ABOUT THE RESEARCHER

OVERVIEW

Dario Fauza's research is directed at developing original, more effective ways to repair birth defects, both pre and postnatally. To that end, he has pioneered a variety of approaches. One is fetal tissue engineering, or the use of fetal cells to produce tissue to repair congenital anomalies. This concept involves the minimally invasive procurement of fetal cells, which are then employed to engineer tissue in the laboratory while pregnancy is allowed to continue, so that a newborn, or a fetus with a prenatally diagnosed birth defect can benefit from having autologous, expanded tissue readily available for surgical reconstruction, either before or after birth. Fetal cells can be obtained from the fetus, amniotic fluid, placenta, or umbilical cord blood. This concept has been applied successfully in many large animal models, for the creation of various types of fetal tissue used in the treatment of several anomalies, including congenital diaphragmatic hernia, tracheal atresia or stenosis, chest wall defects, bladder extrophy, cranial malformations and cardiac anomalies. Related projects for the treatment of additional birth defects are also ongoing. Regulatory approval of the first human application of this therapeutic concept is currently being pursued.

Another area of interest to Dr. Fauza is the treatment of spina bifida. He has first demonstrated experimentally that neural stem cells delivered to the fetus still in the womb can partially repair damaged areas of the spinal cord, which could lead to improved outcomes in the treatment of this devastating disease. He is now perfecting the methods for isolation of neural and mesenchymal stem cells, as well as of their pre and/or postnatal administration, before human trials can be pursued.

Dr. Fauza has also pioneered what he has coined Transamniotic Stem Cell Therapy (TRASCET), a novel therapeutic paradigm for the treatment of different birth defects based on the principle of harnessing/enhancing the normal biological role of select populations of stem cells that occur in the amniotic fluid for therapeutic benefit. He has discovered that amniotic fluid-derived mesenchymal stem cells (afMSCs) are central to the enhanced ability of the fetus to repair tissue damage. This germane finding was not only the first demonstration of a biological role for any amniotic cell, but has also provided validation for the use of afMSCs in regenerative strategies. Subsequently to that discovery, he has also first shown, in various animal models, that the simple intra-amniotic delivery of afMSCs in very large numbers can either elicit the repair, or significantly mitigate the effects associated with major congenital anomalies by boosting the activity that these cells normally have. This pragmatic approach, feasible as a relatively simple outpatient procedure, would be easily accessible to most pregnant women carrying a baby with a birth defect and from a very early point in gestation, thus maximizing therapeutic impact. Given the autologous use of fetal cells procured and delivered by the least invasive of methods, a plain amniocentesis, into their own native environment, this concept is ethically unobjectionable. Also here, regulatory approval of the first clinical trial is currently under review.

BACKGROUND

Dario Fauza received an MD from the University of Sao Paulo Medical School, in Brazil, where he also received a PhD-equivalent degree and completed an internship and residencies on both general and pediatric surgery. He then moved to the United States, where he completed different clinical and research fellowships, as well as postdoctoral training, all at Boston Children's Hospital and Harvard Medical School.

He is the recipient of numerous research awards and funding grants, as well as of a Fellowship Ad Eundem (i.e. by invitation) from the Royal College of Surgeons of England, the first surgeon from his home country to receive such an honor. He has an extensive bibliography and has been awarded patents in multiple countries.

Selected Publications

  1. Fauza DO. Transamniotic Stem Cell Therapy: a Novel Strategy for the Prenatal Management of Congenital Anomalies. Pediatr Res (a Nature Publishing Group journal) 83: 241-248, 2018.
  2. Shieh HF, Ahmed A, Tracy SA, Zurakowski D, Fauza DO. Fetal Bone Marrow Homing of Donor Mesenchymal Stem Cells after Transamniotic Stem Cell Therapy (TRASCET). J Pediatr Surg 53: 174-177, 2018.
  3. Graham CD, Shieh HF, Brazzo JA, Zurakowski D, Fauza DO. Donor Mesenchymal Stem Cells Home to Maternal Wounds after Transamniotic Stem Cell Therapy (TRASCET) in a Rodent Model. J Pediatr Surg 52: 1006-1009, 2017.
  4. Feng C, Graham CD, Connors JP, Brazzo J, Pan AHS, Hamilton JR, Zurakowski D, Fauza DO. Trans-Amniotic Stem Cell Therapy (TRASCET) Mitigates Bowel Damage in a Model of Gastroschisis. J Pediatr Surg 51: 56-61, 2016.
  5. Dionigi B, Ahmed A, Brazzo J, Connors JP, Zurakowski D, Fauza DO. Partial or Complete Coverage of Experimental Spina Bifida by Simple Intra-Amniotic Injection of Concentrated Amniotic Mesenchymal Stem Cells. J Pediatr Surg 50: 69-73, 2015.
  6. Fauza DO. Tissue engineering in congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Semin Pediatr Surg. 2014 Jun; 23(3):135-40.
  7. Turner CG, Klein JD, Wang J, Thakor D, Benedict D, Ahmed A, Teng YD, Fauza DO. The amniotic fluid as a source of neural stem cells in the setting of experimental neural tube defects. Stem Cells Dev. 2013 Feb 15; 22(4):548-53.
  8. Klein JD, Fauza DO. Amniotic and placental mesenchymal stem cell isolation and culture. Methods Mol Biol. 2011; 698:75-88.
  9. Turner CG, Klein JD, Steigman SA, Armant M, Nicksa GA, Zurakowski D, Ritz J, Fauza DO. Preclinical regulatory validation of an engineered diaphragmatic tendon made with amniotic mesenchymal stem cells. J Pediatr Surg. 2011 Jan; 46(1):57-61.
  10. Klein JD, Turner CG, Steigman SA, Ahmed A, Zurakowski D, Eriksson E, Fauza DO. Amniotic mesenchymal stem cells enhance normal fetal wound healing. Stem Cells Dev. 2011 Jun; 20(6):969-76.

PUBLICATIONS

Publications powered by Harvard Catalyst Profiles

  1. Transamniotic stem cell therapy (TRASCET) in a rabbit model of spina bifida. J Pediatr Surg. 2019 Feb; 54(2):293-296. View abstract
  2. A comparison of clinically relevant sources of mesenchymal stem cell-derived exosomes: Bone marrow and amniotic fluid. J Pediatr Surg. 2019 Jan; 54(1):86-90. View abstract
  3. Donor mesenchymal stem cell linetics after transamniotic stem cell therapy (TRASCET) for experimental spina bifida. J Pediatr Surg. 2018 Jun; 53(6):1134-1136. View abstract
  4. Regenerative medicine and spina bifida: Recent developments in induced fetal regeneration. J Pediatr Rehabil Med. 2017 12 11; 10(3-4):185-188. View abstract
  5. Fetal bone marrow homing of donor mesenchymal stem cells after transamniotic stem cell therapy (TRASCET). J Pediatr Surg. 2017 Oct 12. View abstract
  6. Transamniotic stem cell therapy: a novel strategy for the prenatal management of congenital anomalies. Pediatr Res. 2018 01; 83(1-2):241-248. View abstract
  7. Donor mesenchymal stem cells home to maternal wounds after transamniotic stem cell therapy (TRASCET) in a rodent model. J Pediatr Surg. 2017 Jun; 52(6):1006-1009. View abstract
  8. Comparisons of human amniotic mesenchymal stem cell viability in FDA-approved collagen-based scaffolds: Implications for engineered diaphragmatic replacement. J Pediatr Surg. 2017 Jun; 52(6):1010-1013. View abstract
  9. Transamniotic stem cell therapy (TRASCET) in a leporine model of gastroschisis. J Pediatr Surg. 2017 Jan; 52(1):30-34. View abstract
  10. A comparison between placental and amniotic mesenchymal stem cells for transamniotic stem cell therapy (TRASCET) in experimental spina bifida. J Pediatr Surg. 2016 Jun; 51(6):1010-3. View abstract
  11. Transamniotic stem cell therapy (TRASCET) mitigates bowel damage in a model of gastroschisis. J Pediatr Surg. 2016 Jan; 51(1):56-61. View abstract
  12. Trans-amniotic stem cell therapy (TRASCET) minimizes Chiari-II malformation in experimental spina bifida. J Pediatr Surg. 2015 Jun; 50(6):1037-41. View abstract
  13. Extraluminal distraction enterogenesis using shape-memory polymer. J Pediatr Surg. 2015 Jun; 50(6):938-42. View abstract
  14. Limb reconstruction with decellularized, non-demineralized bone in a young leporine model. Biomed Mater. 2015 Feb 10; 10(1):015021. View abstract
  15. Partial or complete coverage of experimental spina bifida by simple intra-amniotic injection of concentrated amniotic mesenchymal stem cells. J Pediatr Surg. 2015 Jan; 50(1):69-73. View abstract
  16. Operative indications in recurrent ileocolic intussusception. J Pediatr Surg. 2015 Jan; 50(1):126-30. View abstract
  17. Extraluminal helicoidal stretch (Helixtretch): a novel method of intestinal lengthening. J Pediatr Surg. 2014 Dec; 49(12):1787-90. View abstract
  18. The impact of gestational age on targeted amniotic cell profiling in experimental neural tube defects. Fetal Diagn Ther. 2015; 37(1):65-9. View abstract
  19. Tissue engineering in congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Semin Pediatr Surg. 2014 Jun; 23(3):135-40. View abstract
  20. A comparative analysis of human mesenchymal stem cell response to hypoxia in vitro: Implications to translational strategies. J Pediatr Surg. 2014 Jun; 49(6):915-8. View abstract
  21. Targeted quantitative amniotic cell profiling: a potential diagnostic tool in the prenatal management of neural tube defects. J Pediatr Surg. 2013 Jun; 48(6):1205-10. View abstract
  22. Intra-amniotic delivery of amniotic-derived neural stem cells in a syngeneic model of spina bifida. Fetal Diagn Ther. 2013; 34(1):38-43. View abstract
  23. Pediatric postoperative intussusception in the minimally invasive surgery era: a 13-year, single center experience. J Am Coll Surg. 2013 Jun; 216(6):1089-93. View abstract
  24. The amniotic fluid as a source of neural stem cells in the setting of experimental neural tube defects. Stem Cells Dev. 2013 Feb 15; 22(4):548-53. View abstract
  25. Prenatal tracheal reconstruction with a hybrid amniotic mesenchymal stem cells-engineered construct derived from decellularized airway. J Pediatr Surg. 2012 Jun; 47(6):1072-9. View abstract
  26. Craniofacial repair with fetal bone grafts engineered from amniotic mesenchymal stem cells. J Surg Res. 2012 Dec; 178(2):785-90. View abstract
  27. Amniotic and placental mesenchymal stem cell isolation and culture. Methods Mol Biol. 2011; 698:75-88. View abstract
  28. Serial amnioinfusions prevent fetal pulmonary hypoplasia in a large animal model of oligohydramnios. J Pediatr Surg. 2011 Jan; 46(1):67-71. View abstract
  29. Preclinical regulatory validation of an engineered diaphragmatic tendon made with amniotic mesenchymal stem cells. J Pediatr Surg. 2011 Jan; 46(1):57-61. View abstract
  30. Amniotic mesenchymal stem cells enhance normal fetal wound healing. Stem Cells Dev. 2011 Jun; 20(6):969-76. View abstract
  31. Structural and biomechanical characteristics of the diaphragmatic tendon in infancy and childhood: an initial analysis. J Pediatr Surg. 2010 Jul; 45(7):1455-8. View abstract
  32. Chest wall repair with engineered fetal bone grafts: an efficacy analysis in an autologous leporine model. J Pediatr Surg. 2010 Jun; 45(6):1354-60. View abstract
  33. Correlation between prenatal urinary matrix metalloproteinase activity and the degree of kidney damage in a large animal model of congenital obstructive uropathy. J Pediatr Surg. 2010 Jun; 45(6):1120-5. View abstract
  34. A large animal model of the fetal tracheal stenosis/atresia spectrum. J Surg Res. 2011 Nov; 171(1):164-9. View abstract
  35. Prenatal urinary matrix metalloproteinase profiling as a potential diagnostic tool in fetal obstructive uropathy. J Pediatr Surg. 2010 Jan; 45(1):70-3. View abstract
  36. Optical properties of human amniotic fluid: implications for videofetoscopic surgery. Fetal Diagn Ther. 2010; 27(2):87-90. View abstract
  37. Sternal repair with bone grafts engineered from amniotic mesenchymal stem cells. J Pediatr Surg. 2009 Jun; 44(6):1120-6; discussion 1126. View abstract
  38. Fetal tissue engineering. Clin Perinatol. 2009 Jun; 36(2):473-88, xii. View abstract
  39. Preservation of intestinal motility after the serial transverse enteroplasty procedure in a large animal model of short bowel syndrome. J Pediatr Surg. 2009 Jan; 44(1):229-35; discussion 235. View abstract
  40. Differential risk for neonatal surgical airway intervention in prenatally diagnosed neck masses. J Pediatr Surg. 2009 Jan; 44(1):76-9. View abstract
  41. Neural stem cell delivery to the spinal cord in an ovine model of fetal surgery for spina bifida. Surgery. 2008 Sep; 144(3):367-73. View abstract
  42. Preclinical regulatory validation of a 3-stage amniotic mesenchymal stem cell manufacturing protocol. J Pediatr Surg. 2008 Jun; 43(6):1164-9. View abstract
  43. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation as a bridge to definitive tracheal reconstruction in neonates. J Pediatr Surg. 2008 May; 43(5):800-4. View abstract
  44. Liver position is a prenatal predictive factor of prosthetic repair in congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Fetal Diagn Ther. 2008; 23(4):258-62. View abstract
  45. A comparative analysis of cartilage engineered from different perinatal mesenchymal progenitor cells. Tissue Eng. 2007 Nov; 13(11):2633-44. View abstract
  46. Isolation of mesenchymal stem cells from amniotic fluid and placenta. Curr Protoc Stem Cell Biol. 2007 Jun; Chapter 1:Unit 1E.2. View abstract
  47. Tissue engineering from human mesenchymal amniocytes: a prelude to clinical trials. J Pediatr Surg. 2007 Jun; 42(6):974-9; discussion 979-80. View abstract
  48. Large fetal congenital cystic adenomatoid malformations: growth trends and patient survival. J Pediatr Surg. 2007 Feb; 42(2):404-10. View abstract
  49. Ex utero intrapartum treatment with placement on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for fetal thoracic masses. J Pediatr Surg. 2007 Feb; 42(2):420-5. View abstract
  50. Ex utero intrapartum treatment with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for severe congenital diaphragmatic hernia. J Pediatr Surg. 2007 Jan; 42(1):98-104; discussion 104-6. View abstract
  51. Percent predicted lung volumes as measured on fetal magnetic resonance imaging: a useful biometric parameter for risk stratification in congenital diaphragmatic hernia. J Pediatr Surg. 2007 Jan; 42(1):193-7. View abstract
  52. The second STEP: the feasibility of repeat serial transverse enteroplasty. J Pediatr Surg. 2006 Dec; 41(12):1951-6. View abstract
  53. Fetal hepatic haematopoiesis is modulated by arterial blood flow to the liver. Br J Haematol. 2006 Aug; 134(3):330-2. View abstract
  54. Postnatal myocardial augmentation with skeletal myoblast-based fetal tissue engineering. Surgery. 2006 Jul; 140(1):100-7. View abstract
  55. Hyperoncotic enhancement of fetal pulmonary growth after tracheal occlusion: an alveolar and capillary morphometric analysis. J Pediatr Surg. 2006 Jul; 41(7):1214-8. View abstract
  56. Extracellular matrix dynamics associated with tissue-engineered intravascular sclerotherapy. J Pediatr Surg. 2006 Apr; 41(4):757-62. View abstract
  57. Fetal cartilage engineering from amniotic mesenchymal progenitor cells. Stem Cells Dev. 2006 Apr; 15(2):245-53. View abstract
  58. Fetal tracheal reconstruction with cartilaginous grafts engineered from mesenchymal amniocytes. J Pediatr Surg. 2006 Apr; 41(4):675-82; discussion 675-82. View abstract
  59. Serial transverse enteroplasty enhances intestinal function in a model of short bowel syndrome. Ann Surg. 2006 Feb; 243(2):223-8. View abstract
  60. Diaphragmatic repair through fetal tissue engineering: a comparison between mesenchymal amniocyte- and myoblast-based constructs. J Pediatr Surg. 2006 Jan; 41(1):34-9; discussion 34-9. View abstract
  61. Bronchial atresia: the hidden pathology within a spectrum of prenatally diagnosed lung masses. J Pediatr Surg. 2006 Jan; 41(1):61-5; discussion 61-5. View abstract
  62. In vitro cartilage regeneration from proliferated adult elastic chondrocytes. Ann Plast Surg. 2005 Aug; 55(2):196-201. View abstract
  63. Cartilage engineering from ovine umbilical cord blood mesenchymal progenitor cells. Stem Cells. 2005 Aug; 23(7):958-64. View abstract
  64. Pneumonectomy in the mouse: technique and perioperative management. J Invest Surg. 2005 Jul-Aug; 18(4):201-5. View abstract
  65. An injectable tissue-engineered embolus prevents luminal recanalization after vascular sclerotherapy. J Pediatr Surg. 2005 Jun; 40(6):920-5. View abstract
  66. Enhancement of intravascular sclerotherapy by tissue engineering: short-term results. J Pediatr Surg. 2005 Feb; 40(2):412-7. View abstract
  67. Intratracheal pulmonary ventilation improves gas exchange during laparoscopy in a pediatric lung injury model. J Pediatr Surg. 2005 Jan; 40(1):22-5. View abstract
  68. Amniotic fluid and placental stem cells. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol. 2004 Dec; 18(6):877-91. View abstract
  69. In situ inhibition of uterine activity by indomethacin: possible relevance to preterm labor prevention after fetal surgery. J Pediatr Surg. 2004 Aug; 39(8):1173-5. View abstract
  70. Diaphragmatic reconstruction with autologous tendon engineered from mesenchymal amniocytes. J Pediatr Surg. 2004 Jun; 39(6):834-8; discussion 834-8. View abstract
  71. Rapidly polymerizing hydrogel prevents balloon dislodgement in a model of fetal tracheal occlusion. J Pediatr Surg. 2004 Apr; 39(4):557-60. View abstract
  72. Hyperoncotic enhancement of pulmonary growth after fetal tracheal occlusion: a comparison between dextran and albumin. J Pediatr Surg. 2004 Mar; 39(3):324-8; discussion 324-8. View abstract
  73. Fetal tissue engineering: in vitro analysis of muscle constructs. J Pediatr Surg. 2003 Sep; 38(9):1348-53. View abstract
  74. Local anesthetics inhibit uterine activity in vitro. Possible application on preterm labor prevention and treatment. Fetal Diagn Ther. 2003 Sep-Oct; 18(5):292-6. View abstract
  75. Fetal tissue engineering: chest wall reconstruction. J Pediatr Surg. 2003 Aug; 38(8):1188-93. View abstract
  76. Tissue engineering: current state of clinical application. Curr Opin Pediatr. 2003 Jun; 15(3):267-71. View abstract
  77. Fetal tracheal augmentation with cartilage engineered from bone marrow-derived mesenchymal progenitor cells. J Pediatr Surg. 2003 Jun; 38(6):984-7. View abstract
  78. Serial transverse enteroplasty for short bowel syndrome: a case report. J Pediatr Surg. 2003 Jun; 38(6):881-5. View abstract
  79. Fetal tissue engineering from amniotic fluid. J Am Coll Surg. 2003 Apr; 196(4):592-7. View abstract
  80. Serial transverse enteroplasty (STEP): a novel bowel lengthening procedure. J Pediatr Surg. 2003 Mar; 38(3):425-9. View abstract
  81. Clostridium botulinum toxin inhibits myometrial activity in vitro: possible application on the prevention of preterm labor after fetal surgery. J Pediatr Surg. 2003 Mar; 38(3):511-3. View abstract
  82. Engineered fetal cartilage: structural and functional analysis in vitro. J Pediatr Surg. 2002 Dec; 37(12):1720-5. View abstract
  83. Fetal tissue engineering: in utero tracheal augmentation in an ovine model. J Pediatr Surg. 2002 Jul; 37(7):1000-6; discussion 1000-6. View abstract
  84. The placenta as a cell source in fetal tissue engineering. J Pediatr Surg. 2002 Jul; 37(7):995-9; discussion 995-9. View abstract
  85. Positive intrapulmonary oncotic pressure enhances short-term lung growth acceleration after fetal tracheal occlusion. J Pediatr Surg. 2002 Jul; 37(7):1007-10; discussion 1007-10. View abstract
  86. Ultrasound-guided fetal tracheal occlusion. J Pediatr Surg. 2002 Mar; 37(3):300-2. View abstract
  87. The amniotic fluid as a source of cells for fetal tissue engineering. J Pediatr Surg. 2001 Nov; 36(11):1662-5. View abstract
  88. Continuous intrapulmonary distension with perfluorocarbon accelerates lung growth in infants with congenital diaphragmatic hernia: initial experience. J Pediatr Surg. 2001 Aug; 36(8):1237-40. View abstract
  89. Fetal tissue engineering: diaphragmatic replacement. J Pediatr Surg. 2001 Jan; 36(1):146-51. View abstract
  90. The littlest patient. Sciences (New York). 1999 Jul-Aug; 39(4):34-8. View abstract
  91. Prolonged local myometrial blockade prevents preterm labor after fetal surgery in a leporine model. J Pediatr Surg. 1999 Apr; 34(4):540-2. View abstract
  92. Fetal response to neutral gas and liquid media for intraamniotic distension. J Pediatr Surg. 1999 Apr; 34(4):591-4. View abstract
  93. Fetal carotid blood flow during videofetoscopy. J Pediatr Surg. 1998 Dec; 33(12):1737-40. View abstract
  94. Insulin-like growth factor-I gene expression in three models of accelerated lung growth. J Pediatr Surg. 1998 Jul; 33(7):1057-60; discussion 1061. View abstract
  95. Continuous intrapulmonary distension with perfluorocarbon accelerates neonatal (but not adult) lung growth. J Pediatr Surg. 1998 Feb; 33(2):292-8. View abstract
  96. Videofetoscopically assisted fetal tissue engineering: skin replacement. J Pediatr Surg. 1998 Feb; 33(2):357-61. View abstract
  97. Management of biliary atresia in the liver transplantation era: a 15-year, single-center experience. J Pediatr Surg. 1998 Jan; 33(1):115-8. View abstract
  98. Videofetoscopically assisted fetal tissue engineering: bladder augmentation. J Pediatr Surg. 1998 Jan; 33(1):7-12. View abstract
  99. ECMO in evolution: the impact of changing patient demographics and alternative therapies on ECMO. J Pediatr Surg. 1996 Aug; 31(8):1116-22; discussion 1122-3. View abstract
  100. Resection of a massive sacrococcygeal teratoma using hypothermic hypoperfusion: a novel use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. J Pediatr Surg. 1995 Nov; 30(11):1557-9. View abstract
  101. Experimental fetal tracheal ligation and congenital diaphragmatic hernia: a pulmonary vascular morphometric analysis. J Pediatr Surg. 1995 Jul; 30(7):917-23; discussion 923-4. View abstract
  102. Fate of the reconstructed carotid artery after extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. J Pediatr Surg. 1995 Jul; 30(7):1046-9. View abstract
  103. Congenital diaphragmatic hernia and associated anomalies: their incidence, identification, and impact on prognosis. J Pediatr Surg. 1994 Aug; 29(8):1113-7. View abstract
  104. Surgically produced congenital diaphragmatic hernia in fetal rabbits. J Pediatr Surg. 1994 Jul; 29(7):882-6. View abstract
  105. Antenatal diagnosis of isolated congenital diaphragmatic hernia is not an indicator of outcome. J Pediatr Surg. 1994 Jun; 29(6):815-9. View abstract
  106. Experimental fetal tracheal ligation reverses the structural and physiological effects of pulmonary hypoplasia in congenital diaphragmatic hernia. J Pediatr Surg. 1994 Feb; 29(2):248-56; discussion 256-7. View abstract
  107. [Liver transplantation in children: initial experience of the Instituto da Criança of the Hospital das Clínicas of Universidade de São Paulo]. AMB Rev Assoc Med Bras. 1991 Oct-Dec; 37(4):193-9. View abstract
  108. [Acute abdomen in childhood caused by intestinal angiostrongylus infection: a case report]. AMB Rev Assoc Med Bras. 1990 Jul-Dec; 36(3-4):150-2. View abstract
  109. [A new cannula for tracheostomy]. Rev Hosp Clin Fac Med Sao Paulo. 1988 Nov-Dec; 43(6):291-3. View abstract
  110. [Prevention of tracheo-innominate fistula following tracheostomy: anatomic relations of the trachea and brachiocephalic trunk]. Rev Hosp Clin Fac Med Sao Paulo. 1988 Jan-Feb; 43(1):71-4. View abstract