Judy Estroff's research focuses on fetal abnormalities detected by ultrasound. Estroff and colleagues have followed infants after birth to determine which features on echogram signal the need for follow-up by amniocentesis or intervention, and which are associated with normal clinical outcomes. 


Judy Estroff received her MD from the University of California, San Francisco. She completed an internsip at the University of California Medical Center, San Francisco, a residency and Mount Zion Hospital & Medical Center, San Francisco, and a fellowship at Children's Hospital Boston.


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  1. OEIS Syndrome: Omphalocele, Exstrophy of the Cloaca, Imperforate Anus, and Spinal Defects. Neoreviews. 2021 Oct; 22(10):e709-e718. View abstract
  2. A role for abdominal ultrasound in discriminating suspected necrotizing enterocolitis in congenital heart disease patients. Pediatr Surg Int. 2021 Sep 28. View abstract
  3. Abdominal ultrasound findings contribute to a multivariable predictive risk score for surgical necrotizing enterocolitis: A pilot study. Am J Surg. 2021 Apr 27. View abstract
  4. Regional Brain Growth Trajectories in Fetuses with Congenital Heart Disease. Ann Neurol. 2021 01; 89(1):143-157. View abstract
  5. Vein of Galen Malformation. Neoreviews. 2020 10; 21(10):e678-e686. View abstract
  6. Association of Isolated Congenital Heart Disease with Fetal Brain Maturation. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2020 08; 41(8):1525-1531. View abstract
  7. Genetic diagnoses and associated anomalies in fetuses prenatally diagnosed with esophageal atresia. Am J Med Genet A. 2020 08; 182(8):1890-1895. View abstract
  8. Prenatal Diagnosis of a Ventral Abdominal Wall Defect. Neoreviews. 2020 04; 21(4):e286-e292. View abstract
  9. Is Abdominal Sonography a Useful Adjunct to Abdominal Radiography in Evaluating Neonates with Suspected Necrotizing Enterocolitis? J Am Coll Surg. 2020 06; 230(6):903-911.e2. View abstract
  10. Can Robin Sequence Be Predicted From Prenatal Ultrasonography? J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2020 Apr; 78(4):612-618. View abstract
  11. Fetal Echoplanar Imaging: Promises and Challenges. Top Magn Reson Imaging. 2019 Oct; 28(5):245-254. View abstract
  12. Prenatal imaging throughout gestation in Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome. Prenat Diagn. 2019 08; 39(9):792-795. View abstract
  13. Constant inhibition in congenital lower extremity shortening: does it begin in utero? Pediatr Radiol. 2018 09; 48(10):1451-1462. View abstract
  14. An algorithm for predicting Robin sequence from fetal MRI. Prenat Diagn. 2018 04; 38(5):357-364. View abstract
  15. The Distended Fetal Hypopharynx: A Sensitive and Novel Sign for the Prenatal Diagnosis of Esophageal Atresia. J Pediatr Surg. 2018 Jun; 53(6):1137-1141. View abstract
  16. In Utero Glossoptosis in Fetuses With Robin Sequence: Measurements From Prenatal MRI. Cleft Palate Craniofac J. 2018 04; 55(4):562-567. View abstract
  17. Pathogenesis of Cleft Palate in Robin Sequence: Observations From Prenatal Magnetic Resonance Imaging. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2018 May; 76(5):1058-1064. View abstract
  18. Imaging features and prognostic factors in fetal and postnatal torcular dural sinus malformations, part I: review of experience at Boston Children's Hospital. J Neurointerv Surg. 2018 May; 10(5):467-470. View abstract
  19. Imaging features and prognostic factors in fetal and postnatal torcular dural sinus malformations, part II: synthesis of the literature and patient management. J Neurointerv Surg. 2018 May; 10(5):471-475. View abstract
  20. Micrognathia and Oropharyngeal Space in Patients With Robin Sequence: Prenatal MRI Measurements. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2018 02; 76(2):408-415. View abstract
  21. In Vivo Quantification of Placental Insufficiency by BOLD MRI: A Human Study. Sci Rep. 2017 06 16; 7(1):3713. View abstract
  22. Temporal slice registration and robust diffusion-tensor reconstruction for improved fetal brain structural connectivity analysis. Neuroimage. 2017 08 01; 156:475-488. View abstract
  23. A normative spatiotemporal MRI atlas of the fetal brain for automatic segmentation and analysis of early brain growth. Sci Rep. 2017 03 28; 7(1):476. View abstract
  24. Ultrasound diagnosis of fetal hypospadias: Accuracy and outcomes. J Pediatr Urol. 2017 Oct; 13(5):484.e1-484.e4. View abstract
  25. Percent predicted lung volume changes on fetal magnetic resonance imaging throughout gestation in congenital diaphragmatic hernia. J Pediatr Surg. 2017 Jun; 52(6):933-937. View abstract
  26. Teratoma of the neonatal head and neck: A 41-year experience. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2017 Jun; 97:66-71. View abstract
  27. Prenatal Diagnosis of Congenital Epulis: Implications for Delivery. J Ultrasound Med. 2017 Feb; 36(2):449-451. View abstract
  28. Prenatal diagnosis and assessment of congenital spinal anomalies: Review for prenatal counseling. World J Orthop. 2016 Jul 18; 7(7):406-17. View abstract
  29. Prenatal Features Predictive of Robin Sequence Identified by Fetal Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2016 Jun; 137(6):999e-1006e. View abstract
  30. Fetal lung apparent diffusion coefficient measurement using diffusion-weighted MRI at 3 Tesla: Correlation with gestational age. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2016 12; 44(6):1650-1655. View abstract
  31. 3D Super-Resolution Motion-Corrected MRI: Validation of Fetal Posterior Fossa Measurements. J Neuroimaging. 2016 09; 26(5):539-44. View abstract
  32. Maternal CD4+ T cells protect against severe congenital cytomegalovirus disease in a novel nonhuman primate model of placental cytomegalovirus transmission. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015 Nov 03; 112(44):13645-50. View abstract
  33. Prenatal Imaging of Craniosynostosis Syndromes. Semin Ultrasound CT MR. 2015 Dec; 36(6):453-64. View abstract
  34. Normative biometrics for fetal ocular growth using volumetric MRI reconstruction. Prenat Diagn. 2015 Apr; 35(4):400-8. View abstract
  35. E-066 pathogenesis of dural sinus malformations as demonstrated by fetal imaging: a decision-making crucible for parents and clinicians. J Neurointerv Surg. 2014 Jul; 6 Suppl 1:A69-70. View abstract
  36. Construction of a deformable spatiotemporal MRI atlas of the fetal brain: evaluation of similarity metrics and deformation models. Med Image Comput Comput Assist Interv. 2014; 17(Pt 2):292-9. View abstract
  37. Prospective evaluation of a prenatal sonographic clubfoot classification system. Fetal Diagn Ther. 2013; 34(4):236-40. View abstract
  38. Monozygotic twins with trisomy 21 and partial agenesis of the corpus callosum. Pediatr Neurol. 2013 Apr; 48(4):314-6. View abstract
  39. Human fetal sacrococcygeal extension or 'tail' in the second trimester: prenatal diagnosis, associated findings, and clinical outcome. Prenat Diagn. 2013 Feb; 33(2):134-40. View abstract
  40. Callosal dysgenesis in fetuses with ventriculomegaly: levels of agreement between imaging modalities and postnatal outcome. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2012 Nov; 40(5):522-9. View abstract
  41. Imaging clues in the prenatal diagnosis of syndromes and aneuploidy. Pediatr Radiol. 2012 Jan; 42 Suppl 1:S5-23. View abstract
  42. Multi-atlas multi-shape segmentation of fetal brain MRI for volumetric and morphometric analysis of ventriculomegaly. Neuroimage. 2012 Apr 15; 60(3):1819-31. View abstract
  43. Altered fetal cerebral and cerebellar development in twin-twin transfusion syndrome. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2012 Jun; 33(6):1121-6. View abstract
  44. Thickness of orbicularis oris muscle in unilateral cleft lip: before and after labial adhesion. J Craniofac Surg. 2011 Sep; 22(5):1822-6. View abstract
  45. Ultrasound and MRI of fetuses with ventriculomegaly: can cortical development be used to predict postnatal outcome? AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2011 Jun; 196(6):1457-67. View abstract
  46. Magnetic resonance volumetric assessments of brains in fetuses with ventriculomegaly correlated to outcomes. J Ultrasound Med. 2011 May; 30(5):595-603. View abstract
  47. Outcome of fetuses with cerebral ventriculomegaly and septum pellucidum leaflet abnormalities. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2011 Jan; 196(1):W83-92. View abstract
  48. US assessment of estrogen-responsive organ growth among healthy term infants: piloting methods for assessing estrogenic activity. Pediatr Radiol. 2011 May; 41(5):633-42. View abstract
  49. Frequency and cause of disagreements in imaging diagnosis in children with ventriculomegaly diagnosed prenatally. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2010 Nov; 36(5):582-95. View abstract
  50. The presentation and management of fibromatosis colli. Ear Nose Throat J. 2010 Sep; 89(9):E4-8. View abstract
  51. Prenatally diagnosed clubfeet: comparing ultrasonographic severity with objective clinical outcomes. J Pediatr Orthop. 2010 Sep; 30(6):606-11. View abstract
  52. Magnetic resonance imaging for detection of brain abnormalities in fetuses with cleft lip and/or cleft palate. Cleft Palate Craniofac J. 2011 Sep; 48(5):619-22. View abstract
  53. Fetal MR imaging evidence of prolonged apparent diffusion coefficient decrease in fetal death. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2011 Aug; 32(7):E126-8. View abstract
  54. Fetal brain volumetry through MRI volumetric reconstruction and segmentation. Int J Comput Assist Radiol Surg. 2011 May; 6(3):329-39. View abstract
  55. Robust super-resolution volume reconstruction from slice acquisitions: application to fetal brain MRI. IEEE Trans Med Imaging. 2010 Oct; 29(10):1739-58. View abstract
  56. Abnormal neuroimaging and neurodevelopmental findings in a cohort of antenatally diagnosed congenital diaphragmatic hernia survivors. J Pediatr Surg. 2010 May; 45(5):958-65. View abstract
  57. Neurodevelopmental outcome of fetuses referred for ventriculomegaly. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2010 Apr; 35(4):405-16. View abstract
  58. Maximum a posteriori estimation of isotropic high-resolution volumetric MRI from orthogonal thick-slice scans. Med Image Comput Comput Assist Interv. 2010; 13(Pt 2):109-16. View abstract
  59. Ultrasonographic patterns of reproductive organs in infants fed soy formula: comparisons to infants fed breast milk and milk formula. J Pediatr. 2010 Feb; 156(2):215-20. View abstract
  60. The growing role of MR imaging in the fetus. Pediatr Radiol. 2009 Apr; 39 Suppl 2:S209-10. View abstract
  61. Differential risk for neonatal surgical airway intervention in prenatally diagnosed neck masses. J Pediatr Surg. 2009 Jan; 44(1):76-9. View abstract
  62. Imaging of congenital diaphragmatic hernias. Pediatr Radiol. 2009 Jan; 39(1):1-16. View abstract
  63. How accurately does current fetal imaging identify posterior fossa anomalies? AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2008 Jun; 190(6):1637-43. View abstract
  64. Frequency and cause of disagreements in diagnoses for fetuses referred for ventriculomegaly. Radiology. 2008 May; 247(2):516-27. View abstract
  65. Liver position is a prenatal predictive factor of prosthetic repair in congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Fetal Diagn Ther. 2008; 23(4):258-62. View abstract
  66. Safety in pediatric MR and cardiac CT: results of a membership survey of the Society for Pediatric Radiology-2006. Pediatr Radiol. 2007 Apr; 37(4):409-12. View abstract
  67. Ex utero intrapartum treatment with placement on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for fetal thoracic masses. J Pediatr Surg. 2007 Feb; 42(2):420-5. View abstract
  68. Large fetal congenital cystic adenomatoid malformations: growth trends and patient survival. J Pediatr Surg. 2007 Feb; 42(2):404-10. View abstract
  69. Ex utero intrapartum treatment with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for severe congenital diaphragmatic hernia. J Pediatr Surg. 2007 Jan; 42(1):98-104; discussion 104-6. View abstract
  70. Percent predicted lung volumes as measured on fetal magnetic resonance imaging: a useful biometric parameter for risk stratification in congenital diaphragmatic hernia. J Pediatr Surg. 2007 Jan; 42(1):193-7. View abstract
  71. Bronchial atresia is common to extralobar sequestration, intralobar sequestration, congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation, and lobar emphysema. Pediatr Dev Pathol. 2006 Sep-Oct; 9(5):361-73. View abstract
  72. Fetal lung volume measurements: determination with MR imaging--effect of various factors. Radiology. 2006 Jul; 240(1):187-93. View abstract
  73. Cleft of the secondary palate without cleft lip diagnosed with three-dimensional ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging in a fetus with Fryns' syndrome. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2006 May; 27(5):566-70. View abstract
  74. Diagnosis of inferior vermian hypoplasia by fetal magnetic resonance imaging: potential pitfalls and neurodevelopmental outcome. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2006 Apr; 194(4):1070-6. View abstract
  75. Bronchial atresia: the hidden pathology within a spectrum of prenatally diagnosed lung masses. J Pediatr Surg. 2006 Jan; 41(1):61-5; discussion 61-5. View abstract
  76. Fetal sheep development on ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging: a standard for the in utero assessment of models of congenital abnormalities. Fetal Diagn Ther. 2006; 21(5):444-57. View abstract
  77. Fetal surgery in otolaryngology: a new era in the diagnosis and management of fetal airway obstruction because of advances in prenatal imaging. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2005 May; 131(5):393-8. View abstract
  78. Oropharyngeal teratoma: prenatal diagnosis and assessment using sonography, MRI, and CT with management by ex utero intrapartum treatment procedure. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2004 Aug; 183(2):493-6. View abstract
  79. Prenatal diagnosis of cleft lip and cleft palate using MRI. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2004 Jul; 183(1):229-35. View abstract
  80. Fetal imaging of central nervous system abnormalities. Neuroimaging Clin N Am. 2004 May; 14(2):293-306, viii. View abstract
  81. Sonography of the fetal central nervous system. Neuroimaging Clin N Am. 2004 May; 14(2):255-71, viii. View abstract
  82. Prenatal diagnosis and imaging of genetic syndromes. Semin Roentgenol. 2004 Apr; 39(2):323-35. View abstract
  83. Fetal thoracic abnormalities: MR imaging. Radiology. 2003 Aug; 228(2):379-88. View abstract
  84. Perinatal radiology. Pediatr Radiol. 2000 Jan; 30(1):1-2. View abstract
  85. Cystic neuroblastoma: emphasis on gene expression, morphology, and pathogenesis. Pediatr Dev Pathol. 1998 Jan-Feb; 1(1):17-28. View abstract
  86. Prenatal neurosurgical diagnosis and counseling. Neurosurg Clin N Am. 1998 Jan; 9(1):49-61. View abstract
  87. Emergency obstetric and gynecologic ultrasound. Radiol Clin North Am. 1997 Jul; 35(4):921-57. View abstract
  88. Use of the mastoid fontanelle for improved sonographic visualization of the neonatal midbrain and posterior fossa. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1997 Apr; 168(4):1021-5. View abstract
  89. Fetal lung masses: prenatal course and outcome. J Ultrasound Med. 1995 Dec; 14(12):927-36; quiz p1378. View abstract
  90. Posterior fossa arachnoid cyst: an in utero mimicker of Dandy-Walker malformation. J Ultrasound Med. 1995 Oct; 14(10):787-90. View abstract
  91. Prenatally diagnosed bilateral hyperechoic kidneys with normal amniotic fluid: postnatal outcome. J Urol. 1995 Feb; 153(2):442-4. View abstract
  92. Occult fetal bowel obstruction: ileal atresia presenting in a newborn infant after normal antenatal sonography. J Ultrasound Med. 1995 Feb; 14(2):161-3. View abstract
  93. Closure of the cerebellar vermis: evaluation with second trimester US. Radiology. 1994 Dec; 193(3):761-3. View abstract
  94. Is fetal hyperechoic bowel on second-trimester sonogram an indication for amniocentesis? Obstet Gynecol. 1994 May; 83(5 Pt 1):647-51. View abstract
  95. Second trimester prenatal findings in duodenal and esophageal atresia without tracheoesophageal fistula. J Ultrasound Med. 1994 May; 13(5):375-9. View abstract
  96. Prenatal detection of neuroblastoma: a ten-year experience from the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Children's Hospital. Pediatrics. 1993 Sep; 92(3):358-64. View abstract
  97. Human fetal compensatory renal growth. J Urol. 1993 Aug; 150(2 Pt 2):790-2. View abstract
  98. Cystic retrocerebellar malformations: unification of the Dandy-Walker complex and the Blake's pouch cyst. Pediatr Radiol. 1993; 23(4):258-60. View abstract
  99. Echogenic vessels in the fetal thalami and basal ganglia associated with cytomegalovirus infection. J Ultrasound Med. 1992 Dec; 11(12):686-8. View abstract
  100. Dandy-Walker variant: prenatal sonographic features and clinical outcome. Radiology. 1992 Dec; 185(3):755-8. View abstract
  101. Prenatal diagnosis of the megacystis-megaureter association. J Urol. 1992 Nov; 148(5):1487-9. View abstract
  102. Isolated choroid plexus cysts in the second-trimester fetus: is amniocentesis really indicated? Radiology. 1992 Nov; 185(2):545-8. View abstract
  103. The natural history of oligohydramnios/polyhydramnios sequence in monochorionic diamniotic twins. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 1992 Sep 01; 2(5):317-20. View abstract
  104. Late onset severe oligohydramnios associated with genitourinary abnormalities. J Urol. 1992 Aug; 148(2 Pt 2):515-8. View abstract
  105. Prevalence of cystic fibrosis in fetuses with dilated bowel. Radiology. 1992 Jun; 183(3):677-80. View abstract
  106. Fetal echocardiography: accuracy and limitations in a population at high and low risk for heart defects. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1992 May; 166(5):1473-81. View abstract
  107. Fetal umbilical vein varix: sonographic appearance and postnatal outcome. J Ultrasound Med. 1992 Mar; 11(3):69-73. View abstract
  108. Fetal meconium peritonitis without sequelae. Pediatr Radiol. 1992; 22(4):277-8. View abstract
  109. Increased renal parenchymal echogenicity in the fetus: importance and clinical outcome. Radiology. 1991 Oct; 181(1):135-9. View abstract
  110. Structural genitourinary defects detected in utero. Radiology. 1991 Jan; 178(1):193-6. View abstract
  111. Fetal pyelectasis: a possible association with Down syndrome. Obstet Gynecol. 1990 Jul; 76(1):58-60. View abstract
  112. Abnormal karyotype of fetuses with omphalocele: prediction based on omphalocele contents. Obstet Gynecol. 1990 Mar; 75(3 Pt 1):317-9. View abstract
  113. First trimester bradycardia. A sign of impending fetal loss. J Ultrasound Med. 1989 Oct; 8(10):561-3. View abstract
  114. Transvaginal sonographic imaging of the low fetal head in the second trimester. J Ultrasound Med. 1989 Jun; 8(6):325-8. View abstract
  115. Neurological complications of hemolytic-uremic syndrome. J Child Neurol. 1989 Apr; 4(2):108-13. View abstract
  116. The coexistence of obstruction at the ureteropelvic and ureterovesical junctions. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1987 Aug; 149(2):403-6. View abstract