with TLE and hippocampal sclerosis. Epileptic Disord. 2009 Sep; 11(3):244-50. View abstract
  71. Probabilistic atlas can improve reconstruction from optical imaging of the neonatal brain. Opt Express. 2009 Aug 17; 17(17):14977-92. View abstract
  72. Case records of the Massachusetts General Hospital. Case 23-2009. A 13-year-old boy with headache, nausea, seizures, and hypertension. N Engl J Med. 2009 Jul 23; 361(4):389-400. View abstract
  73. Increased cerebral blood volume and oxygen consumption in neonatal brain injury. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2009 Oct; 29(10):1704-13. View abstract
  74. Progressive multifocal cystlike cortical tubers in tuberous sclerosis complex: Clinical and neuropathologic findings. Epilepsia. 2009 Dec; 50(12):2648-51. View abstract
  75. Predicting the location of entorhinal cortex from MRI. Neuroimage. 2009 Aug 01; 47(1):8-17. View abstract
  76. Surveillance of craniopharyngioma cyst growth in children treated with proton radiotherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2009 Mar 01; 73(3):716-21. View abstract
  77. Case records of the Massachusetts General Hospital. Case 7-2009. A pregnant woman with a large mass in the fetal oral cavity. N Engl J Med. 2009 Feb 26; 360(9):913-21. View abstract
  78. Case records of the Massachusetts General Hospital. Case 1-2009. A 57-year-old man with progressive cognitive decline. N Engl J Med. 2009 Jan 08; 360(2):171-81. View abstract
  79. Case records of the Massachusetts General Hospital. Case 28-2008. An 8-day-old infant with congenital deafness, lethargy, and hypothermia. N Engl J Med. 2008 Sep 11; 359(11):1156-67. View abstract
  80. Shape analysis with overcomplete spherical wavelets. Med Image Comput Comput Assist Interv. 2008; 11(Pt 1):468-76. View abstract
  81. Adriamycin injection into the medial cord of the brachial plexus: computed tomography-guided targeted pain therapy. Pain Med. 2008 Jan-Feb; 9(1):83-7. View abstract
  82. Intrafamilial phenotypic variability in tuberous sclerosis complex. J Child Neurol. 2007 Dec; 22(12):1348-55. View abstract
  83. Magnetic resonance imaging evaluation of possible neonatal sinovenous thrombosis. Pediatr Neurol. 2007 Nov; 37(5):317-23. View abstract
  84. Magnetoencephalographic mapping of interictal spike propagation: a technical and clinical report. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2007 Sep; 28(8):1486-8. View abstract
  85. Assessment of infant brain development with frequency-domain near-infrared spectroscopy. Pediatr Res. 2007 May; 61(5 Pt 1):546-51. View abstract
  86. Physiologic and radiographic evidence of the distal edge of the proton beam in craniospinal irradiation. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2007 Jul 01; 68(3):646-9. View abstract
  87. Significance of tissue anisotropy in optical tomography of the infant brain. Appl Opt. 2007 Apr 01; 46(10):1633-40. View abstract
  88. Cortical surface shape analysis based on spherical wavelets. IEEE Trans Med Imaging. 2007 Apr; 26(4):582-97. View abstract
  89. Changes in cerebral cortex of children treated for medulloblastoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2007 Jul 15; 68(4):992-8. View abstract
  90. Case records of the Massachusetts General Hospital. Case 35-2006. A newborn boy with hypotonia. N Engl J Med. 2006 Nov 16; 355(20):2132-42. View abstract
  91. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy and diffusion-weighted imaging in isolated sulfite oxidase deficiency. J Child Neurol. 2006 Sep; 21(9):801-5. View abstract
  92. Case records of the Massachusetts General Hospital. Case 26-2006. A 19-year-old woman with difficulty walking. N Engl J Med. 2006 Aug 24; 355(8):831-9. View abstract
  93. Our unborn children at risk? Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Aug 22; 103(34):12661-2. View abstract
  94. Detailed semiautomated MRI based morphometry of the neonatal brain: preliminary results. Neuroimage. 2006 Sep; 32(3):1041-9. View abstract
  95. Acute injury to the immature brain with hypoxia with or without hypoperfusion. Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am. 2006 May; 14(2):271-85. View abstract
  96. The value of multichannel MEG and EEG in the presurgical evaluation of 70 epilepsy patients. Epilepsy Res. 2006 Apr; 69(1):80-6. View abstract
  97. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging: pediatric clinical applications. Neuroimaging Clin N Am. 2006 Feb; 16(1):45-74, viii. View abstract
  98. Acute injury to the immature brain with hypoxia with or without hypoperfusion. Radiol Clin North Am. 2006 Jan; 44(1):63-77, viii. View abstract
  99. Case records of the Massachusetts General Hospital. Case 36-2005. A 61-year-old woman with seizure, disturbed gait, and altered mental status. N Engl J Med. 2005 Nov 24; 353(21):2271-80. View abstract
  100. 3T phased array MRI improves the presurgical evaluation in focal epilepsies: a prospective study. Neurology. 2005 Oct 11; 65(7):1026-31. View abstract
  101. Isolated sulfite oxidase deficiency: a case report with a novel mutation and review of the literature. Pediatrics. 2005 Sep; 116(3):757-66. View abstract
  102. Pediatric stroke: the child is not merely a small adult. Neuroimaging Clin N Am. 2005 Aug; 15(3):589-607, xi. View abstract
  103. Structural brain magnetic resonance imaging of limbic and thalamic volumes in pediatric bipolar disorder. Am J Psychiatry. 2005 Jul; 162(7):1256-65. View abstract
  104. Can noninvasive imaging of biomarkers improve clinical grading of pediatric brain tumors? Nat Clin Pract Oncol. 2005 Jul; 2(7):336-7. View abstract
  105. Dynamic statistical parametric mapping for analyzing the magnetoencephalographic epileptiform activity in patients with epilepsy. J Child Neurol. 2005 Apr; 20(4):363-9. View abstract
  106. Imaging the developing epileptic brain. Epilepsia. 2005; 46 Suppl 7:7-14. View abstract
  107. Parenchymal abnormalities associated with cerebral venous sinus thrombosis: assessment with diffusion-weighted MR imaging. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2004 Nov-Dec; 25(10):1666-75. View abstract
  108. Bilateral generalized polymicrogyria (BGP): a distinct syndrome of cortical malformation. Neurology. 2004 May 25; 62(10):1722-8. View abstract
  109. Evolution of water diffusion and anisotropy in hyperacute stroke: significant correlation between fractional anisotropy and T2. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2004 May; 25(5):699-705. View abstract
  110. Multimodal longitudinal imaging of focal status epilepticus. Can J Neurol Sci. 2004 May; 31(2):276-81. View abstract
  111. Structural MR imaging. Epilepsia. 2004; 45 Suppl 4:4-16. View abstract
  112. Aids to telemetry in the presurgical evaluation of epilepsy patients: MRI, MEG and other non-invasive imaging techniques. Suppl Clin Neurophysiol. 2004; 57:494-502. View abstract
  113. Mutations in ARFGEF2 implicate vesicle trafficking in neural progenitor proliferation and migration in the human cerebral cortex. Nat Genet. 2004 Jan; 36(1):69-76. View abstract
  114. Case records of the Massachusetts General Hospital. Weekly clinicopathological exercises. Case 25-2003. A newborn boy with petechiae and thrombocytopenia. N Engl J Med. 2003 Aug 14; 349(7):691-700. View abstract
  115. Application of new MR techniques in pediatric patients. Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am. 2003 Aug; 11(3):493-522. View abstract
  116. Diffusion-weighted imaging abnormalities in the splenium after seizures. Epilepsia. 2003 Jun; 44(6):852-4. View abstract
  117. A novel form of pontocerebellar hypoplasia maps to chromosome 7q11-21. Neurology. 2003 May 27; 60(10):1664-7. View abstract
  118. Bilateral frontoparietal polymicrogyria: clinical and radiological features in 10 families with linkage to chromosome 16. Ann Neurol. 2003 May; 53(5):596-606. View abstract
  119. Abnormal cortical development shown by 3D MRI in Prader-Willi syndrome. Neurology. 2002 Aug 27; 59(4):644-5. View abstract
  120. Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging of acute ischemic stroke. Semin Roentgenol. 2002 Jul; 37(3):219-29. View abstract
  121. Perfusion magnetic resonance imaging of acute ischemic stroke. Semin Roentgenol. 2002 Jul; 37(3):230-6. View abstract
  122. Practice parameter: neuroimaging of the neonate: report of the Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology and the Practice Committee of the Child Neurology Society. Neurology. 2002 Jun 25; 58(12):1726-38. View abstract
  123. Diffusion-weighted images in neonatal cerebral hypoxic-ischemic injury. Pediatr Neurol. 2002 Apr; 26(4):274-81. View abstract
  124. Arterial ischemic stroke in childhood: the role of plasma-phase risk factors. Curr Opin Neurol. 2002 Apr; 15(2):139-44. View abstract
  125. An autosomal recessive form of bilateral frontoparietal polymicrogyria maps to chromosome 16q12.2-21. Am J Hum Genet. 2002 Apr; 70(4):1028-33. View abstract
  126. Diffusion MR imaging of acute ischemic stroke. Neuroimaging Clin N Am. 2002 Feb; 12(1):35-53. View abstract
  127. Pediatric functional magnetic resonance imaging: progress and challenges. Top Magn Reson Imaging. 2002 Feb; 13(1):61-70. View abstract
  128. Frequency and clinical context of decreased apparent diffusion coefficient reversal in the human brain. Radiology. 2001 Oct; 221(1):43-50. View abstract
  129. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging of the brain. Radiology. 2000 Nov; 217(2):331-45. View abstract
  130. MEG versus BOLD MR imaging: functional imaging, the next generation? AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2000 Sep; 21(8):1369-70. View abstract
  131. Autosomal recessive lissencephaly with cerebellar hypoplasia is associated with human RELN mutations. Nat Genet. 2000 Sep; 26(1):93-6. View abstract
  132. Genetic and neuroradiological heterogeneity of double cortex syndrome. Ann Neurol. 2000 Feb; 47(2):265-9. View abstract
  133. Diffusion MR imaging. Theory and applications. Neuroimaging Clin N Am. 1999 May; 9(2):343-61. View abstract