The B cell receptor (BCR) is essential for survival of mature B cells and its specificity dictates the cells’ fate from early development through final differentiation into an effector or memory cell.  For example, immature B cells bearing a self-reactive BCR may be eliminated in the bone marrow (check-point I) or spleen (check point II).  Escape at either checkpoint could result in autoimmune disease.   A long-standing interest of the Carroll lab is how B cells encounter antigens, both self- and non-self, and how the local environment influences the outcome.

Antigens are“presented”to B cells in large part by follicular dendritic cells (FDC) via a pathway dependent on complement C3 and receptors CD21 and CD35.  Antigen recognition by antibody or pattern recognition receptors such as the C-type lectins can activate complement resulting in covalent attachment of the third component (C3) to the antigen.  Activated C3 provides a molecular tag that identifies the antigen as foreign.  C3-tagged antigens are transported to FDC via cells bearing complement receptors.  By a mechanism that is not clear, foreign antigens are retained in their native form and made available to cognate B cells over extensive periods.  Whether a similar pathway is involved in “presenting” self-antigen to immature B cells is not known. 

In summary, understanding how foreign antigens are made available to B cells at varying stages in their differentiation would be useful in the design of vaccines and programming of an optimal humoral response to specific pathogens.  Similarly, disrupting B cell access to self-antigen would be desirable in tuning-down the humoral response in autoimmunity.


Michael Carroll received his Ph.D. in Immunology from the UT Southwestern Medical School (Dallas, TX) under the direction of Dr. J. Donald Capra in 1980; subsequently he trained with Dr. Rodney R. Porter in the Biochemistry Department, Oxford U (Oxford UK). In 1985, he was appointed an Assistant Professor in Pediatrics and the Department of Biological Chemistry at the Children’s Hospital/Harvard Medical School. He was promoted in 1998 to the rank of Professor of Pediatrics, Harvard Medical School and Senior Investigator, Boston Children's Hospital, Program in Cellular and Molecular Medicine.


Publications powered by Harvard Catalyst Profiles

  1. Overexpression of schizophrenia susceptibility factor human complement C4A promotes excessive synaptic loss and behavioral changes in mice. Nat Neurosci. 2021 02; 24(2):214-224. View abstract
  2. Complement C4A Regulates Autoreactive B Cells in Murine Lupus. Cell Rep. 2020 11 03; 33(5):108330. View abstract
  3. An Ultrahigh-Affinity Complement C4b-Specific Nanobody Inhibits In Vivo Assembly of the Classical Pathway Proconvertase. J Immunol. 2020 09 15; 205(6):1678-1694. View abstract
  4. Retraction Note: Microglia-dependent synapse loss in type I interferon-mediated lupus. Nature. 2020 02; 578(7793):177. View abstract
  5. Implementing and Evaluating a Multihospital Standardized Opioid Curriculum for Surgical Providers. J Surg Educ. 2020 May - Jun; 77(3):621-626. View abstract
  6. Follicular Dendritic Cells Modulate Germinal Center B Cell Diversity through Fc?RIIB. Cell Rep. 2019 11 26; 29(9):2745-2755.e4. View abstract
  7. Mechanosensing by Peyer's patch stroma regulates lymphocyte migration and mucosal antibody responses. Nat Immunol. 2019 11; 20(11):1506-1516. View abstract
  8. Protection against influenza infection requires early recognition by inflammatory dendritic cells through C-type lectin receptor SIGN-R1. Nat Microbiol. 2019 11; 4(11):1930-1940. View abstract
  9. Publisher Correction: Landscape of B cell immunity and related immune evasion in human cancers. Nat Genet. 2019 Jun; 51(6):1068. View abstract
  10. The Checkpoint Regulator SLAMF3 Preferentially Prevents Expansion of Auto-Reactive B Cells Generated by Graft-vs.-Host Disease. Front Immunol. 2019; 10:831. View abstract
  11. Autoreactivity profiles of influenza hemagglutinin broadly neutralizing antibodies. Sci Rep. 2019 03 05; 9(1):3492. View abstract
  12. Landscape of B cell immunity and related immune evasion in human cancers. Nat Genet. 2019 03; 51(3):560-567. View abstract
  13. FAP Delineates Heterogeneous and Functionally Divergent Stromal Cells in Immune-Excluded Breast Tumors. Cancer Immunol Res. 2018 12; 6(12):1472-1485. View abstract
  14. Capturing change in clonal composition amongst single mouse germinal centers. Elife. 2018 08 01; 7. View abstract
  15. Lymph node metastases can invade local blood vessels, exit the node, and colonize distant organs in mice. Science. 2018 03 23; 359(6382):1403-1407. View abstract
  16. The Living Donor Lost Wages Trial: Study Rationale and Protocol. Curr Transplant Rep. 2018 Mar; 5(1):45-54. View abstract
  17. B cell tolerance to epidermal ribonuclear-associated neo-autoantigen in vivo. Clin Exp Immunol. 2018 02; 191(2):151-165. View abstract
  18. Vaccine adjuvant MF59 promotes the intranodal differentiation of antigen-loaded and activated monocyte-derived dendritic cells. PLoS One. 2017; 12(10):e0185843. View abstract
  19. Targeting autoreactive germinal centers to curb autoimmunity. Oncotarget. 2017 Oct 31; 8(53):90624-90625. View abstract
  20. IgH isotype-specific B cell receptor expression influences B cell fate. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017 10 03; 114(40):E8411-E8420. View abstract
  21. Clonal Evolution of Autoreactive Germinal Centers. Cell. 2017 Aug 24; 170(5):913-926.e19. View abstract
  22. Complement System in Neural Synapse Elimination in Development and Disease. Adv Immunol. 2017; 135:53-79. View abstract
  23. Untangling Fc and complement receptors to kill tumors. Nat Immunol. 2017 07 19; 18(8):874-875. View abstract
  24. Microglia-dependent synapse loss in type I interferon-mediated lupus. Nature. 2017 06 22; 546(7659):539-543. View abstract
  25. Macrophage Death following Influenza Vaccination Initiates the Inflammatory Response that Promotes Dendritic Cell Function in the Draining Lymph Node. Cell Rep. 2017 03 07; 18(10):2427-2440. View abstract
  26. Follicular Dendritic Cell Activation by TLR Ligands Promotes Autoreactive B Cell Responses. Immunity. 2017 01 17; 46(1):106-119. View abstract
  27. Follicular Dendritic Cell Isolation and Loading of Immune Complexes. Methods Mol Biol. 2017; 1623:105-112. View abstract
  28. Antigen Presentation to B Cells. Trends Immunol. 2016 12; 37(12):844-854. View abstract
  29. The Role of Dendritic Cells in S. pneumoniae Transport to Follicular Dendritic Cells. Cell Rep. 2016 09 20; 16(12):3130-3137. View abstract
  30. Cutting Edge: Marginal Zone Macrophages Regulate Antigen Transport by B Cells to the Follicle in the Spleen via CD21. J Immunol. 2016 09 15; 197(6):2063-8. View abstract
  31. Prevention of intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury in humanized mice. Surgery. 2016 08; 160(2):436-42. View abstract
  32. Schizophrenia risk from complex variation of complement component 4. Nature. 2016 Feb 11; 530(7589):177-83. View abstract
  33. Natural IgM Blockade Limits Infarct Expansion and Left Ventricular Dysfunction in a Swine Myocardial Infarct Model. Circ Cardiovasc Interv. 2016 Jan; 9(1):e002547. View abstract
  34. Determining peripheral skin temperature: subjective versus objective measurements. Acta Paediatr. 2016 Mar; 105(3):e126-31. View abstract
  35. Follicular Dendritic Cells Retain Infectious HIV in Cycling Endosomes. PLoS Pathog. 2015 Dec; 11(12):e1005285. View abstract
  36. Modeling Lymph Flow and Fluid Exchange with Blood Vessels in Lymph Nodes. Lymphat Res Biol. 2015 Dec; 13(4):234-47. View abstract
  37. Nomenclature of Toso, Fas apoptosis inhibitory molecule 3, and IgM FcR. J Immunol. 2015 May 01; 194(9):4055-7. View abstract
  38. RNA interference screening identifies a novel role for PCTK1/CDK16 in medulloblastoma with c-Myc amplification. Oncotarget. 2015 Jan 01; 6(1):116-29. View abstract
  39. The CLEC-2-podoplanin axis controls the contractility of fibroblastic reticular cells and lymph node microarchitecture. Nat Immunol. 2015 Jan; 16(1):75-84. View abstract
  40. L-Rhamnose-containing supramolecular nanofibrils as potential immunosuppressive materials. Org Biomol Chem. 2014 Sep 21; 12(35):6816-9. View abstract
  41. B cell homeostasis and follicle confines are governed by fibroblastic reticular cells. Nat Immunol. 2014 Oct; 15(10):973-81. View abstract
  42. Trans-nodal migration of resident dendritic cells into medullary interfollicular regions initiates immunity to influenza vaccine. J Exp Med. 2014 Jul 28; 211(8):1611-21. View abstract
  43. Follicular dendritic cells: dynamic antigen libraries. Nat Rev Immunol. 2014 Jul; 14(7):495-504. View abstract
  44. B cells regulate CD4+ T cell responses to papain following B cell receptor-independent papain uptake. J Immunol. 2014 Jul 15; 193(2):529-39. View abstract
  45. Do follicular dendritic cells regulate lupus-specific B cells? Mol Immunol. 2014 Dec; 62(2):283-8. View abstract
  46. Novel methods for accurate identification, isolation, and genomic analysis of symptomatic microenvironments in atherosclerotic arteries. Methods Mol Biol. 2014; 1135:289-305. View abstract
  47. Contextual analysis of immunological response through whole-organ fluorescent imaging. Lymphat Res Biol. 2013 Sep; 11(3):121-7. View abstract
  48. Bacteria activate sensory neurons that modulate pain and inflammation. Nature. 2013 Sep 05; 501(7465):52-7. View abstract
  49. A neurodegeneration-specific gene-expression signature of acutely isolated microglia from an amyotrophic lateral sclerosis mouse model. Cell Rep. 2013 Jul 25; 4(2):385-401. View abstract
  50. Complement C4 maintains peripheral B-cell tolerance in a myeloid cell dependent manner. Eur J Immunol. 2013 Sep; 43(9):2441-2450. View abstract
  51. Endocytosis and recycling of immune complexes by follicular dendritic cells enhances B cell antigen binding and activation. Immunity. 2013 Jun 27; 38(6):1164-75. View abstract
  52. Cochlin produced by follicular dendritic cells promotes antibacterial innate immunity. Immunity. 2013 May 23; 38(5):1063-72. View abstract
  53. Regulation of humoral immunity by complement. Immunity. 2012 Aug 24; 37(2):199-207. View abstract
  54. Protective anti-inflammatory effect of ADAMTS13 on myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury in mice. Blood. 2012 Dec 20; 120(26):5217-23. View abstract
  55. Podoplanin-rich stromal networks induce dendritic cell motility via activation of the C-type lectin receptor CLEC-2. Immunity. 2012 Aug 24; 37(2):276-89. View abstract
  56. SAP expression in invariant NKT cells is required for cognate help to support B-cell responses. Blood. 2012 Jul 05; 120(1):122-9. View abstract
  57. Transcriptional profiling of stroma from inflamed and resting lymph nodes defines immunological hallmarks. Nat Immunol. 2012 Apr 01; 13(5):499-510. View abstract
  58. Complement component C3 and complement receptor type 3 contribute to the phagocytosis and clearance of fibrillar Aß by microglia. Glia. 2012 May; 60(6):993-1003. View abstract
  60. Th17 cells induce ectopic lymphoid follicles in central nervous system tissue inflammation. Immunity. 2011 Dec 23; 35(6):986-96. View abstract
  61. Requirement for complement in antibody responses is not explained by the classic pathway activator IgM. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011 Oct 25; 108(43):E934-42. View abstract
  62. Trafficking of B cell antigen in lymph nodes. Annu Rev Immunol. 2011; 29:215-33. View abstract
  63. Acquisition and presentation of follicular dendritic cell-bound antigen by lymph node-resident dendritic cells. J Exp Med. 2011 Jan 17; 208(1):135-48. View abstract
  64. B cell subsets contribute to renal injury and renal protection after ischemia/reperfusion. J Immunol. 2010 Oct 01; 185(7):4393-400. View abstract
  65. Complement-dependent transport of antigen into B cell follicles. J Immunol. 2010 Sep 01; 185(5):2659-64. View abstract
  66. Blockade of self-reactive IgM significantly reduces injury in a murine model of acute myocardial infarction. Cardiovasc Res. 2010 Sep 01; 87(4):618-27. View abstract
  67. Capture of influenza by medullary dendritic cells via SIGN-R1 is essential for humoral immunity in draining lymph nodes. Nat Immunol. 2010 May; 11(5):427-34. View abstract
  68. The role of innate immunity in B cell acquisition of antigen within LNs. Adv Immunol. 2010; 106:1-19. View abstract
  69. Activation of innate and humoral immunity in the peripheral nervous system of ALS transgenic mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 Dec 08; 106(49):20960-5. View abstract
  70. Uncoupling CD21 and CD19 of the B-cell coreceptor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 Aug 25; 106(34):14490-5. View abstract
  71. Restoration of skeletal muscle ischemia-reperfusion injury in humanized immunodeficient mice. Surgery. 2009 Aug; 146(2):340-6. View abstract
  72. B cell acquisition of antigen in vivo. Curr Opin Immunol. 2009 Jun; 21(3):251-7. View abstract
  73. Conduits mediate transport of low-molecular-weight antigen to lymph node follicles. Immunity. 2009 Feb 20; 30(2):264-76. View abstract
  74. Complement and humoral immunity. Vaccine. 2008 Dec 30; 26 Suppl 8:I28-33. View abstract
  75. Complement and natural antibody are required in the long-term memory response to influenza virus. Vaccine. 2008 Dec 30; 26 Suppl 8:I86-93. View abstract
  76. T lymphocytes potentiate endogenous neuroprotective inflammation in a mouse model of ALS. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 Nov 18; 105(46):17913-8. View abstract
  77. Human natural IgM can induce ischemia/reperfusion injury in a murine intestinal model. Mol Immunol. 2008 Sep; 45(15):4036-9. View abstract
  78. Complement C3 deficiency leads to accelerated amyloid beta plaque deposition and neurodegeneration and modulation of the microglia/macrophage phenotype in amyloid precursor protein transgenic mice. J Neurosci. 2008 Jun 18; 28(25):6333-41. View abstract
  79. Evidence for non-traditional activation of complement factor C3 during murine liver regeneration. Mol Immunol. 2008 Jun; 45(11):3125-32. View abstract
  80. Differential contribution of three activating IgG Fc receptors (FcgammaRI, FcgammaRIII, and FcgammaRIV) to IgG2a- and IgG2b-induced autoimmune hemolytic anemia in mice. J Immunol. 2008 Feb 01; 180(3):1948-53. View abstract
  81. Mannose binding lectin gene deficiency increases susceptibility to traumatic brain injury in mice. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2008 May; 28(5):1030-9. View abstract
  82. Complement receptors CD21 and CD35 in humoral immunity. Immunol Rev. 2007 Oct; 219:157-66. View abstract
  83. The presence of MOMA-2+ macrophages in the outer B cell zone and protection of the splenic micro-architecture from LPS-induced destruction depend on secreted IgM. Eur J Immunol. 2007 Oct; 37(10):2825-33. View abstract
  84. Natural IgM-mediated innate autoimmunity: a new target for early intervention of ischemia-reperfusion injury. Expert Opin Biol Ther. 2007 Oct; 7(10):1575-82. View abstract
  85. Circulating C3 is necessary and sufficient for induction of autoantibody-mediated arthritis in a mouse model. Arthritis Rheum. 2007 Sep; 56(9):2968-74. View abstract
  86. PTK787/ZK 222584, a small molecule tyrosine kinase receptor inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), has modest activity in myelofibrosis with myeloid metaplasia. Leuk Res. 2007 Jul; 31(7):891-7. View abstract
  87. Atypical gout in the foot and ankle secondary to primary hyperparathyroidism. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc. 2007 May-Jun; 97(3):245-7. View abstract
  88. Reduced tissue damage and improved recovery of motor function after traumatic brain injury in mice deficient in complement component C4. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2007 Dec; 27(12):1954-64. View abstract
  89. Innate response to self-antigen significantly exacerbates burn wound depth. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 Mar 06; 104(10):3973-7. View abstract
  90. Follicular exclusion of autoreactive B cells requires FcgammaRIIb. Int Immunol. 2007 Apr; 19(4):365-73. View abstract
  91. Natural antibody and complement mediate neutralization of influenza virus in the absence of prior immunity. J Virol. 2007 Apr; 81(7):3487-94. View abstract
  92. The differing roles of the classical and mannose-binding lectin complement pathways in the events following skeletal muscle ischemia-reperfusion. J Immunol. 2006 Dec 01; 177(11):8080-5. View abstract
  93. Immunology: exposure of an executioner. Nature. 2006 Nov 09; 444(7116):159-60. View abstract
  94. B-cell extrinsic CR1/CR2 promotes natural antibody production and tolerance induction of anti-alphaGAL-producing B-1 cells. Blood. 2007 Feb 15; 109(4):1773-81. View abstract
  95. Activation of the lectin pathway by natural IgM in a model of ischemia/reperfusion injury. J Immunol. 2006 Oct 01; 177(7):4727-34. View abstract
  96. Involvement of NFAT1 in B cell self-tolerance. J Immunol. 2006 Aug 01; 177(3):1510-5. View abstract
  97. Alternative complement pathway activation is essential for inflammation and joint destruction in the passive transfer model of collagen-induced arthritis. J Immunol. 2006 Aug 01; 177(3):1904-12. View abstract
  98. Natural antibody mediated innate autoimmune response. Mol Immunol. 2007 Jan; 44(1-3):103-10. View abstract
  99. Optimal long-term humoral responses to replication-defective herpes simplex virus require CD21/CD35 complement receptor expression on stromal cells. J Virol. 2006 Jul; 80(14):7111-7. View abstract
  100. The role of natural IgM in myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2006 Jul; 41(1):62-7. View abstract
  101. T cell-independent and T cell-dependent immunoglobulin G responses to polyomavirus infection are impaired in complement receptor 2-deficient mice. Virology. 2006 Aug 15; 352(1):52-60. View abstract
  102. Factor B of the alternative complement pathway regulates development of airway hyperresponsiveness and inflammation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 May 23; 103(21):8084-9. View abstract
  103. Emerging patterns in complement-mediated pathogen recognition. Cell. 2006 Apr 07; 125(1):29-32. View abstract
  104. Transcriptional basis of lymphocyte tolerance. Immunol Rev. 2006 Apr; 210:105-19. View abstract
  105. The complement component C3 plays a critical role in both Th1 and Th2 responses to antigen. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2006 Jun; 117(6):1455-61. View abstract
  106. Attenuation of skeletal muscle reperfusion injury with intravenous 12 amino acid peptides that bind to pathogenic IgM. Surgery. 2006 Feb; 139(2):236-43. View abstract
  107. Identification of the target self-antigens in reperfusion injury. J Exp Med. 2006 Jan 23; 203(1):141-52. View abstract
  108. CD21/CD19 coreceptor signaling promotes B cell survival during primary immune responses. J Immunol. 2005 Sep 01; 175(5):2859-67. View abstract
  109. Mast cell protease 5 mediates ischemia-reperfusion injury of mouse skeletal muscle. J Immunol. 2005 Jun 01; 174(11):7285-91. View abstract
  110. Defective B cell responses in the absence of SH2D1A. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Mar 29; 102(13):4819-23. View abstract
  111. Innate autoimmunity. Adv Immunol. 2005; 86:137-57. View abstract
  112. A role for NF-kappa B subunits p50 and p65 in the inhibition of lipopolysaccharide-induced shock. J Immunol. 2004 Nov 01; 173(9):5786-93. View abstract
  113. The complement system in regulation of adaptive immunity. Nat Immunol. 2004 Oct; 5(10):981-6. View abstract
  114. A critical role for Fc gamma RIIB in the induction of rheumatoid factors. J Immunol. 2004 Oct 01; 173(7):4724-8. View abstract
  115. A protective role for innate immunity in systemic lupus erythematosus. Nat Rev Immunol. 2004 Oct; 4(10):825-31. View abstract
  116. Murine hindlimb reperfusion injury can be initiated by a self-reactive monoclonal IgM. Surgery. 2004 Aug; 136(2):401-6. View abstract
  117. The complement system in B cell regulation. Mol Immunol. 2004 Jun; 41(2-3):141-6. View abstract
  118. Identification of a specific self-reactive IgM antibody that initiates intestinal ischemia/reperfusion injury. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 Mar 16; 101(11):3886-91. View abstract
  119. Germinal center checkpoints in B cell tolerance in 3H9 transgenic mice. Int Immunol. 2004 Feb; 16(2):377-84. View abstract
  120. T cell-independent somatic hypermutation in murine B cells with an immature phenotype. Immunity. 2004 Feb; 20(2):133-44. View abstract
  121. B cell receptor signal strength determines B cell fate. Nat Immunol. 2004 Mar; 5(3):317-27. View abstract
  122. Ischaemia-reperfusion is an event triggered by immune complexes and complement. Br J Surg. 2003 Dec; 90(12):1470-8. View abstract
  123. Myeloid C3 determines induction of humoral responses to peripheral herpes simplex virus infection. J Immunol. 2003 Nov 15; 171(10):5363-71. View abstract
  124. Critical role of the complement system in group B streptococcus-induced tumor necrosis factor alpha release. Infect Immun. 2003 Nov; 71(11):6344-53. View abstract
  125. A role for complement in feedback enhancement of antibody responses by IgG3. J Exp Med. 2003 May 05; 197(9):1183-90. View abstract
  126. F(ab)'2-mediated neutralization of C3a and C5a anaphylatoxins: a novel effector function of immunoglobulins. Nat Med. 2003 Apr; 9(4):431-8. View abstract
  127. The role of complement and natural antibody in intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury. Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol. 2003 Jan-Apr; 16(1):1-8. View abstract
  128. Lack of C3 affects Th2 response development and the sequelae of chemotherapy in schistosomiasis. J Immunol. 2003 Jan 01; 170(1):470-6. View abstract
  129. Impaired antibody response to group B streptococcal type III capsular polysaccharide in C3- and complement receptor 2-deficient mice. J Immunol. 2003 Jan 01; 170(1):84-90. View abstract
  130. Macrophage-derived complement component C4 can restore humoral immunity in C4-deficient mice. J Immunol. 2002 Nov 15; 169(10):5489-95. View abstract
  131. Functional activity of natural antibody is altered in Cr2-deficient mice. J Immunol. 2002 Nov 15; 169(10):5433-40. View abstract
  132. B lymphocyte memory: role of stromal cell complement and FcgammaRIIB receptors. J Exp Med. 2002 Nov 04; 196(9):1189-99. View abstract
  133. Anti-DNA autoreactivity in C4-deficient mice. Eur J Immunol. 2002 Sep; 32(9):2672-9. View abstract
  134. Lack of mannose-binding lectin-A enhances survival in a mouse model of acute septic peritonitis. Microbes Infect. 2002 Jul; 4(8):773-84. View abstract
  135. Influence of C3 deficiency on atherosclerosis. Circulation. 2002 Jun 25; 105(25):3025-31. View abstract
  136. Redundant and alternative roles for activating Fc receptors and complement in an antibody-dependent model of autoimmune vitiligo. Immunity. 2002 Jun; 16(6):861-8. View abstract
  137. Immunoglobulin G monoclonal antibodies to Cryptococcus neoformans protect mice deficient in complement component C3. Infect Immun. 2002 May; 70(5):2598-604. View abstract
  138. Complement component C3 promotes T-cell priming and lung migration to control acute influenza virus infection. Nat Med. 2002 Apr; 8(4):373-8. View abstract
  139. Complement activation selectively potentiates the pathogenicity of the IgG2b and IgG3 isotypes of a high affinity anti-erythrocyte autoantibody. J Exp Med. 2002 Mar 18; 195(6):665-72. View abstract
  140. Measurement of B --> K*gamma branching fractions and charge asymmetries. Phys Rev Lett. 2002 Mar 11; 88(10):101805. View abstract
  141. Complement C4 is protective for lupus disease independent of C3. J Immunol. 2002 Feb 01; 168(3):1036-41. View abstract
  142. Arthritis critically dependent on innate immune system players. Immunity. 2002 Feb; 16(2):157-68. View abstract
  143. Evidence of a role for C4 in modulating interstitial inflammation in experimental glomerulonephritis. Clin Immunol. 2001 Dec; 101(3):366-70. View abstract
  144. The TEL/PDGFbetaR fusion in chronic myelomonocytic leukemia signals through STAT5-dependent and STAT5-independent pathways. Blood. 2001 Dec 01; 98(12):3390-7. View abstract
  145. Innate immunity in the etiopathology of autoimmunity. Nat Immunol. 2001 Dec; 2(12):1089-90. View abstract
  146. Search for the decay B0-->gammagamma. Phys Rev Lett. 2001 Dec 10; 87(24):241803. View abstract
  147. Complement activation in factor D-deficient mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001 Dec 04; 98(25):14577-82. View abstract
  148. Measurement of the B--> J/psiK*(892) decay amplitudes. Phys Rev Lett. 2001 Dec 10; 87(24):241801. View abstract
  149. Measurements of the branching fractions of exclusive charmless B meson decays with eta(') or omega mesons. Phys Rev Lett. 2001 Nov 26; 87(22):221802. View abstract
  150. Measurement of the B(0) and B(+) meson lifetimes with fully reconstructed hadronic final states. Phys Rev Lett. 2001 Nov 12; 87(20):201803. View abstract
  151. The allogeneic T and B cell response is strongly dependent on complement components C3 and C4. Transplantation. 2001 Oct 15; 72(7):1310-8. View abstract
  152. Measurement of J/psi production in continuum e(+)e(-) annihilations near square root of s = 10.6 GeV. Phys Rev Lett. 2001 Oct 15; 87(16):162002. View abstract
  153. Measurement of branching fractions and search for CP-violating charge asymmetries in charmless two-body B decays into pions and kaons. Phys Rev Lett. 2001 Oct 08; 87(15):151802. View abstract
  154. Measurement of the decays B--> phiK and B--> phiK*. Phys Rev Lett. 2001 Oct 08; 87(15):151801. View abstract
  155. Cutting edge: myeloid complement C3 enhances the humoral response to peripheral viral infection. J Immunol. 2001 Sep 01; 167(5):2446-51. View abstract
  156. Observation of CP violation in the B(0) meson system. Phys Rev Lett. 2001 Aug 27; 87(9):091801. View abstract
  157. Complement is essential for protection by an IgM and an IgG3 monoclonal antibody against experimental, hematogenously disseminated candidiasis. J Immunol. 2001 Aug 01; 167(3):1550-7. View abstract
  158. Distinct tissue site-specific requirements of mast cells and complement components C3/C5a receptor in IgG immune complex-induced injury of skin and lung. J Immunol. 2001 Jul 15; 167(2):1022-7. View abstract
  159. The follicular versus marginal zone B lymphocyte cell fate decision is regulated by Aiolos, Btk, and CD21. Immunity. 2001 May; 14(5):603-15. View abstract
  160. The role of complement in inflammation and adaptive immunity. Immunol Rev. 2001 Apr; 180:5-15. View abstract
  161. Complement facilitates early prion pathogenesis. Nat Med. 2001 Apr; 7(4):488-92. View abstract
  162. Measurement of CP-violating asymmetries in B0 decays to CP eigenstates. Phys Rev Lett. 2001 Mar 19; 86(12):2515-22. View abstract
  163. A role for CD21/CD35 and CD19 in responses to acute septic peritonitis: a potential mechanism for mast cell activation. J Immunol. 2000 Dec 15; 165(12):6915-21. View abstract
  164. Complement is activated in kidney by endotoxin but does not cause the ensuing acute renal failure. Kidney Int. 2000 Oct; 58(4):1580-7. View abstract
  165. A hierarchical role for classical pathway complement proteins in the clearance of apoptotic cells in vivo. J Exp Med. 2000 Aug 07; 192(3):359-66. View abstract
  166. Mouse complement components C4 and Slp act synergistically in a homologous hemolytic C4 assay. Eur J Immunol. 2000 May; 30(5):1507-11. View abstract
  167. Humoral immune responses in Cr2-/- mice: enhanced affinity maturation but impaired antibody persistence. J Immunol. 2000 May 01; 164(9):4522-32. View abstract
  168. TEL/PDGFbetaR fusion protein activates STAT1 and STAT5: a common mechanism for transformation by tyrosine kinase fusion proteins. Exp Hematol. 2000 May; 28(5):584-93. View abstract
  169. A protective role for innate immunity in autoimmune disease. Clin Immunol. 2000 Apr; 95(1 Pt 2):S30-8. View abstract
  170. Immunization with a modified vaccinia virus expressing simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) Gag-Pol primes for an anamnestic Gag-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte response and is associated with reduction of viremia after SIV challenge. J Virol. 2000 Mar; 74(6):2502-9. View abstract
  171. Fatal myeloproliferation, induced in mice by TEL/PDGFbetaR expression, depends on PDGFbetaR tyrosines 579/581. J Clin Invest. 2000 Feb; 105(4):423-32. View abstract
  172. Negative selection of B lymphocytes: a novel role for innate immunity. Immunol Rev. 2000 Feb; 173:120-30. View abstract
  173. The role of complement receptors CD21/CD35 in positive selection of B-1 cells. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2000; 252:57-65. View abstract
  174. The role of complement in B cell activation and tolerance. Adv Immunol. 2000; 74:61-88. View abstract
  175. Regulation of B lymphocyte responses to foreign and self-antigens by the CD19/CD21 complex. Annu Rev Immunol. 2000; 18:393-422. View abstract
  176. Humoral response to herpes simplex virus is complement-dependent. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999 Oct 26; 96(22):12708-12. View abstract
  177. Protective T cell-independent antiviral antibody responses are dependent on complement. J Exp Med. 1999 Oct 18; 190(8):1165-74. View abstract
  178. Beta-glucan, a "specific" biologic response modifier that uses antibodies to target tumors for cytotoxic recognition by leukocyte complement receptor type 3 (CD11b/CD18). J Immunol. 1999 Sep 15; 163(6):3045-52. View abstract
  179. Molecular and functional characteristics of a protective human monoclonal antibody to serotype 8 Streptococcus pneumoniae capsular polysaccharide. Infect Immun. 1999 Aug; 67(8):4119-27. View abstract
  180. Altered distribution of intraglomerular immune complexes in C3-deficient mice. Immunology. 1999 Jul; 97(3):393-9. View abstract
  181. SAP-less chromatin triggers systemic lupus erythematosus. Nat Med. 1999 Jun; 5(6):607-8. View abstract
  182. Intestinal reperfusion injury is mediated by IgM and complement. J Appl Physiol (1985). 1999 Mar; 86(3):938-42. View abstract
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  184. Negative selection of self-reactive B lymphocytes involves complement. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 1999; 246:21-7; discussion 28-9. View abstract
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