Charles Berde's research focuses on relieving neuropathic pain in children. The Pain Treatment Service at Children's Hospital in Boston has become a referral center for children with many types of neuropathic pain, but especially limb pain associated with signs of abnormal circulation, which has been variously named reflex sympathetic (or neurovascular) dystrophy (RSD/RND), sympathetically maintained pain (SMP), and complex regional pain syndrome type 1 (CRPS1). 


Charles Berde received an MD and PhD from Stanford University School of Medicine. He completed an internship and residency in pediatrics at Children's Hospital Boston, a residency in anesthesia at Massachusetts General Hospital, and a fellowship in pediatric anesthesia at Children's Hospital. He has received several awards and honors for his pioneering work in pediatric pain relief, including the 2003 Scientific Achievement Award of the Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy Syndrome Association. He was profiled as one of Time Magazine's "Heroes in Medicine" in 1997.


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  1. Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Pain Management of Children With Limb Fractures or Suspected Appendicitis: A Retrospective Cross-Sectional Study. Front Pediatr. 2021; 9:652854. View abstract
  2. The Effectiveness of Cancer Pain Management in a Tertiary Hospital Outpatient Pain Clinic in Thailand: A Prospective Observational Study. Pain Res Manag. 2021; 2021:5599023. View abstract
  3. Trends in Gabapentin and Pregabalin Prescribing in a Tertiary Pediatric Medical Center. Hosp Pediatr. 2021 08; 11(8):909-914. View abstract
  4. Intrathecal catheter and port placement for nusinersen infusion in children with spinal muscular atrophy and spinal fusion. Pediatr Radiol. 2021 12; 51(13):2588-2595. View abstract
  5. Explicit and implicit bias based on race, ethnicity, and weight among pediatric emergency physicians. Acad Emerg Med. 2021 09; 28(9):1073-1076. View abstract
  6. Nonpharmacological Interventions for Pediatric Migraine: A Network Meta-analysis. Pediatrics. 2021 04; 147(4). View abstract
  7. Association of Genetic Variants With Migraine Subclassified by Clinical Symptoms in Adult Females. Front Neurol. 2020; 11:617472. View abstract
  8. Epidural catheter placement in children with baclofen pumps. Paediatr Anaesth. 2021 02; 31(2):178-185. View abstract
  9. Case Studies Using the Electroencephalogram to Monitor Anesthesia-Induced Brain States in Children. Anesth Analg. 2020 10; 131(4):1043-1056. View abstract
  10. Neurophysiological Assessment of Prolonged Recovery From Neuromuscular Blockade in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. Front Pediatr. 2020; 8:580. View abstract
  11. Genome-wide association analysis of opioid use disorder: A novel approach using clinical data. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2020 12 01; 217:108276. View abstract
  12. Case Studies Using the Electroencephalogram to Monitor Anesthesia-Induced Brain States in Children. Anesth Analg. 2020 Aug 17. View abstract
  13. Effect of lumbar medial branch blocks on extension-related axial chronic low back pain in a pediatric population: a retrospective chart review and prospective follow-up. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2020 12; 45(12):1019-1020. View abstract
  14. Efficacy, Safety, and Acceptability of Pharmacologic Treatments for Pediatric Migraine Prophylaxis: A Systematic Review and Network Meta-analysis. JAMA Pediatr. 2020 04 01; 174(4):341-349. View abstract
  15. Off-label use of prescription analgesics among hospitalized children in the United States. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2020 04; 29(4):474-481. View abstract
  16. d-Oscillation Correlates of Anesthesia-induced Unconsciousness in Large-scale Brain Networks of Human Infants. Anesthesiology. 2019 12; 131(6):1239-1253. View abstract
  17. Developing a pediatric pain data repository. JAMIA Open. 2020 Apr; 3(1):31-36. View abstract
  18. Patient-Customized Oligonucleotide Therapy for a Rare Genetic Disease. N Engl J Med. 2019 10 24; 381(17):1644-1652. View abstract
  19. Electroencephalographic features of discontinuous activity in anesthetized infants and children. PLoS One. 2019; 14(10):e0223324. View abstract
  20. Morphine compared to placebo for procedural pain in preterm infants: safety, efficacy and equipoise. J Perinatol. 2019 10; 39(10):1428-1431. View abstract
  21. The effect of suprainguinal fascia iliaca block on the recovery of patients after arthroscopic hip surgery. Paediatr Anaesth. 2019 08; 29(8):829-834. View abstract
  22. The Society for Pediatric Anesthesia recommendations for the use of opioids in children during the perioperative period. Paediatr Anaesth. 2019 06; 29(6):547-571. View abstract
  23. Neural Correlates of Anesthesia in Newborn Mice and Humans. Front Neural Circuits. 2019; 13:38. View abstract
  24. Neurodevelopmental outcome at 5 years of age after general anaesthesia or awake-regional anaesthesia in infancy (GAS): an international, multicentre, randomised, controlled equivalence trial. Lancet. 2019 02 16; 393(10172):664-677. View abstract
  25. Patient- and Nurse-Controlled Analgesia: 22-Year Experience in a Pediatric Hospital. Hosp Pediatr. 2019 02; 9(2):129-133. View abstract
  26. An open label pilot study of a dexmedetomidine-remifentanil-caudal anesthetic for infant lower abdominal/lower extremity surgery: The T REX pilot study. Paediatr Anaesth. 2019 01; 29(1):59-67. View abstract
  27. Maximum Recommended Dosage of Ropivacaine and Bupivacaine for Pediatric Regional Anesthesia. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2018 11; 43(8):895-896. View abstract
  28. Effects of Childhood Life Events on Adjustment Problems in Adolescence: A Longitudinal Study. J Dev Behav Pediatr. 2018 Oct/Nov; 39(8):629-641. View abstract
  29. Neuropathic pain drives anxiety behavior in mice, results consistent with anxiety levels in diabetic neuropathy patients. Pain Rep. 2018 May; 3(3):e651. View abstract
  30. Electroencephalographic markers of brain development during sevoflurane anaesthesia in children up to 3 years old. Br J Anaesth. 2018 Jun; 120(6):1274-1286. View abstract
  31. Clinical trial designs and models for analgesic medications for acute pain in neonates, infants, toddlers, children, and adolescents: ACTTION recommendations. Pain. 2018 02; 159(2):193-205. View abstract
  32. Clinical signs and electroencephalographic patterns of emergence from sevoflurane anaesthesia in children: An observational study. Eur J Anaesthesiol. 2018 01; 35(1):49-59. View abstract
  33. Children With Chronic Pain: Response Trajectories After Intensive Pain Rehabilitation Treatment. J Pain. 2018 02; 19(2):207-218. View abstract
  34. Continuous Regional Anesthesia and Inpatient Rehabilitation for Pediatric Complex Regional Pain Syndrome. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2017 Jul/Aug; 42(4):527-534. View abstract
  35. Electroencephalographic discontinuity during sevoflurane anesthesia in infants and children. Paediatr Anaesth. 2017 Mar; 27(3):251-262. View abstract
  36. Image-guided intrathecal baclofen pump catheter implantation: a technical note and case series. J Neurosurg Spine. 2017 May; 26(5):621-627. View abstract
  37. Measurement of neosaxitoxin in human plasma using liquid-chromatography tandem mass spectrometry: Proof of concept for a pharmacokinetic application. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2016 Nov 15; 1036-1037:42-49. View abstract
  38. Biomedical science: Protection for anaesthetized mice. Nature. 2016 08 04; 536(7614):36-7. View abstract
  39. Lidocaine Infusions and Other Options for Opioid-Resistant Pain Due to Pediatric Advanced Cancer. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2016 07; 63(7):1141-3. View abstract
  40. Bundled analgesia interventions for day-stay surgery. Paediatr Anaesth. 2016 Feb; 26(2):120-1. View abstract
  41. Fear and Reward Circuit Alterations in Pediatric CRPS. Front Hum Neurosci. 2015; 9:703. View abstract
  42. Epidural Steroid Injections for Radiculopathy and/or Back Pain in Children and Adolescents: A Retrospective Cohort Study With a Prospective Follow-Up. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2016 Jan-Feb; 41(1):86-92. View abstract
  43. Neurodevelopmental outcome at 2 years of age after general anaesthesia and awake-regional anaesthesia in infancy (GAS): an international multicentre, randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2016 Jan 16; 387(10015):239-50. View abstract
  44. Electroencephalography during general anaesthesia differs between term-born and premature-born children. Clin Neurophysiol. 2016 Feb; 127(2):1216-1222. View abstract
  45. A Phase 1, Dose-escalation, Double-blind, Block-randomized, Controlled Trial of Safety and Efficacy of Neosaxitoxin Alone and in Combination with 0.2% Bupivacaine, with and without Epinephrine, for Cutaneous Anesthesia. Anesthesiology. 2015 Oct; 123(4):873-85. View abstract
  46. Neosaxitoxin in Rat Sciatic Block: Improved Therapeutic Index Using Combinations with Bupivacaine, with and without Epinephrine. Anesthesiology. 2015 Oct; 123(4):886-98. View abstract
  47. Age-dependent electroencephalogram (EEG) patterns during sevoflurane general anesthesia in infants. Elife. 2015 Jun 23; 4:e06513. View abstract
  48. Transient Alterations of Cutaneous Sensory Nerve Function by Noninvasive Cryolipolysis. J Invest Dermatol. 2015 Nov; 135(11):2623-2631. View abstract
  49. Developing better local anesthetics. Anesth Analg. 2015 Apr; 120(4):718-20. View abstract
  50. Endogenous cholinergic neurotransmission contributes to behavioral sensitization to morphine. PLoS One. 2015; 10(2):e0117601. View abstract
  51. Immediate rescue designs in pediatric analgesic trials: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Anesthesiology. 2015 Jan; 122(1):150-171. View abstract
  52. Pain hypersensitivity in juvenile idiopathic arthritis: a quantitative sensory testing study. Pediatr Rheumatol Online J. 2014; 12:39. View abstract
  53. Intrinsic brain networks normalize with treatment in pediatric complex regional pain syndrome. Neuroimage Clin. 2014; 6:347-69. View abstract
  54. The responsive amygdala: treatment-induced alterations in functional connectivity in pediatric complex regional pain syndrome. Pain. 2014 Sep; 155(9):1727-1742. View abstract
  55. Paravertebral block for analgesia after pediatric thoracic surgery. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2014 May-Jun; 39(3):179-80. View abstract
  56. Documented electronic medical record-based pain intensity scores at a tertiary pediatric medical center: a cohort analysis. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2014 Nov; 48(5):924-33. View abstract
  57. A single institution's effort to translate codeine knowledge into specific clinical practice. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2014 Jul; 48(1):119-26. View abstract
  58. Regional anesthesia approaches to pain management in pediatric palliative care: a review of current knowledge. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2013 Dec; 46(6):859-73. View abstract
  59. A case of cerebrospinal fluid leak in an infant after spinal anesthesia. J Clin Anesth. 2013 May; 25(3):217-9. View abstract
  60. Transient and persistent pain induced connectivity alterations in pediatric complex regional pain syndrome. PLoS One. 2013; 8(3):e57205. View abstract
  61. Children and adolescents with complex regional pain syndrome: more psychologically distressed than other children in pain? Pain Res Manag. 2013 Mar-Apr; 18(2):87-93. View abstract
  62. Pediatric regional anesthesia: drawing inferences on safety from prospective registries and case reports. Anesth Analg. 2012 Dec; 115(6):1259-62. View abstract
  63. A day-hospital approach to treatment of pediatric complex regional pain syndrome: initial functional outcomes. Clin J Pain. 2012 Nov-Dec; 28(9):766-74. View abstract
  64. Periaqueductal gray neuroplasticity following chronic morphine varies with age: role of oxidative stress. Neuroscience. 2012 Dec 13; 226:165-77. View abstract
  65. Patterned expression of ion channel genes in mouse dorsal raphe nucleus determined with the Allen Mouse Brain Atlas. Brain Res. 2012 May 31; 1457:1-12. View abstract
  66. Respiratory, neuromuscular, and cardiovascular effects of neosaxitoxin in isoflurane-anesthetized sheep. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2012 Mar-Apr; 37(2):152-8. View abstract
  67. Response to "A new definition of neuropathic pain". Pain. 2012 Apr; 153(4):934-935. View abstract
  68. Pediatric analgesic clinical trial designs, measures, and extrapolation: report of an FDA scientific workshop. Pediatrics. 2012 Feb; 129(2):354-64. View abstract
  69. Sympathetic nerve blocks, pragmatic trials, and responder analysis. Anesthesiology. 2012 Jan; 116(1):12-4. View abstract
  70. Tetrodotoxin-bupivacaine-epinephrine combinations for prolonged local anesthesia. Mar Drugs. 2011 Dec; 9(12):2717-28. View abstract
  71. Spinal anesthesia in infant rats: development of a model and assessment of neurologic outcomes. Anesthesiology. 2011 Jun; 114(6):1325-35. View abstract
  72. Comparison of neosaxitoxin versus bupivacaine via port infiltration for postoperative analgesia following laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a randomized, double-blind trial. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2011 Mar-Apr; 36(2):103-9. View abstract
  73. The Fear of Pain Questionnaire (FOPQ): assessment of pain-related fear among children and adolescents with chronic pain. J Pain. 2011 Jun; 12(6):677-86. View abstract
  74. Fatigue in children with cancer at the end of life. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2010 Oct; 40(4):483-94. View abstract
  75. Blood sampling and other needle procedures - the Achilles heel of newborn intensive care. Pain. 2009 Dec 15; 147(1-3):15-6. View abstract
  76. Pain measurement and Beecher's challenge: 50 years later. Anesthesiology. 2009 Sep; 111(3):473-4. View abstract
  77. Lumbar sympathetic blockade in children with complex regional pain syndromes: a double blind placebo-controlled crossover trial. Anesthesiology. 2009 Aug; 111(2):372-80. View abstract
  78. Challenges of functional imaging research of pain in children. Mol Pain. 2009 Jun 16; 5:30. View abstract
  79. In vivo lipid diffusion coefficient measurements in rat bone marrow. Magn Reson Imaging. 2009 Jul; 27(6):859-64. View abstract
  80. fMRI reveals distinct CNS processing during symptomatic and recovered complex regional pain syndrome in children. Brain. 2008 Jul; 131(Pt 7):1854-79. View abstract
  81. Opioid side effects--mechanism-based therapy. N Engl J Med. 2008 May 29; 358(22):2400-2. View abstract
  82. Easing of suffering in children with cancer at the end of life: is care changing? J Clin Oncol. 2008 Apr 01; 26(10):1717-23. View abstract
  83. Postoperative pain and other sequelae of dental rehabilitations performed on children under general anesthesia. Pediatr Dent. 2008 Mar-Apr; 30(2):111-21. View abstract
  84. Stable plasma concentrations of unbound ropivacaine during postoperative epidural infusion for 24-72 hours in children. Eur J Anaesthesiol. 2008 May; 25(5):410-7. View abstract
  85. Pharmacologic management of painful bladder syndrome/interstitial cystitis: a systematic review. Arch Intern Med. 2007 Oct 08; 167(18):1922-9. View abstract
  86. Nerve conduction blockade in the sciatic nerve prevents but does not reverse the activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase in spinal microglia in the rat spared nerve injury model. Anesthesiology. 2007 Aug; 107(2):312-21. View abstract
  87. Cutaneous sensory abnormalities in children and adolescents with complex regional pain syndromes. Pain. 2007 Sep; 131(1-2):153-61. View abstract
  88. Effects of bupivacaine and tetrodotoxin on carrageenan-induced hind paw inflammation in rats (Part 1): hyperalgesia, edema, and systemic cytokines. Anesthesiology. 2006 Jul; 105(1):128-38. View abstract
  89. Effects of bupivacaine and tetrodotoxin on carrageenan-induced hind paw inflammation in rats (Part 2): cytokines and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases in dorsal root ganglia and spinal cord. Anesthesiology. 2006 Jul; 105(1):139-45. View abstract
  90. Factors associated with fatigue in children with cancer at the end of life. J Clin Oncol. 2006 Jun 20; 24(18_suppl):8574. View abstract
  91. Complex regional pain syndromes in children and adolescents: regional and systemic signs and symptoms and hemodynamic response to tilt table testing. Clin J Pain. 2006 May; 22(4):399-406. View abstract
  92. Summary proceedings from the neonatal pain-control group. Pediatrics. 2006 Mar; 117(3 Pt 2):S9-S22. View abstract
  93. Use of complementary and alternative medicine in pediatric pain management service: a survey. Pain Med. 2005 Nov-Dec; 6(6):452-8. View abstract
  94. Biexponential parameterization of diffusion and T2 relaxation decay curves in a rat muscle edema model: decay curve components and water compartments. Magn Reson Med. 2005 Sep; 54(3):524-31. View abstract
  95. Pain management for the hospitalized pediatric patient. Pediatr Clin North Am. 2005 Aug; 52(4):995-1027, vii-viii. View abstract
  96. Caudal analgesia and anesthesia techniques in children. Curr Opin Anaesthesiol. 2005 Jun; 18(3):283-8. View abstract
  97. Analgesia and anesthesia for neonates: study design and ethical issues. Clin Ther. 2005 Jun; 27(6):814-43. View abstract
  98. Anesthesia and analgesia during and after surgery in neonates. Clin Ther. 2005 Jun; 27(6):900-21. View abstract
  99. A randomized controlled trial to evaluate S-Caine patch for reducing pain associated with vascular access in children. Anesthesiology. 2005 Feb; 102(2):403-8. View abstract
  100. Complex regional pain syndromes in children and adolescents. Anesthesiology. 2005 Feb; 102(2):252-5. View abstract
  101. Epinephrine prevents muscle blood flow increases after perineural injection of tetrodotoxin. Anesthesiology. 2004 Dec; 101(6):1428-34. View abstract
  102. Self-mutilation in young children following brachial plexus birth injury. Pain. 2004 Jul; 110(1-2):123-9. View abstract
  103. Local anesthetics in infants and children: an update. Paediatr Anaesth. 2004 May; 14(5):387-93. View abstract
  104. The use of herbs and complementary and alternative medicine in pediatric preoperative patients. J Clin Anesth. 2004 Feb; 16(1):4-6. View abstract
  105. Effects of repeated injection of local anesthetic on sciatic nerve blocks response. J Huazhong Univ Sci Technolog Med Sci. 2004; 24(5):497-9. View abstract
  106. Development of neuropathic pain in the rat spared nerve injury model is not prevented by a peripheral nerve block. Anesthesiology. 2003 Dec; 99(6):1402-8. View abstract
  107. Prolonged duration local anesthesia from tetrodotoxin-enhanced local anesthetic microspheres. Pain. 2003 Jul; 104(1-2):415-21. View abstract
  108. Activation of peripheral NMDA receptors contributes to human pain and rat afferent discharges evoked by injection of glutamate into the masseter muscle. J Neurophysiol. 2003 Oct; 90(4):2098-105. View abstract
  109. Opioids: more to learn, improvements to be made. Anesthesiology. 2003 Jun; 98(6):1309-12. View abstract
  110. Pain, anxiety, distress, and suffering: interrelated, but not interchangeable. J Pediatr. 2003 Apr; 142(4):361-3. View abstract
  111. Activation of peripheral excitatory amino acid receptors decreases the duration of local anesthesia. Anesthesiology. 2003 Feb; 98(2):521-9. View abstract
  112. Analgesics for the treatment of pain in children. N Engl J Med. 2002 Oct 03; 347(14):1094-103. View abstract
  113. The effects of lidocaine and adrenergic agonists on rat sciatic nerve and skeletal muscle blood flow in vivo. Anesth Analg. 2002 Oct; 95(4):1080-6, table of contents. View abstract
  114. Diagnosis and management of MNGIE syndrome in children: case report and review of the literature. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2002 Sep; 35(3):377-83. View abstract
  115. Physical therapy and cognitive-behavioral treatment for complex regional pain syndromes. J Pediatr. 2002 Jul; 141(1):135-40. View abstract
  116. Prolonged sensory and motor deficit following short-term lumbar epidural analgesia in a patient with mixed connective tissue disease. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2002 Feb; 23(2):89-92. View abstract
  117. Glutamate-induced sensitization of rat masseter muscle fibers. Neuroscience. 2002; 109(2):389-99. View abstract
  118. The pharmacokinetics of epidural ropivacaine in infants and young children. Anesth Analg. 2001 Oct; 93(4):893-7. View abstract
  119. Quantitative assessment of cutaneous thermal and vibration sensation and thermal pain detection thresholds in healthy children and adolescents. Muscle Nerve. 2001 Oct; 24(10):1339-45. View abstract
  120. Osmotic effects on the T2 relaxation decay of in vivo muscle. Magn Reson Med. 2001 Sep; 46(3):592-9. View abstract
  121. Evidence that spinal segmental nitric oxide mediates tachyphylaxis to peripheral local anesthetic nerve block. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2001 Sep; 45(8):945-53. View abstract
  122. High concentrations of adrenergic antagonists prolong sciatic nerve blockade by tetrodotoxin. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2001 Aug; 45(7):899-905. View abstract
  123. Effects of adrenergic agonists and antagonists on tetrodotoxin-induced nerve block. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2001 May-Jun; 26(3):239-45. View abstract
  124. Developmental pharmacology across species: promise and problems. Anesth Analg. 2000 Jul; 91(1):1-5. View abstract
  125. Reports of pain by children undergoing rapid palatal expansion. Pediatr Dent. 2000 May-Jun; 22(3):221-6. View abstract
  126. On pins and needles? Pediatric pain patients' experience with acupuncture. Pediatrics. 2000 Apr; 105(4 Pt 2):941-7. View abstract
  127. The local anesthetic properties and toxicity of saxitonin homologues for rat sciatic nerve block in vivo. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2000 Jan-Feb; 25(1):52-9. View abstract
  128. Survey of acupuncturists: practice characteristics and pediatric care. West J Med. 1999 Sep; 171(3):153-7. View abstract
  129. Acupressure-acupuncture antiemetic prophylaxis in children undergoing tonsillectomy. Anesthesiology. 1999 May; 90(5):1311-6. View abstract
  130. Prolonged local myometrial blockade prevents preterm labor after fetal surgery in a leporine model. J Pediatr Surg. 1999 Apr; 34(4):540-2. View abstract
  131. Vanilloid receptor agonists potentiate the in vivo local anesthetic activity of percutaneously injected site 1 sodium channel blockers. Anesthesiology. 1999 Feb; 90(2):524-34. View abstract
  132. Sciatic nerve blockade in infant, adolescent, and adult rats: a comparison of ropivacaine with bupivacaine. Anesthesiology. 1998 Nov; 89(5):1199-208; discussion 10A. View abstract
  133. Prolonged intercostal nerve blockade in sheep using controlled-release of bupivacaine and dexamethasone from polymer microspheres. Anesthesiology. 1998 Oct; 89(4):969-79. View abstract
  134. A re-examination of tetrodotoxin for prolonged duration local anesthesia. Anesthesiology. 1998 Jul; 89(1):119-31. View abstract
  135. End-of-life care in cystic fibrosis. Pediatrics. 1997 Aug; 100(2 Pt 1):205-9. View abstract
  136. Neurologic evaluation of infant and adult rats before and after sciatic nerve blockade. Anesthesiology. 1997 Apr; 86(4):957-65. View abstract
  137. "Biodegradable polymer matrices for sustained delivery of local anesthetic agents". 1997. View abstract
  138. "Prolonged nerve blockade by the combination of local anesthetic and glucocorticoid". 1997. View abstract
  139. NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) prevents tachyphylaxis to local anesthetics in a dose-dependent manner. Anesth Analg. 1996 Dec; 83(6):1251-5. View abstract
  140. Halothane and cardiac autonomic control in infants: assessment with quantitative respiratory sinus arrhythmia. Pediatr Res. 1996 Nov; 40(5):710-7. View abstract
  141. Glucocorticoids prolong rat sciatic nerve blockade in vivo from bupivacaine microspheres. Anesthesiology. 1996 Nov; 85(5):1157-66. View abstract
  142. Regional anesthesia in children: what have we learned? Anesth Analg. 1996 Nov; 83(5):897-900. View abstract
  143. Patient-controlled analgesia for mucositis pain in children: a three-period crossover study comparing morphine and hydromorphone. J Pediatr. 1996 Nov; 129(5):722-8. View abstract
  144. Chronic pain in cystic fibrosis. Pediatrics. 1996 Oct; 98(4 Pt 1):741-7. View abstract
  145. Safety of intravenous ketorolac therapy in children and cost savings with a unit dosing system. J Pediatr. 1996 Aug; 129(2):292-6. View abstract
  146. The management of opioid and benzodiazepine dependence in infants, children, and adolescents. Pediatrics. 1996 Jul; 98(1):135-40. View abstract
  147. Prolonged regional nerve blockade. Injectable biodegradable bupivacaine/polyester microspheres. Anesthesiology. 1996 Jun; 84(6):1401-10. View abstract
  148. Regional anesthesia for pain associated with terminal pediatric malignancy. Pain. 1996 Apr; 65(1):63-69. View abstract
  149. Massive opioid resistance in an infant with a localized metastasis to the midbrain periaqueductal gray. Pain. 1995 Nov; 63(2):271-275. View abstract
  150. Intravenous amitriptyline in pediatrics. J Pain Symptom Manage. 1995 Aug; 10(6):471-5. View abstract
  151. Pediatric oncology procedures: to sleep or perchance to dream? Pain. 1995 Jul; 62(1):1-2. View abstract
  152. Control of severe pain in children with terminal malignancy. J Pediatr. 1995 Apr; 126(4):653-7. View abstract
  153. The risk of infection from epidural analgesia in children: a review of 1620 cases. Anesth Analg. 1995 Feb; 80(2):234-8. View abstract
  154. A double-blind evaluation of ketorolac tromethamine versus acetaminophen in pediatric tonsillectomy: analgesia and bleeding. Anesth Analg. 1995 Feb; 80(2):226-9. View abstract
  155. Infants tolerate spinal anesthesia with minimal overall autonomic changes: analysis of heart rate variability in former premature infants undergoing hernia repair. Anesth Analg. 1995 Jan; 80(1):20-7. View abstract
  156. Anesthesia and perioperative care in cystic fibrosis. Anesth. Analg. 1995. View abstract
  157. Epidural analgesia accelerates recovery following major pediatric urologic reconstructive surgery. Society for Pediatric Anesthesia/American Academy of Pediatrics. 1995. View abstract
  158. L-nitroso-arginine methyl ester prevents tachyphylaxis to sciatic nerve blockade in a dose-dependent manner. Anesthesiology. 1995; 83:A808. View abstract
  159. Thermal hyperalgesia accelerates and MK-801 prevents the development of tachyphylaxis to rat sciatic nerve blockade. Anesthesiology. 1994 Nov; 81(5):1284-93. View abstract
  160. Epidural analgesia in children. Can J Anaesth. 1994 Jul; 41(7):555-60. View abstract
  161. A double blind evaluation of ketorolac tromethamine versus acetaminophen in the pediatric tonsillectomy patient, effects on analgesia and bleeding. American Academy of Pediatrics, Section on Anesthesiology. 1994. View abstract
  162. Dextroamphetamine or methylphenidate as adjuvants to opioid analgesia for adolescents with cancer. J Pain Symptom Manage. 1994 Feb; 9(2):122-5. View abstract
  163. Management of tracheobronchial and esophageal foreign bodies in children: a survey study. J Clin Anesth. 1994 Jan-Feb; 6(1):28-32. View abstract
  164. Absolute volume predicts duration of sciatic blockade better than volume/kilogram in infant and adult rats. Anesthesiology. 1994; 81:A1375. View abstract
  165. Evaluation of epinephrine epidural test dose in children receiving isoflurane anesthesia. Anesthesiology. 1994; 81:A1344. View abstract
  166. Cephalad advancement of epidural catheters: radiographic correlation. Anesthesiology. 1994; 81:A1345. View abstract
  167. Neuropathic pain in children. Abstracts of the 3rd International Pediatric Pain Symposium. 1994. View abstract
  168. The safety in pediatric regional analgesia study group: a multicenter study of safety and risk factors in pediatric regional analgesia. Anesthesiology. 1994; 81:A1386. View abstract
  169. The dose-response of epidural hydromorphone in children. Anesthesiology. 1994; 81:A1346. View abstract
  170. Tachyphylaxis to sciatic blockade persists in spinalized rats. Anesthesiology. 1994; 81:A964. View abstract
  171. Epinephrine prolongs sciatic nerve block in infant but not adult rats. Anesthesiology. 1994; 81:A1356. View abstract
  172. Optimal pain relief in infants and children. BMJ. 1993 Oct 02; 307(6908):815-6. View abstract
  173. Sustained local anesthetic release from bioerodible polymer matrices: a potential method for prolonged regional anesthesia. Pharm Res. 1993 Oct; 10(10):1527-32. View abstract
  174. Chronic exposure to lidocaine does not alter flux through sodium channels in cultured neuronal cells. Reg Anesth. 1993 Sep-Oct; 18(5):283-9. View abstract
  175. Prolonged regional nerve blockade by controlled release of local anesthetic from a biodegradable polymer matrix. Anesthesiology. 1993 Aug; 79(2):340-6. View abstract
  176. Performance of pediatric resuscitation bags assessed with an infant lung simulator. Anesth Analg. 1993 Aug; 77(2):261-4. View abstract
  177. Venous air embolism during identification of the epidural space in children. Anesth Analg. 1993 May; 76(5):925-7. View abstract
  178. Toxicity of local anesthetics in infants and children. J Pediatr. 1993 May; 122(5 Pt 2):S14-20. View abstract
  179. Continuous caudal anesthesia for inguinal hernia repair in former preterm infants. J Clin Anesth. 1993 Mar-Apr; 5(2):129-33. View abstract
  180. Pain, euthanasia, and anesthesiologists. Anesthesiology. 1993 Feb; 78(2):353-60. View abstract
  181. Pain management in pediatrics. West J Med. 1993 Feb; 158(2):178-9. View abstract
  182. Intravenous isoproterenol as a marker for epidural test-dosing in children. Anesth Analg. 1993 Jan; 76(1):178-81. View abstract
  183. Comparison of injection and sustained release bupivicaine sciatic nerve blockade between adult and weaning rats. Anesthesiology. 1993; 79(3A):A908. View abstract
  184. Comparison of sciatic nerve blockade between infant and adult rats. Anesthesiology. 1993; 79(3A):A1137. View abstract
  185. Barbiturates in the care of the terminally ill. N Engl J Med. 1992 Dec 03; 327(23):1678-82. View abstract
  186. Convulsions associated with pediatric regional anesthesia. Anesth Analg. 1992 Aug; 75(2):164-6. View abstract
  187. Reflex sympathetic dystrophy in children. Clinical characteristics and follow-up of seventy patients. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1992 Jul; 74(6):910-9. View abstract
  188. High sensitivity quantification of RNA from gels and autoradiograms with affordable optical scanning. Biotechniques. 1992 Jun; 12(6):902-6, 908-11. View abstract
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