My lab studies the role of endothelial cells and pericytes in various settings of vascular disease and in the normal repair of the vasculature. Here I describe the four areas we are pursuing.

  • Infantile hemangioma is a vascular tumor that can grow rapidly, causing organ damage, disfigurement and morbidity. We’ve focused on identifying cellular mechanisms that drive this uncontrolled vascular growth. We identified a multi-potent stem cell that can recapitulate hemangioma in immune-deficient mice. We are also studying pericytes from hemangioma and the glucose transporter-1 positive endothelial cells, which are a hallmark of hemangioma. Our goal is to use cellular and animal models to identify new drugs that will work safely and quickly to prevent hemangiomas from growing to an endangering size.
  • Vascular malformations are distinct from ascular tumors such as hemangioma but are also little understood and medical therapies are needed. We have recently begun new projects on the cellular and molecular basis of capillary malformations, lymphatic malformation and venous malformations.
  • Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), also called endothelial colony forming cells (ECFCs) are rare cells found in the blood. They can be isolated based on their high proliferative capacity in vitro. We demonstrated the usefulness of EPC/ECFC for endothelializing small diameter vascular grafts in a sheep model and for building networks of human blood vessels rapidly in vivo using athymic nude mice. We also showed that ECFC were able to assemble into perfused vessels when injected into ischemic rat myocardium, and that the presence of these cells was beneficial to recovery of heart function over time.
  • Heart valve endothelial cells - The endothelial cells lining heart valves exhibit unique plasticity compared endothelial cells of large vessels (veins and arteries) or microvessels (capillaries). The valve endothelial cells can undergo endothelial to mesenchymal transition (EndMT) in response to TGFβ, and this process is highly regulated. We study the mitral valve endothelium as part of a multi-disciplinary team focused on how the mitral valve adapts after myocardial infarction.


 Joyce Bischoff received an A.B. in chemistry from Duke University and a Ph.D. in biochemistry from the Washington University School of Medicine. She was a post-doctoral fellow at the Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research. She joined the Surgical Research Laboratories, now called the Vascular Biology Program, at Children's Hospital in 1990. She was elected to serve as President of the North American Vascular Biology Organization (NAVBO) from July 2015-June 2016.


Publications powered by Harvard Catalyst Profiles

  1. Integration of Functional Imaging, Cytometry, and Unbiased Proteomics Reveals New Features of Endothelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition in Ischemic Mitral Valve Regurgitation in Human Patients. Front Cardiovasc Med. 2021; 8:688396. View abstract
  2. Endothelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Cardiovascular Disease. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2021 09; 41(9):2357-2369. View abstract
  3. Epsin-mediated degradation of IP3R1 fuels atherosclerosis. Nat Commun. 2020 08 07; 11(1):3984. View abstract
  4. Diffuse capillary malformation with overgrowth contains somatic PIK3CA variants. Clin Genet. 2020 05; 97(5):736-740. View abstract
  5. Isolation of Stem Cells, Endothelial Cells and Pericytes from Human Infantile Hemangioma. Bio Protoc. 2020 Jan 20; 10(2):e3487. View abstract
  6. R-propranolol is a small molecule inhibitor of the SOX18 transcription factor in a rare vascular syndrome and hemangioma. Elife. 2019 07 30; 8. View abstract
  7. A somatic missense mutation in GNAQ causes capillary malformation. Curr Opin Hematol. 2019 05; 26(3):179-184. View abstract
  8. Endothelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition. Circ Res. 2019 04 12; 124(8):1163-1165. View abstract
  9. Myeloid-Specific Deletion of Epsins 1 and 2 Reduces Atherosclerosis by Preventing LRP-1 Downregulation. Circ Res. 2019 02 15; 124(4):e6-e19. View abstract
  10. Association of Somatic GNAQ Mutation With Capillary Malformations in a Case of Choroidal Hemangioma. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2019 01 01; 137(1):91-95. View abstract
  11. Filamin-A as a Balance between Erk/Smad Activities During Cardiac Valve Development. Anat Rec (Hoboken). 2019 01; 302(1):117-124. View abstract
  12. Epsin deficiency promotes lymphangiogenesis through regulation of VEGFR3 degradation in diabetes. J Clin Invest. 2018 08 31; 128(9):4025-4043. View abstract
  13. Consensus guidelines for the use and interpretation of angiogenesis assays. Angiogenesis. 2018 08; 21(3):425-532. View abstract
  14. PTEN (Phosphatase and Tensin Homolog) Connection in Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia 2. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2018 05; 38(5):984-985. View abstract
  15. Mitral Valve Adaptation: Can We Win the Race? Circ Cardiovasc Imaging. 2018 04; 11(4):e007642. View abstract
  16. Mitral Valve Adaptation to Isolated Annular Dilation: Insights Into the Mechanism of Atrial Functional Mitral Regurgitation. JACC Cardiovasc Imaging. 2019 04; 12(4):665-677. View abstract
  17. Mitral Leaflet Changes Following Myocardial Infarction: Clinical Evidence for Maladaptive Valvular Remodeling. Circ Cardiovasc Imaging. 2017 Nov; 10(11). View abstract
  18. Effect of Losartan on Mitral Valve Changes After Myocardial Infarction. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2017 Sep 05; 70(10):1232-1244. View abstract
  19. Endothelial colony forming cells and mesenchymal progenitor cells form blood vessels and increase blood flow in ischemic muscle. Sci Rep. 2017 04 10; 7(1):770. View abstract
  20. A somatic GNA11 mutation is associated with extremity capillary malformation and overgrowth. Angiogenesis. 2017 Aug; 20(3):303-306. View abstract
  21. EGFL6 Regulates the Asymmetric Division, Maintenance, and Metastasis of ALDH+ Ovarian Cancer Cells. Cancer Res. 2016 11 01; 76(21):6396-6409. View abstract
  22. Somatic GNAQ Mutation is Enriched in Brain Endothelial Cells in Sturge-Weber Syndrome. Pediatr Neurol. 2017 02; 67:59-63. View abstract
  23. CD45 Expression in Mitral Valve Endothelial Cells After Myocardial Infarction. Circ Res. 2016 Nov 11; 119(11):1215-1225. View abstract
  24. Somatic Activating Mutations in GNAQ and GNA11 Are Associated with Congenital Hemangioma. Am J Hum Genet. 2016 06 02; 98(6):1271. View abstract
  25. Altered ratios of pro- and anti-angiogenic VEGF-A variants and pericyte expression of DLL4 disrupt vascular maturation in infantile haemangioma. J Pathol. 2016 06; 239(2):139-51. View abstract
  26. Somatic Activating Mutations in GNAQ and GNA11 Are Associated with Congenital Hemangioma. Am J Hum Genet. 2016 Apr 07; 98(4):789-95. View abstract
  27. 3D Ultrasound: seeing is understanding-from imaging to pathophysiology to developing therapies in secondary MR. Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging. 2016 May; 17(5):510-1. View abstract
  28. Myocardial Infarction Alters Adaptation of the Tethered Mitral Valve. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2016 Jan 26; 67(3):275-87. View abstract
  29. Endothelial Cells from Capillary Malformations Are Enriched for Somatic GNAQ Mutations. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2016 Jan; 137(1):77e-82e. View abstract
  30. Endoglin regulates mural cell adhesion in the circulatory system. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2016 Apr; 73(8):1715-39. View abstract
  31. Dual role of fatty acid-binding protein 5 on endothelial cell fate: a potential link between lipid metabolism and angiogenic responses. Angiogenesis. 2016 Jan; 19(1):95-106. View abstract
  32. Mitral valve disease--morphology and mechanisms. Nat Rev Cardiol. 2015 Dec; 12(12):689-710. View abstract
  33. Rapamycin improves TIE2-mutated venous malformation in murine model and human subjects. J Clin Invest. 2015 Sep; 125(9):3491-504. View abstract
  34. Valvular interstitial cells suppress calcification of valvular endothelial cells. Atherosclerosis. 2015 Sep; 242(1):251-260. View abstract
  35. The GPR 55 agonist, L-a-lysophosphatidylinositol, mediates ovarian carcinoma cell-induced angiogenesis. Br J Pharmacol. 2015 Aug; 172(16):4107-18. View abstract
  36. Infantile hemangioma-derived stem cells and endothelial cells are inhibited by class 3 semaphorins. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2015 Aug 14; 464(1):126-32. View abstract
  37. Treprostinil indirectly regulates endothelial colony forming cell angiogenic properties by increasing VEGF-A produced by mesenchymal stem cells. Thromb Haemost. 2015 Oct; 114(4):735-47. View abstract
  38. Reciprocal interactions between mitral valve endothelial and interstitial cells reduce endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition and myofibroblastic activation. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2015 Mar; 80:175-85. View abstract
  39. Glucose transporter 1-positive endothelial cells in infantile hemangioma exhibit features of facultative stem cells. Stem Cells. 2015 Jan; 33(1):133-45. View abstract
  40. The endogenous zinc finger transcription factor, ZNF24, modulates the angiogenic potential of human microvascular endothelial cells. FASEB J. 2015 Apr; 29(4):1371-82. View abstract
  41. AKT hyper-phosphorylation associated with PI3K mutations in lymphatic endothelial cells from a patient with lymphatic malformation. Angiogenesis. 2015 Apr; 18(2):151-62. View abstract
  42. Neuropilin-1 functions as a VEGFR2 co-receptor to guide developmental angiogenesis independent of ligand binding. Elife. 2014 Sep 22; 3:e03720. View abstract
  43. Propranolol targets the contractility of infantile haemangioma-derived pericytes. Br J Dermatol. 2014 Nov; 171(5):1129-37. View abstract
  44. Cooperation between human fibrocytes and endothelial colony-forming cells increases angiogenesis via the CXCR4 pathway. Thromb Haemost. 2014 Nov; 112(5):1002-13. View abstract
  45. Losartan inhibits endothelial-to-mesenchymal transformation in mitral valve endothelial cells by blocking transforming growth factor-ß-induced phosphorylation of ERK. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2014 Apr 18; 446(4):870-5. View abstract
  46. a6-Integrin is required for the adhesion and vasculogenic potential of hemangioma stem cells. Stem Cells. 2014 Mar; 32(3):684-93. View abstract
  47. Endothelial PGC-1a mediates vascular dysfunction in diabetes. Cell Metab. 2014 Feb 04; 19(2):246-58. View abstract
  48. Rapid onset of perfused blood vessels after implantation of ECFCs and MPCs in collagen, PuraMatrix and fibrin provisional matrices. J Tissue Eng Regen Med. 2015 May; 9(5):632-6. View abstract
  49. Human vasculogenic cells form functional blood vessels and mitigate adverse remodeling after ischemia reperfusion injury in rats. Angiogenesis. 2013 Oct; 16(4):773-84. View abstract
  50. miR-21 represses Pdcd4 during cardiac valvulogenesis. Development. 2013 May; 140(10):2172-80. View abstract
  51. Pericytes from infantile hemangioma display proangiogenic properties and dysregulated angiopoietin-1. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2013 Mar; 33(3):501-9. View abstract
  52. E-selectin mediates stem cell adhesion and formation of blood vessels in a murine model of infantile hemangioma. Am J Pathol. 2012 Dec; 181(6):2239-47. View abstract
  53. Hydrogel surfaces to promote attachment and spreading of endothelial progenitor cells. J Tissue Eng Regen Med. 2013 May; 7(5):337-47. View abstract
  54. Cyclic strain induces dual-mode endothelial-mesenchymal transformation of the cardiac valve. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011 Dec 13; 108(50):19943-8. View abstract
  55. Bioengineered human vascular networks transplanted into secondary mice reconnect with the host vasculature and re-establish perfusion. Blood. 2011 Dec 15; 118(25):6718-21. View abstract
  56. Increased endothelial progenitor cells and vasculogenic factors in higher-staged arteriovenous malformations. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2011 Oct; 128(4):260e-269e. View abstract
  57. Rapamycin suppresses self-renewal and vasculogenic potential of stem cells isolated from infantile hemangioma. J Invest Dermatol. 2011 Dec; 131(12):2467-76. View abstract
  58. VEGFR-1 mediates endothelial differentiation and formation of blood vessels in a murine model of infantile hemangioma. Am J Pathol. 2011 Nov; 179(5):2266-77. View abstract
  59. Infantile hemangioma-mechanism(s) of drug action on a vascular tumor. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med. 2011 Sep; 1(1):a006460. View abstract
  60. Expression of HES and HEY genes in infantile hemangiomas. Vasc Cell. 2011 Aug 11; 3:19. View abstract
  61. Progenitor cells confer plasticity to cardiac valve endothelium. J Cardiovasc Transl Res. 2011 Dec; 4(6):710-9. View abstract
  62. JAGGED1 signaling regulates hemangioma stem cell-to-pericyte/vascular smooth muscle cell differentiation. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2011 Oct; 31(10):2181-92. View abstract
  63. Type I collagen, fibrin and PuraMatrix matrices provide permissive environments for human endothelial and mesenchymal progenitor cells to form neovascular networks. J Tissue Eng Regen Med. 2011 Apr; 5(4):e74-86. View abstract
  64. Mitral valve endothelial cells with osteogenic differentiation potential. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2011 Mar; 31(3):598-607. View abstract
  65. Targeting NF-?B in infantile hemangioma-derived stem cells reduces VEGF-A expression. Angiogenesis. 2010 Dec; 13(4):327-35. View abstract
  66. Intravital molecular imaging of small-diameter tissue-engineered vascular grafts in mice: a feasibility study. Tissue Eng Part C Methods. 2010 Aug; 16(4):597-607. View abstract
  67. Host myeloid cells are necessary for creating bioengineered human vascular networks in vivo. Tissue Eng Part A. 2010 Aug; 16(8):2457-66. View abstract
  68. Corticosteroid suppression of VEGF-A in infantile hemangioma-derived stem cells. N Engl J Med. 2010 Mar 18; 362(11):1005-13. View abstract
  69. A switch in Notch gene expression parallels stem cell to endothelial transition in infantile hemangioma. Angiogenesis. 2010 Mar; 13(1):15-23. View abstract
  70. Differential functions of genes regulated by VEGF-NFATc1 signaling pathway in the migration of pulmonary valve endothelial cells. FEBS Lett. 2010 Jan 04; 584(1):141-6. View abstract
  71. Endothelial progenitor cells as a sole source for ex vivo seeding of tissue-engineered heart valves. Tissue Eng Part A. 2010 Jan; 16(1):257-67. View abstract
  72. Fatty acid binding protein 4 is a target of VEGF and a regulator of cell proliferation in endothelial cells. FASEB J. 2009 Nov; 23(11):3865-73. View abstract
  73. Active adaptation of the tethered mitral valve: insights into a compensatory mechanism for functional mitral regurgitation. Circulation. 2009 Jul 28; 120(4):334-42. View abstract
  74. Vasculogenesis in infantile hemangioma. Angiogenesis. 2009; 12(2):197-207. View abstract
  75. Progenitor cells in infantile hemangioma. J Craniofac Surg. 2009 Mar; 20 Suppl 1:695-7. View abstract
  76. Suppressed NFAT-dependent VEGFR1 expression and constitutive VEGFR2 signaling in infantile hemangioma. Nat Med. 2008 Nov; 14(11):1236-46. View abstract
  77. Calcification of multipotent prostate tumor endothelium. Cancer Cell. 2008 Sep 09; 14(3):201-11. View abstract
  78. Opposing actions of Notch1 and VEGF in post-natal cardiac valve endothelial cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2008 Sep 26; 374(3):512-6. View abstract
  79. Multipotential stem cells recapitulate human infantile hemangioma in immunodeficient mice. J Clin Invest. 2008 Jul; 118(7):2592-9. View abstract
  80. Stem cell-derived, tissue-engineered pulmonary artery augmentation patches in vivo. Ann Thorac Surg. 2008 Jul; 86(1):132-40; discussion 140-1. View abstract
  81. Engineering robust and functional vascular networks in vivo with human adult and cord blood-derived progenitor cells. Circ Res. 2008 Jul 18; 103(2):194-202. View abstract
  82. IGF-2 and FLT-1/VEGF-R1 mRNA levels reveal distinctions and similarities between congenital and common infantile hemangioma. Pediatr Res. 2008 Mar; 63(3):263-7. View abstract
  83. In memoriam Dr. Judah Folkman. Angiogenesis. 2008; 11(1):1-2. View abstract
  84. Chapter 13. An in vivo experimental model for postnatal vasculogenesis. Methods Enzymol. 2008; 445:303-29. View abstract
  85. Multifocal rapidly involuting congenital hemangioma: a link to chorangioma. . 2007 Dec 15; 143A(24):3038-46. View abstract
  86. Hemogenic endothelial progenitor cells isolated from human umbilical cord blood. Stem Cells. 2007 Nov; 25(11):2770-6. View abstract
  87. In vivo vasculogenic potential of human blood-derived endothelial progenitor cells. Blood. 2007 Jun 01; 109(11):4761-8. View abstract
  88. Human pulmonary valve progenitor cells exhibit endothelial/mesenchymal plasticity in response to vascular endothelial growth factor-A and transforming growth factor-beta2. Circ Res. 2006 Oct 13; 99(8):861-9. View abstract
  89. Endothelial progenitor cells from infantile hemangioma and umbilical cord blood display unique cellular responses to endostatin. Blood. 2006 Aug 01; 108(3):915-21. View abstract
  90. Engineering of blood vessels from acellular collagen matrices coated with human endothelial cells. Tissue Eng. 2006 Aug; 12(8):2355-65. View abstract
  91. Mesenchymal stem cells and adipogenesis in hemangioma involution. Stem Cells. 2006 Jun; 24(6):1605-12. View abstract
  92. Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor signaling is required for cardiac valve formation in zebrafish. Dev Dyn. 2006 Jan; 235(1):29-37. View abstract
  93. Infantile hemangiomas: current knowledge, future directions. Proceedings of a research workshop on infantile hemangiomas, April 7-9, 2005, Bethesda, Maryland, USA. Pediatr Dermatol. 2005 Sep-Oct; 22(5):383-406. View abstract
  94. Heart valve development: endothelial cell signaling and differentiation. Circ Res. 2004 Sep 03; 95(5):459-70. View abstract
  95. Tissue-engineered microvessels on three-dimensional biodegradable scaffolds using human endothelial progenitor cells. . 2004 Aug; 287(2):H480-7. View abstract
  96. Genomic imprinting of IGF2 is maintained in infantile hemangioma despite its high level of expression. Mol Med. 2004 Jul-Dec; 10(7-12):117-23. View abstract
  97. E-selectin is required for the antiangiogenic activity of endostatin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 May 25; 101(21):8005-10. View abstract
  98. Endothelial progenitor cells in infantile hemangioma. Blood. 2004 Feb 15; 103(4):1373-5. View abstract
  99. Differential expression of CD146 in tissues and endothelial cells derived from infantile haemangioma and normal human skin. J Pathol. 2003 Oct; 201(2):296-302. View abstract
  100. Human pulmonary valve endothelial cells express functional adhesion molecules for leukocytes. J Heart Valve Dis. 2003 Sep; 12(5):617-24. View abstract
  101. Quantitative evaluation of endothelial progenitors and cardiac valve endothelial cells: proliferation and differentiation on poly-glycolic acid/poly-4-hydroxybutyrate scaffold in response to vascular endothelial growth factor and transforming growth factor beta1. Tissue Eng. 2003 Jun; 9(3):487-93. View abstract
  102. Thoracic Surgery Directors Association Award. Bone marrow as a cell source for tissue engineering heart valves. Ann Thorac Surg. 2003 Mar; 75(3):761-7; discussion 767. View abstract
  103. NFATc1 mediates vascular endothelial growth factor-induced proliferation of human pulmonary valve endothelial cells. J Biol Chem. 2003 Jan 17; 278(3):1686-92. View abstract
  104. Monoclonal expansion of endothelial cells in hemangioma: an intrinsic defect with extrinsic consequences? Trends Cardiovasc Med. 2002 Jul; 12(5):220-4. View abstract
  105. AC133-2, a novel isoform of human AC133 stem cell antigen. J Biol Chem. 2002 Jun 07; 277(23):20711-6. View abstract
  106. Increased Tie2 expression, enhanced response to angiopoietin-1, and dysregulated angiopoietin-2 expression in hemangioma-derived endothelial cells. Am J Pathol. 2001 Dec; 159(6):2271-80. View abstract
  107. Aortic valve endothelial cells undergo transforming growth factor-beta-mediated and non-transforming growth factor-beta-mediated transdifferentiation in vitro. Am J Pathol. 2001 Oct; 159(4):1335-43. View abstract
  108. Functional small-diameter neovessels created using endothelial progenitor cells expanded ex vivo. Nat Med. 2001 Sep; 7(9):1035-40. View abstract
  109. Clonality and altered behavior of endothelial cells from hemangiomas. J Clin Invest. 2001 Mar; 107(6):745-52. View abstract
  110. Heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans inhibit E-selectin binding to endothelial cells. J Cell Biochem. 2001; 80(4):522-31. View abstract
  111. Human colon cancer cells express multiple glycoprotein ligands for E-selectin. Int J Oncol. 2000 Feb; 16(2):347-53. View abstract
  112. Regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor-dependent retinal neovascularization by insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor. Nat Med. 1999 Dec; 5(12):1390-5. View abstract
  113. Noninflammatory expression of E-selectin is regulated by cell growth. Blood. 1999 Jun 01; 93(11):3785-91. View abstract
  114. Angiostatin upregulates E-selectin in proliferating endothelial cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1998 Apr 28; 245(3):906-11. View abstract
  115. A simplified method for growth of human microvascular endothelial cells results in decreased senescence and continued responsiveness to cytokines and growth factors. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Anim. 1998 Apr; 34(4):308-15. View abstract
  116. Increased apoptosis coincides with onset of involution in infantile hemangioma. Microcirculation. 1998; 5(2-3):189-95. View abstract
  117. Cell adhesion and angiogenesis. J Clin Invest. 1997 Dec 01; 100(11 Suppl):S37-9. View abstract
  118. E-selectin is upregulated in proliferating endothelial cells in vitro. Microcirculation. 1997 Jun; 4(2):279-87. View abstract
  119. Cell adhesion and angiogenesis. J Clin Invest. 1997 Feb 01; 99(3):373-6. View abstract
  120. The angiogenesis inhibitor AGM-1470 selectively increases E-selectin. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1996 Aug 05; 225(1):141-5. View abstract
  121. Hypoxia enhances stimulus-dependent induction of E-selectin on aortic endothelial cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996 Jul 09; 93(14):7075-80. View abstract
  122. E-selectin is present in proliferating endothelial cells in human hemangiomas. Am J Pathol. 1996 Apr; 148(4):1181-91. View abstract
  123. Regulation of P-selectin by tumor necrosis factor-alpha. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1995 May 05; 210(1):174-80. View abstract
  124. Approaches to studying cell adhesion molecules in angiogenesis. Trends Cell Biol. 1995 Feb; 5(2):69-74. View abstract
  125. A role for sialyl Lewis-X/A glycoconjugates in capillary morphogenesis. Nature. 1993 Sep 16; 365(6443):267-9. View abstract
  126. Isolation and characterization of a bovine cDNA encoding a functional homolog of human P-selectin. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1993 Apr 30; 192(2):338-44. View abstract
  127. 1-Deoxymannojirimycin inhibits capillary tube formation in vitro. Analysis of N-linked oligosaccharides in bovine capillary endothelial cells. J Biol Chem. 1992 Dec 25; 267(36):26157-65. View abstract
  128. Isolation, characterization, and expression of cDNA encoding a rat liver endoplasmic reticulum alpha-mannosidase. J Biol Chem. 1990 Oct 05; 265(28):17110-7. View abstract
  129. The H1 and H2 polypeptides associate to form the asialoglycoprotein receptor in human hepatoma cells. J Cell Biol. 1988 Apr; 106(4):1067-74. View abstract