Under normal circumstances, neurons in the mature central nervous system (CNS: brain, spinal cord, eye) cannot re-establish their connections after injury, nor can intact cells grow new connections to compensate for those that have been lost. As a result of this, victims of traumatic injury, stroke or neurodegenerative diseases can suffer permanent and often devastating losses in movement, sensation, bodily functions, and thinking. The goals of the Benowitz lab are to discover the basic mechanisms that control the growth of nerve connections and to apply insights from this work to promote regeneration and functional recovery after CNS injury.

Current projects focus on:

  • Optic nerve regeneration: research on the molecular signals that enable the projection neurons of the eye (retinal ganglion cells) to regrow their connections through the optic nerve.
  • Stroke and spinal cord injury: methods to enhance the rewiring of brain connections and improve functional outcome after stroke or spinal cord injury.
  • Inosine and cell signaling pathways: the small, naturally occurring molecule, inosine, stimulates certain types of nerve cells to extend nerve fibers in cell culture and in vivo. Inosine appears to stimulate a cell signaling pathway that controls the expression of a group of genes required for axon growth.


Larry Benowitz received his PhD in Biology from CalTech and completed fellowships at CalTech, MIT, and Harvard Medical School. He joined the faculty of Harvard Medical School in 1979, where he is currently a Professor of Surgery and Director of the Laboratories for Neuroscience Research in Neurosurgery at Boston Children's Hospital.

At Boston Children's, he serves on the Research Faculty Council, the Surgical Research Council, and chairs the Steering Committee for Animal Resources (ARCH). At Harvard Med School, he is the Co-chair of the Committee on Awards and Honors and has taught in a number of courses. Extramurally, he serves on the review boards of the Journal of Neuroscience and the Journal of Neurosurgery and has served on review committees for the NIH and private foundations.

He has been invited to speak at many research centers and symposia, including most recently the University of Southern California/UCLA/UC Irvine workshop on Plasticity and Repair in Neurodegenerative Disorders, Williams College, The Wadsworth Center/SUNY Albany, the University of Massachusetts Medical Center, Northwestern Univ. Med. Ctr., an NIH Roadmap Workshop on Transforming Regenerative Medicine, the American Academy of Neurology Symposium on the "Future of Neuroscience", the Wings for Life Spinal Cord Research Foundation Symposium (Salzburg, Austria), the Symposium on Development and Plasticity of the Nervous System at the University of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil), the Lasker/IRRF Initiative for Innovation in Vision Research, and at the Burke Institute/Cornell Medical Center. His research has been reported in the international media and has received television coverage on CBS, CNN and the BBC.


Publications powered by Harvard Catalyst Profiles

  1. Retinal Ganglion Cell Axon Regeneration Requires Complement and Myeloid Cell Activity within the Optic Nerve. J Neurosci. 2021 Oct 13; 41(41):8508-8531. View abstract
  2. Non-Cell-Autonomous Regulation of Optic Nerve Regeneration by Amacrine Cells. Front Cell Neurosci. 2021; 15:666798. View abstract
  3. Chemokine CCL5 promotes robust optic nerve regeneration and mediates many of the effects of CNTF gene therapy. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2021 03 02; 118(9). View abstract
  4. Axon Regeneration in the Mammalian Optic Nerve. Annu Rev Vis Sci. 2020 09 15; 6:195-213. View abstract
  5. Multi-Omic Analyses of Growth Cones at Different Developmental Stages Provides Insight into Pathways in Adult Neuroregeneration. iScience. 2020 Feb 21; 23(2):100836. View abstract
  6. Optic nerve regeneration: A long view. Restor Neurol Neurosci. 2019; 37(6):525-544. View abstract
  7. Mammalian dendritic regrowth: a new perspective on neural repair. Brain. 2018 07 01; 141(7):1891-1894. View abstract
  8. Monogenic, Polygenic, and MicroRNA Markers for Ischemic Stroke. Mol Neurobiol. 2019 Feb; 56(2):1330-1343. View abstract
  9. In Vitro and In Vivo Methods for Studying Retinal Ganglion Cell Survival and Optic Nerve Regeneration. Methods Mol Biol. 2018; 1695:187-205. View abstract
  10. Zinc chelation and Klf9 knockdown cooperatively promote axon regeneration after optic nerve injury. Exp Neurol. 2018 02; 300:22-29. View abstract
  11. The challenge of regenerative therapies for the optic nerve in glaucoma. Exp Eye Res. 2017 04; 157:28-33. View abstract
  12. Mobile zinc increases rapidly in the retina after optic nerve injury and regulates ganglion cell survival and optic nerve regeneration. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017 01 10; 114(2):E209-E218. View abstract
  13. Inosine enhances recovery of grasp following cortical injury to the primary motor cortex of the rhesus monkey. Restor Neurol Neurosci. 2016 09 21; 34(5):827-48. View abstract
  14. Reassembly of Excitable Domains after CNS Axon Regeneration. J Neurosci. 2016 08 31; 36(35):9148-60. View abstract
  15. Robust Axonal Regeneration Occurs in the Injured CAST/Ei Mouse CNS. Neuron. 2016 May 04; 90(3):662. View abstract
  16. A Systems-Level Analysis of the Peripheral Nerve Intrinsic Axonal Growth Program. Neuron. 2016 Mar 02; 89(5):956-70. View abstract
  17. Reaching the brain: Advances in optic nerve regeneration. Exp Neurol. 2017 Jan; 287(Pt 3):365-373. View abstract
  18. Inosine Improves Neurogenic Detrusor Overactivity following Spinal Cord Injury. PLoS One. 2015; 10(11):e0141492. View abstract
  19. GDF10 is a signal for axonal sprouting and functional recovery after stroke. Nat Neurosci. 2015 Dec; 18(12):1737-45. View abstract
  20. Robust Axonal Regeneration Occurs in the Injured CAST/Ei Mouse CNS. Neuron. 2015 Jun 03; 86(5):1215-27. View abstract
  21. NRF2 promotes neuronal survival in neurodegeneration and acute nerve damage. J Clin Invest. 2015 Apr; 125(4):1433-45. View abstract
  22. [Reinnervation of central visual areas and recovery of visual functions following optic nerve regeneration in adult mice]. Brain Nerve. 2014 Mar; 66(3):265-72. View abstract
  23. Inosine improves functional recovery after experimental traumatic brain injury. Brain Res. 2014 Mar 25; 1555:78-88. View abstract
  24. Inosine enhances axon sprouting and motor recovery after spinal cord injury. PLoS One. 2013; 8(12):e81948. View abstract
  25. Neutrophils express oncomodulin and promote optic nerve regeneration. J Neurosci. 2013 Sep 11; 33(37):14816-24. View abstract
  26. The impact of discrete modes of spinal cord injury on bladder muscle contractility. BMC Urol. 2013 May 13; 13:24. View abstract
  27. Etanercept, a widely used inhibitor of tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-a), prevents retinal ganglion cell loss in a rat model of glaucoma. PLoS One. 2012; 7(7):e40065. View abstract
  28. Axonal regeneration induced by blockade of glial inhibitors coupled with activation of intrinsic neuronal growth pathways. Exp Neurol. 2012 Sep; 237(1):55-69. View abstract
  29. Full-length axon regeneration in the adult mouse optic nerve and partial recovery of simple visual behaviors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 Jun 05; 109(23):9149-54. View abstract
  30. NgR1 and NgR3 are receptors for chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans. Nat Neurosci. 2012 Mar 11; 15(5):703-12. View abstract
  31. Combinatorial therapy stimulates long-distance regeneration, target reinnervation, and partial recovery of vision after optic nerve injury in mice. Int Rev Neurobiol. 2012; 106:153-72. View abstract
  32. Inflammation and axon regeneration. Curr Opin Neurol. 2011 Dec; 24(6):577-83. View abstract
  33. Recovery from chronic spinal cord contusion after Nogo receptor intervention. Ann Neurol. 2011 Nov; 70(5):805-21. View abstract
  34. Author's response to Steward et al., "A re-assessment of the effects of intra-cortical delivery of inosine….". Exp Neurol. 2012 Feb; 233(2):674-6. View abstract
  35. Inosine augments the effects of a Nogo receptor blocker and of environmental enrichment to restore skilled forelimb use after stroke. J Neurosci. 2011 Apr 20; 31(16):5977-88. View abstract
  36. Long-distance axon regeneration in the mature optic nerve: contributions of oncomodulin, cAMP, and pten gene deletion. J Neurosci. 2010 Nov 17; 30(46):15654-63. View abstract
  37. Optic nerve regeneration. Arch Ophthalmol. 2010 Aug; 128(8):1059-64. View abstract
  38. Promoting axonal rewiring to improve outcome after stroke. Neurobiol Dis. 2010 Feb; 37(2):259-66. View abstract
  39. Oncomodulin links inflammation to optic nerve regeneration. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 Nov 17; 106(46):19587-92. View abstract
  40. Mst3b, an Ste20-like kinase, regulates axon regeneration in mature CNS and PNS pathways. Nat Neurosci. 2009 Nov; 12(11):1407-14. View abstract
  41. Inosine alters gene expression and axonal projections in neurons contralateral to a cortical infarct and improves skilled use of the impaired limb. J Neurosci. 2009 Jun 24; 29(25):8187-97. View abstract
  42. The role of macrophages in optic nerve regeneration. Neuroscience. 2009 Feb 06; 158(3):1039-48. View abstract
  43. Does CNTF mediate the effect of intraocular inflammation on optic nerve regeneration? Brain. 2008 Jun; 131(Pt 6):e96; author reply e97. View abstract
  44. Combinatorial treatments for promoting axon regeneration in the CNS: strategies for overcoming inhibitory signals and activating neurons' intrinsic growth state. Dev Neurobiol. 2007 Aug; 67(9):1148-65. View abstract
  45. Rewiring the injured CNS: lessons from the optic nerve. Exp Neurol. 2008 Feb; 209(2):389-98. View abstract
  46. Monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 mediates retinal detachment-induced photoreceptor apoptosis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 Feb 13; 104(7):2425-30. View abstract
  47. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha mediates oligodendrocyte death and delayed retinal ganglion cell loss in a mouse model of glaucoma. J Neurosci. 2006 Dec 06; 26(49):12633-41. View abstract
  48. Mst3b, a purine-sensitive Ste20-like protein kinase, regulates axon outgrowth. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Nov 28; 103(48):18320-5. View abstract
  49. An injectable, biodegradable hydrogel for trophic factor delivery enhances axonal rewiring and improves performance after spinal cord injury. Exp Neurol. 2006 Oct; 201(2):359-67. View abstract
  50. Oncomodulin is a macrophage-derived signal for axon regeneration in retinal ganglion cells. Nat Neurosci. 2006 Jun; 9(6):843-52. View abstract
  51. Switching mature retinal ganglion cells to a robust growth state in vivo: gene expression and synergy with RhoA inactivation. J Neurosci. 2004 Oct 06; 24(40):8726-40. View abstract
  52. Counteracting the Nogo receptor enhances optic nerve regeneration if retinal ganglion cells are in an active growth state. J Neurosci. 2004 Feb 18; 24(7):1646-51. View abstract
  53. Axon regeneration in goldfish and rat retinal ganglion cells: differential responsiveness to carbohydrates and cAMP. J Neurosci. 2003 Aug 27; 23(21):7830-8. View abstract
  54. Macrophage-derived factors stimulate optic nerve regeneration. J Neurosci. 2003 Mar 15; 23(6):2284-93. View abstract
  55. Nerve growth factor controls GAP-43 mRNA stability via the phosphoprotein ARPP-19. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002 Sep 17; 99(19):12427-31. View abstract
  56. Inosine induces axonal rewiring and improves behavioral outcome after stroke. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002 Jun 25; 99(13):9031-6. View abstract
  57. Inosine stimulates axon growth in vitro and in the adult CNS. Prog Brain Res. 2002; 137:389-99. View abstract
  58. A purine-sensitive mechanism regulates the molecular program for axon growth. Restor Neurol Neurosci. 2001; 19(1-2):41-9. View abstract
  59. A purine-sensitive pathway regulates multiple genes involved in axon regeneration in goldfish retinal ganglion cells. J Neurosci. 2000 Nov 01; 20(21):8031-41. View abstract
  60. Lens injury stimulates axon regeneration in the mature rat optic nerve. J Neurosci. 2000 Jun 15; 20(12):4615-26. View abstract
  61. A developmentally regulated switch directs regenerative growth of Schwann cells through cyclin D1. Neuron. 2000 May; 26(2):405-16. View abstract
  62. Inosine stimulates extensive axon collateral growth in the rat corticospinal tract after injury. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999 Nov 09; 96(23):13486-90. View abstract
  63. Ciliary neurotrophic factor is an axogenesis factor for retinal ganglion cells. Neuroscience. 1999 Mar; 89(2):579-91. View abstract
  64. Tacrolimus (FK506) increases neuronal expression of GAP-43 and improves functional recovery after spinal cord injury in rats. Exp Neurol. 1998 Dec; 154(2):673-83. View abstract
  65. Axon outgrowth is regulated by an intracellular purine-sensitive mechanism in retinal ganglion cells. J Biol Chem. 1998 Nov 06; 273(45):29626-34. View abstract
  66. Intracisternal basic fibroblast growth factor enhances functional recovery and up-regulates the expression of a molecular marker of neuronal sprouting following focal cerebral infarction. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997 Jul 22; 94(15):8179-84. View abstract
  67. Identification of two proteins that bind to a pyrimidine-rich sequence in the 3'-untranslated region of GAP-43 mRNA. Nucleic Acids Res. 1997 Mar 15; 25(6):1281-8. View abstract
  68. GAP-43: an intrinsic determinant of neuronal development and plasticity. Trends Neurosci. 1997 Feb; 20(2):84-91. View abstract
  69. Levels of the growth-associated protein GAP-43 are selectively increased in association cortices in schizophrenia. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996 Nov 26; 93(24):14182-7. View abstract
  70. Use of a two-hybrid system to investigate molecular interactions of GAP-43. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 1996 Sep 01; 40(2):195-202. View abstract
  71. Optic nerve glia secrete a low-molecular-weight factor that stimulates retinal ganglion cells to regenerate axons in goldfish. Neuroscience. 1996 Jun; 72(4):901-10. View abstract
  72. Evidence for axonal sprouting in the anterior pituitary following adrenalectomy in the rat. J Endocrinol. 1995 Oct; 147(1):161-6. View abstract
  73. Two factors secreted by the goldfish optic nerve induce retinal ganglion cells to regenerate axons in culture. J Neurosci. 1995 Aug; 15(8):5514-25. View abstract
  74. Inhibition of neurite outgrowth following intracellular delivery of anti-GAP-43 antibodies depends upon culture conditions and method of neurite induction. J Neurosci Res. 1995 Jun 15; 41(3):347-54. View abstract
  75. Injury induced expression of growth-associated protein-43 in adult mouse retinal ganglion cells in vitro. Neuroscience. 1994 Nov; 63(2):591-602. View abstract
  76. GAP-43 expression in primary sensory neurons following central axotomy. J Neurosci. 1994 Jul; 14(7):4375-84. View abstract
  77. The amyloid precursor protein is developmentally regulated and correlated with synaptogenesis. Dev Biol. 1994 Feb; 161(2):597-603. View abstract
  78. Innervation of the rat anterior and neurointermediate pituitary visualized by immunocytochemistry for the growth-associated protein GAP-43. Endocrinology. 1994 Jan; 134(1):503-6. View abstract
  79. Activation of protein kinase C by arachidonic acid selectively enhances the phosphorylation of GAP-43 in nerve terminal membranes. J Neurosci. 1993 Oct; 13(10):4361-71. View abstract
  80. Anatomic distribution of the growth-associated protein GAP-43 in the developing human brainstem. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 1993 Jan; 52(1):39-54. View abstract
  81. Neurotoxic damage evokes regenerative responses from adult rat sensory neurones. Neurosci Lett. 1992 Oct 26; 146(1):48-52. View abstract
  82. Denervation of the motor endplate results in the rapid expression by terminal Schwann cells of the growth-associated protein GAP-43. J Neurosci. 1992 Oct; 12(10):3999-4010. View abstract
  83. Changes in chromatin proteins during optic nerve regeneration in the goldfish. J Neurosci Res. 1992 Sep; 33(1):112-21. View abstract
  84. Changes in rapidly transported proteins associated with development of abnormal projections in the diencephalon. Brain Res. 1992 Jul 24; 586(2):265-72. View abstract
  85. Vibrissectomy induced changes in GAP-43 immunoreactivity in the adult rat barrel cortex. J Comp Neurol. 1992 Jan 08; 315(2):160-70. View abstract
  86. Post-transcriptional regulation of GAP-43 rnRNA levels during neuronal differentiation and nerve regeneration. Mol Cell Neurosci. 1991 Oct; 2(5):402-9. View abstract
  87. Phospholipid-mediated delivery of anti-GAP-43 antibodies into neuroblastoma cells prevents neuritogenesis. J Neurosci. 1991 Jun; 11(6):1685-90. View abstract
  88. GAP-43 expression in developing cutaneous and muscle nerves in the rat hindlimb. Neuroscience. 1991; 41(1):201-11. View abstract
  89. GAP-43 expression in the developing rat lumbar spinal cord. Neuroscience. 1991; 41(1):187-99. View abstract
  90. The expression of GAP-43 in relation to neuronal growth and plasticity: when, where, how, and why? Prog Brain Res. 1991; 89:69-87. View abstract
  91. Mapping the development of the rat brain by GAP-43 immunocytochemistry. Neuroscience. 1991; 40(1):277-87. View abstract
  92. The relationship of GAP-43 to the development and plasticity of synaptic connections. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1991; 627:58-74. View abstract
  93. Molecular analysis of the function of the neuronal growth-associated protein GAP-43 by genetic intervention. Mol Neurobiol. 1991; 5(2-4):131-41. View abstract
  94. Immunoreactive GAP-43 in the neuropil of adult rat neostriatum: localization in unmyelinated fibers, axon terminals, and dendritic spines. J Comp Neurol. 1990 Dec 22; 302(4):992-1001. View abstract
  95. Abnormal retinal projections alter GAP-43 patterns in the diencephalon. Brain Res. 1990 Sep 17; 527(2):259-65. View abstract
  96. The pattern of GAP-43 immunostaining changes in the rat hippocampal formation during reactive synaptogenesis. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 1990 Jun; 8(1):17-23. View abstract
  97. Transient patterns of GAP-43 expression during the formation of barrels in the rat somatosensory cortex. J Comp Neurol. 1990 Feb 15; 292(3):443-56. View abstract
  98. Transfection of PC12 cells with the human GAP-43 gene: effects on neurite outgrowth and regeneration. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 1990 Jan; 7(1):39-44. View abstract
  99. The growth-associated protein GAP-43 appears in dorsal root ganglion cells and in the dorsal horn of the rat spinal cord following peripheral nerve injury. Neuroscience. 1990; 34(2):465-78. View abstract
  100. Genetics and biology of the Alzheimer amyloid precursor. Prog Brain Res. 1990; 86:257-67. View abstract
  101. Impaired verbal reasoning and constructional apraxia in subjects with right hemisphere damage. Neuropsychologia. 1990; 28(3):231-41. View abstract
  102. GAP-43 as a marker for structural plasticity in the mature CNS. Prog Brain Res. 1990; 86:309-20. View abstract
  103. The amyloid precursor protein is concentrated in neuronal lysosomes in normal and Alzheimer disease subjects. Exp Neurol. 1989 Dec; 106(3):237-50. View abstract
  104. Immunohistochemical localization of GAP-43 in the developing hamster retinofugal pathway. J Comp Neurol. 1989 Oct 01; 288(1):51-8. View abstract
  105. Peripheral nerve regeneration induces elevated expression of GAP-43 in the brainstem trigeminal complex of adult hamsters. Brain Res. 1989 Sep 25; 498(1):135-9. View abstract
  106. Protein fatty acid acylation in developing cortical neurons. J Neurochem. 1989 Apr; 52(4):1149-55. View abstract
  107. Localization of the growth-associated phosphoprotein GAP-43 (B-50, F1) in the human cerebral cortex. J Neurosci. 1989 Mar; 9(3):990-5. View abstract
  108. Partial purification and characterization of a neurite-promoting factor from the injured goldfish optic nerve. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 1989 Jan; 5(1):45-50. View abstract
  109. Changes in rapidly transported proteins in developing hamster retinofugal axons. J Neurosci. 1988 Dec; 8(12):4445-54. View abstract
  110. Patterns of thought disorder associated with right cortical damage, schizophrenia, and mania. Am J Psychiatry. 1988 Aug; 145(8):944-9. View abstract
  111. Extraction of major acidic Ca2+ dependent phosphoproteins from synaptic membranes. J Neurosci Res. 1988 Jul; 20(3):346-50. View abstract
  112. A factor from the injured lower vertebrate CNS promotes outgrowth from human fetal brain neurons. Brain Res. 1988 May 17; 448(2):346-50. View abstract
  113. Growth-associated protein GAP-43 is expressed selectively in associative regions of the adult human brain. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1988 May; 85(10):3638-42. View abstract
  114. Human GAP-43: its deduced amino acid sequence and chromosomal localization in mouse and human. Neuron. 1988 Apr; 1(2):127-32. View abstract
  115. Anatomical distribution of the growth-associated protein GAP-43/B-50 in the adult rat brain. J Neurosci. 1988 Jan; 8(1):339-52. View abstract
  116. Matrigel enhances survival and integration of grafted dopamine neurons into the striatum. Prog Brain Res. 1988; 78:427-33. View abstract
  117. Activity-dependent sharpening of the regenerating retinotectal projection in goldfish: relationship to the expression of growth-associated proteins. Brain Res. 1987 Aug 04; 417(1):118-26. View abstract
  118. The neuronal growth-associated protein GAP-43 (B-50, F1): neuronal specificity, developmental regulation and regional distribution of the human and rat mRNAs. Brain Res. 1987 Jul; 388(2):177-83. View abstract
  119. Conditioned media from the injured lower vertebrate CNS promote neurite outgrowth from mammalian brain neurons in vitro. Brain Res. 1987 Jun 16; 413(2):267-74. View abstract
  120. Psychosis and prenatal exposure to diethylstilbestrol. J Nerv Ment Dis. 1987 May; 175(5):306-8. View abstract
  121. Molecular properties of the growth-associated protein GAP-43 (B-50). J Neurochem. 1987 May; 48(5):1640-7. View abstract
  122. Enhanced visualization of axonally transported proteins in the immature CNS by suppression of systemic labeling. Brain Res. 1987 Feb; 428(2):183-91. View abstract
  123. Expression of a 48-kilodalton growth-associated protein in the goldfish retina. J Neurochem. 1987 Feb; 48(2):644-52. View abstract
  124. Synthesis of a growth-associated protein by embryonic rat cerebrocortical neurons in vitro. J Neurosci. 1986 Dec; 6(12):3721-30. View abstract
  125. The optic tectum regulates the transport of specific proteins in regenerating optic fibers of goldfish. Brain Res. 1986 Sep 24; 382(2):339-51. View abstract
  126. Covariant defects in visuospatial abilities and recall of verbal narrative after right hemisphere stroke. Cortex. 1986 Sep; 22(3):381-97. View abstract
  127. Left spatial neglect: effects of lesion size and premorbid brain atrophy on severity and recovery following right cerebral infarction. Neurology. 1986 Mar; 36(3):362-6. View abstract
  128. Cellular origin and biosynthesis of rat optic nerve proteins: a two-dimensional gel analysis. J Neurochem. 1984 Aug; 43(2):349-57. View abstract
  129. Increased transport of 44,000- to 49,000-dalton acidic proteins during regeneration of the goldfish optic nerve: a two-dimensional gel analysis. J Neurosci. 1983 Nov; 3(11):2153-63. View abstract
  130. Transported proteins in the regenerating optic nerve: regulation by interactions with the optic tectum. Science. 1983 Oct 14; 222(4620):185-8. View abstract
  131. Hemispheric specialization in nonverbal communication. Cortex. 1983 Apr; 19(1):5-11. View abstract
  132. Mood, vegetative disturbance, and dexamethasone suppression test after stroke. Ann Neurol. 1982 Nov; 12(5):463-8. View abstract
  133. Specific changes in rapidly transported proteins during regeneration of the goldfish optic nerve. J Neurosci. 1981 Mar; 1(3):300-7. View abstract
  134. Immunoreactive sites for nerve growth factor (NGF) in the goldfish brain. Brain Res. 1979 Aug 31; 172(3):561-5. View abstract
  135. Rapidly labeled and secreted proteins of the chick brain. J Neurochem. 1979 Mar; 32(3):797-809. View abstract
  136. Nerve growth factor in the goldfish brain: biological assay studies using pheochromocytoma cells. Brain Res. 1979 Feb 16; 162(1):164-8. View abstract
  137. Localization of a brain protein metabolically linked with behavioral plasticity in the goldfish. Brain Res. 1977 Nov 11; 136(2):227-42. View abstract
  138. Organization of the tectofugal visual pathway in the pigeon: a retrograde transport study. J Comp Neurol. 1976 Jun 15; 167(4):503-20. View abstract
  139. The tractus infundibuli and other afferents to the parahippocampal region of the pigeon. Brain Res. 1976 Jan 30; 102(1):174-80. View abstract
  140. Conditions for the bilateral transfer of monocular learning in chicks. Brain Res. 1974 Jan 11; 65(2):203-13. View abstract
  141. Amnesic effects of lithium chloride in chicks. Exp Neurol. 1973 Aug; 40(2):540-6. View abstract
  142. Contrasting effects of three forebrain ablations on discrimination learning and reversal in chicks. J Comp Physiol Psychol. 1973 Aug; 84(2):391-7. View abstract
  143. Memory storage processes following one-trial aversive conditioning in the chick. Behav Biol. 1973 Mar; 8(3):367-80. View abstract
  144. Effects of forebrain ablations on avoidance learning in chicks. Physiol Behav. 1972 Oct; 9(4):601-8. View abstract