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David G.  Hunter, MD, PhD

David Hunter
Ophthalmology Research
Hospital Title:
Academic Title:
Professor of Ophthalmology, Harvard Medical School
Research Focus Area:
Eye muscles
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Research Overview

Dr. Hunter's clinical and research interests focus on strabismus and amblyopia. He is collaborating with the laboratory of Elizabeth Engle, MD to study the genetic contributions of common and complex strabismus (including the congenital cranial dysinnervation disorders (CCDDs) such as congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles (CFEOM) and Duane syndrome.) He is developing new approaches to strabismus surgery for complex cases, including adjustable sutures that can be adjusted several days after surgery, and superior rectus transposition (SRT) for Duane syndrome and sixth nerve palsy. For more than 18 years he has been developing laser technology to scan the eye and identify eye disease, including new approaches to identifying amblyopia in young children early in life using a non-invasive, rapid diagnostic scan. This has led to the invention of retinal birefringence scanning (RBS), a patented method that can detect the fixation of the eye from a distance, and the impending development of an RBS-based product known as the Pediatric Vision Scanner. Dr. Hunter is founder and owner of REBIScan, LLC, the company that will produce the PVS for use in pediatric offices and community vision screening programs.

About David Hunter

David G. Hunter, MD, PhD is Ophthalmologist-in-Chief and the Richard M. Robb Chair of Ophthalmology at Children's Hospital Boston, President of the Children's Hospital Ophthalmology Foundation, Professor and Vice Chair of Ophthalmology at Harvard Medical School, Editor-in-Chief of the Journal of the American Association of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus, and the 2010-11 Vice President of the Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology and head of its finance committee. Dr. Hunter obtained a Bachelor of Science in electrical engineering from Rice University and a PhD (in Cell Biology) and MD from Baylor College of Medicine in Houston. After he completed an ophthalmology residency at Harvard's Mass Eye and Ear Infirmary, he was a fellow at the Wilmer Ophthalmological Institute, Johns Hopkins University, where he remained on faculty until 2002, when he was selected as Ophthalmologist-in-Chief at Children's. During his time at Children's, the Department of Ophthalmology at Children's Hospital Boston has grown to become the largest pediatric ophthalmology department in the nation and perhaps the world, with 30 full-time faculty, including 13 full-time and 3 affiliated MD ophthalmologists and 4 pediatric optometrists, with pediatric subspecialists in nearly every aspect of ophthalmology, as well as 7 full-time research faculty. The department also has created 7 endowed chairs as well as an endowed international observership to support clinical and basic research, teaching, and the worldwide dissemination of advances in pediatric ophthalmology and strabismus. Dr. Hunter is co-author of the book Last Minute Optics, which was recently released in its second edition, and his lectures on optics and refraction for ophthalmologists-in-training around the world are now available free of charge in podcast format.


Publications powered by Harvard Catalyst Profiles
  1. Wan MJ, Gilbert A, Kazlas M, Wu C, Mantagos IS, Hunter DG, Shah AS. The effect of botulinum toxin-augmentation on strabismus surgery for large-angle, infantile esotropia. Am J Ophthalmol. 2018 Feb 21.
  2. Wan MJ, Chiu H, Shah AS, Hunter DG. Long-term surgical outcomes for large-angle, infantile esotropia. Am J Ophthalmol. 2018 Feb 19.
  3. Zhang M, Gilbert AL, Hunter DG. Superior oblique myokymia treated with levobunolol. J AAPOS. 2018 Feb; 22(1):67-69.e2.
  4. Sharma M, Hunter DG. Diplopia after Strabismus Surgery. Semin Ophthalmol. 2018; 33(1):102-107.
  5. Zhang M, Gilbert A, Hunter DG. Superior oblique myokymia. Surv Ophthalmol. 2017 Oct 19.
  6. Hunter DG, Yonekawa Y, Shah AS, Dagi LR. Central serous chorioretinopathy following medial transposition of split lateral rectus muscle for complete oculomotor nerve palsy. J AAPOS. 2017 Dec; 21(6):517-518.
  7. Alkharashi M, Hunter DG. Reduced surgical success rate of rectus muscle plication compared to resection. J AAPOS. 2017 Jun; 21(3):201-204.
  8. Phanphruk W, Alkharashi M, Bilge A, Hunter DG. Sedated suture adjustment in children undergoing adjustable suture strabismus surgery. J AAPOS. 2017 Jun; 21(3):196-200.
  9. Wan MJ, Mantagos IS, Shah AS, Kazlas M, Hunter DG. Comparison of Botulinum Toxin With Surgery for the Treatment of Acute-Onset Comitant Esotropia in Children. Am J Ophthalmol. 2017 Apr; 176:33-39.
  10. Whitman MC, MacNeill K, Hunter DG. Reply. Ophthalmology. 2017 Jan; 124(1):e11.
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  12. Gaier ED, Hunter DG. Advances in Amblyopia Treatment: Paradigm Shifts and Future Directions. Int Ophthalmol Clin. 2017; 57(4):117-128.
  13. Gilbert AL, Hunter DG. Duane syndrome with prominent oculo-auricular phenomenon. J AAPOS. 2017 Apr; 21(2):165-167.
  14. Hunter DG. Evaluation of the Risk of Postoperative Infection in Adjustable Suture Strabismus Surgery. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2016 Oct 01; 134(10):1156-1157.
  15. Park JG, Tischfield MA, Nugent AA, Cheng L, Di Gioia SA, Chan WM, Maconachie G, Bosley TM, Summers CG, Hunter DG, Robson CD, Gottlob I, Engle EC. Loss of MAFB Function in Humans and Mice Causes Duane Syndrome, Aberrant Extraocular Muscle Innervation, and Inner-Ear Defects. Am J Hum Genet. 2016 06 02; 98(6):1220-1227.
  16. Whitman MC, MacNeill K, Hunter DG. Bifocals Fail to Improve Stereopsis Outcomes in High AC/A Accommodative Esotropia. Ophthalmology. 2016 Apr; 123(4):690-6.
  17. Whitman MC, Andrews C, Chan WM, Tischfield MA, Stasheff SF, Brancati F, Ortiz-Gonzalez X, Nuovo S, Garaci F, MacKinnon SE, Hunter DG, Grant PE, Engle EC. Two unique TUBB3 mutations cause both CFEOM3 and malformations of cortical development. Am J Med Genet A. 2016 Feb; 170A(2):297-305.
  18. Graeber CP, Hunter DG. Changes in Lateral Comitance After Asymmetric Horizontal Strabismus Surgery. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2015 Nov; 133(11):1241-6.
  19. Kekunnaya R, Kraft S, Rao VB, Velez FG, Sachdeva V, Hunter DG. Surgical management of strabismus in Duane retraction syndrome. J AAPOS. 2015 Feb; 19(1):63-9.
  20. Hunter DG. Treatment of amblyopia: the "eye pad," or the iPad? J AAPOS. 2015 Feb; 19(1):1-2.
  21. Salcone EM, Hamdy S, Melki S, Hunter DG. Scleral perforations during routine traction test in a patient with osteogenesis imperfecta. J AAPOS. 2014 Dec; 18(6):610-2.
  22. Wan MJ, Hunter DG. Complications of strabismus surgery: incidence and risk factors. Semin Ophthalmol. 2014 Sep-Nov; 29(5-6):421-8.
  23. Shah AS, Prabhu SP, Sadiq MA, Mantagos IS, Hunter DG, Dagi LR. Adjustable nasal transposition of split lateral rectus muscle for third nerve palsy. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2014 Aug; 132(8):963-9.
  24. Kwon M, Lu ZL, Miller A, Kazlas M, Hunter DG, Bex PJ. Assessing binocular interaction in amblyopia and its clinical feasibility. PLoS One. 2014; 9(6):e100156.
  25. Engel JM, Guyton DL, Hunter DG. Adjustable sutures in children. J AAPOS. 2014 Jun; 18(3):278-84.
  26. Ehrenberg M, Nihalani BR, Melvin P, Cain CE, Hunter DG, Dagi LR. Goal-determined metrics to assess outcomes of esotropia surgery. J AAPOS. 2014 Jun; 18(3):211-6.
  27. Yang S, MacKinnon S, Dagi LR, Hunter DG. Superior rectus transposition vs medial rectus recession for treatment of esotropic Duane syndrome. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2014 Jun; 132(6):669-75.
  28. West CE, Hunter DG. Displacement of optical centers in over-the-counter readers: a potential cause of diplopia. J AAPOS. 2014 Jun; 18(3):293-4.
  29. MacKinnon S, Oystreck DT, Andrews C, Chan WM, Hunter DG, Engle EC. Diagnostic distinctions and genetic analysis of patients diagnosed with moebius syndrome. Ophthalmology. 2014 Jul; 121(7):1461-8.
  30. Hunter DG. Accuracy of vision screening. J AAPOS. 2013 Dec; 17(6):652-3.
  31. Graeber CP, Hunter DG, Engle EC. The genetic basis of incomitant strabismus: consolidation of the current knowledge of the genetic foundations of disease. Semin Ophthalmol. 2013 Sep-Nov; 28(5-6):427-37.
  32. Hunter DG. Intentional extreme anisometropic pseudophakic monovision. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2013 Feb; 39(2):309-10.
  33. Chew S, Balasubramanian R, Chan WM, Kang PB, Andrews C, Webb BD, MacKinnon SE, Oystreck DT, Rankin J, Crawford TO, Geraghty M, Pomeroy SL, Crowley WF, Jabs EW, Hunter DG, Grant PE, Engle EC. A novel syndrome caused by the E410K amino acid substitution in the neuronal ß-tubulin isotype 3. Brain. 2013 Feb; 136(Pt 2):522-35.
  34. Hunter DG. Targeting treatable disease--not just risk factors--in pediatric vision screening. J AAPOS. 2013 Feb; 17(1):2-3.
  35. Webb BD, Shaaban S, Gaspar H, Cunha LF, Schubert CR, Hao K, Robson CD, Chan WM, Andrews C, MacKinnon S, Oystreck DT, Hunter DG, Iacovelli AJ, Ye X, Camminady A, Engle EC, Jabs EW. HOXB1 founder mutation in humans recapitulates the phenotype of Hoxb1-/- mice. Am J Hum Genet. 2012 Jul 13; 91(1):171-9.
  36. Berg KT, Hunter DG, Bothun ED, Antunes-Foschini R, McLoon LK. Extraocular muscles in patients with infantile nystagmus: adaptations at the effector level. Arch Ophthalmol. 2012 Mar; 130(3):343-9.
  37. Mehendale RA, Dagi LR, Wu C, Ledoux D, Johnston S, Hunter DG. Superior rectus transposition and medial rectus recession for Duane syndrome and sixth nerve palsy. Arch Ophthalmol. 2012 Feb; 130(2):195-201.
  38. Miyake N, Demer JL, Shaaban S, Andrews C, Chan WM, Christiansen SP, Hunter DG, Engle EC. Expansion of the CHN1 strabismus phenotype. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011 Aug 11; 52(9):6321-8.
  39. Mantopoulos D, Hunter DG, Cestari DM. Isolated bilateral fourth cranial nerve palsies as the presenting sign of hydrocephalus. Case Rep Ophthalmol. 2011 May; 2(2):211-4.
  40. Nihalani BR, Hunter DG. Adjustable suture strabismus surgery. Eye (Lond). 2011 Oct; 25(10):1262-76.
  41. Loudon SE, Rook CA, Nassif DS, Piskun NV, Hunter DG. Rapid, high-accuracy detection of strabismus and amblyopia using the pediatric vision scanner. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011 Jul 07; 52(8):5043-8.
  42. Hunter DG. Case reports, reviews, and changes to the Journal of AAPOS. J AAPOS. 2011 Apr; 15(2):117-8.
  43. Thomas MG, Crosier M, Lindsay S, Kumar A, Thomas S, Araki M, Talbot CJ, McLean RJ, Surendran M, Taylor K, Leroy BP, Moore AT, Hunter DG, Hertle RW, Tarpey P, Langmann A, Lindner S, Brandner M, Gottlob I. The clinical and molecular genetic features of idiopathic infantile periodic alternating nystagmus. Brain. 2011 Mar; 134(Pt 3):892-902.
  44. Moncaster JA, Pineda R, Moir RD, Lu S, Burton MA, Ghosh JG, Ericsson M, Soscia SJ, Mocofanescu A, Folkerth RD, Robb RM, Kuszak JR, Clark JI, Tanzi RE, Hunter DG, Goldstein LE. Alzheimer's disease amyloid-beta links lens and brain pathology in Down syndrome. PLoS One. 2010 May 20; 5(5):e10659.
  45. Hunter DG. Introducing AAPOS Workshops. J AAPOS. 2010 Feb; 14(1):1.
  46. Tischfield MA, Baris HN, Wu C, Rudolph G, Van Maldergem L, He W, Chan WM, Andrews C, Demer JL, Robertson RL, Mackey DA, Ruddle JB, Bird TD, Gottlob I, Pieh C, Traboulsi EI, Pomeroy SL, Hunter DG, Soul JS, Newlin A, Sabol LJ, Doherty EJ, de Uzcátegui CE, de Uzcátegui N, Collins ML, Sener EC, Wabbels B, Hellebrand H, Meitinger T, de Berardinis T, Magli A, Schiavi C, Pastore-Trossello M, Koc F, Wong AM, Levin AV, Geraghty MT, Descartes M, Flaherty M, Jamieson RV, Møller HU, Meuthen I, Callen DF, Kerwin J, Lindsay S, Meindl A, Gupta ML, Pellman D, Engle EC. Human TUBB3 mutations perturb microtubule dynamics, kinesin interactions, and axon guidance. Cell. 2010 Jan 08; 140(1):74-87.
  47. Hunter DG. Do we need evidence for everything? Am Orthopt J. 2010; 60:59-62.
  48. Nihalani BR, Whitman MC, Salgado CM, Loudon SE, Hunter DG. Short tag noose technique for optional and late suture adjustment in strabismus surgery. Arch Ophthalmol. 2009 Dec; 127(12):1584-90.
  49. Sorce LR, Hamilton SM, Gauvreau K, Mets MB, Hunter DG, Rahmani B, Wu C, Curley MA. Preventing corneal abrasions in critically ill children receiving neuromuscular blockade: a randomized, controlled trial. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2009 Mar; 10(2):171-5.
  50. Reddy SK, Salgado CM, Hunter DG. Central fusion disruption following irradiation of neoplasms in the pineal region. Arch Ophthalmol. 2009 Mar; 127(3):337-8.
  51. Suh DW, Oystreck DT, Hunter DG. Long-term results of an intraoperative adjustable superior oblique tendon suture spacer using nonabsorbable suture for Brown Syndrome. Ophthalmology. 2008 Oct; 115(10):1800-4.
  52. Holt H, Hunter DG, Smith J, Dagi LR. Pediatric Graves' ophthalmopathy: the pre- and postpubertal experience. J AAPOS. 2008 Aug; 12(4):357-60.
  53. Heidary G, Engle EC, Hunter DG. Congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles. Semin Ophthalmol. 2008 Jan-Feb; 23(1):3-8.
  54. Chan WM, Andrews C, Dragan L, Fredrick D, Armstrong L, Lyons C, Geraghty MT, Hunter DG, Yazdani A, Traboulsi EI, Pott JW, Gutowski NJ, Ellard S, Young E, Hanisch F, Koc F, Schnall B, Engle EC. Three novel mutations in KIF21A highlight the importance of the third coiled-coil stalk domain in the etiology of CFEOM1. BMC Genet. 2007 May 18; 8:26.
  55. Ganz M, Xuan Z, Hunter DG. Patterns of eye care use and expenditures among children with diagnosed eye conditions. J AAPOS. 2007 Oct; 11(5):480-7.
  56. Hunter DG, Speed CA. The assessment and management of chronic hamstring/posterior thigh pain. Best Pract Res Clin Rheumatol. 2007 Apr; 21(2):261-77.
  57. Gramatikov BI, Zalloum OH, Wu YK, Hunter DG, Guyton DL. Directional eye fixation sensor using birefringence-based foveal detection. Appl Opt. 2007 Apr 01; 46(10):1809-18.
  58. Tarpey P, Thomas S, Sarvananthan N, Mallya U, Lisgo S, Talbot CJ, Roberts EO, Awan M, Surendran M, McLean RJ, Reinecke RD, Langmann A, Lindner S, Koch M, Jain S, Woodruff G, Gale RP, Bastawrous A, Degg C, Droutsas K, Asproudis I, Zubcov AA, Pieh C, Veal CD, Machado RD, Backhouse OC, Baumber L, Constantinescu CS, Brodsky MC, Hunter DG, Hertle RW, Read RJ, Edkins S, O'Meara S, Parker A, Stevens C, Teague J, Wooster R, Futreal PA, Trembath RC, Stratton MR, Raymond FL, Gottlob I. Mutations in FRMD7, a newly identified member of the FERM family, cause X-linked idiopathic congenital nystagmus. Nat Genet. 2006 Nov; 38(11):1242-4.
  59. Ganz ML, Xuan Z, Hunter DG. Prevalence and correlates of children's diagnosed eye and vision conditions. Ophthalmology. 2006 Dec; 113(12):2298-306.
  60. Gramatikov BI, Zalloum OH, Wu YK, Hunter DG, Guyton DL. Birefringence-based eye fixation monitor with no moving parts. J Biomed Opt. 2006 May-Jun; 11(3):34025.
  61. Nassif DS, Piskun NV, Hunter DG. The Pediatric Vision Screener III: detection of strabismus in children. Arch Ophthalmol. 2006 Apr; 124(4):509-13.
  62. Wu C, Hunter DG. Amblyopia: diagnostic and therapeutic options. Am J Ophthalmol. 2006 Jan; 141(1):175-184.
  63. Yamada K, Hunter DG, Andrews C, Engle EC. A novel KIF21A mutation in a patient with congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles and Marcus Gunn jaw-winking phenomenon. Arch Ophthalmol. 2005 Sep; 123(9):1254-9.
  64. Hunter DG. Early detection vs late treatment of amblyopia. JAMA. 2005 Apr 20; 293(15):1920-22.
  65. Nusz KJ, Congdon NG, Ho T, Gramatikov BI, Friedman DS, Guyton DL, Hunter DG. Rapid, objective detection of cataract-induced blur using a bull's eye photodetector. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2005 Apr; 31(4):763-70.
  66. Hunter DG. Treatment of amblyopia in older children. Arch Ophthalmol. 2005 Apr; 123(4):557-8.
  67. Nassif DS, Piskun NV, Gramatikov BI, Guyton DL, Hunter DG. Pediatric Vision Screener 2: pilot study in adults. J Biomed Opt. 2004 Nov-Dec; 9(6):1369-74.
  68. Hunter DG, Nassif DS, Piskun NV, Winsor R, Gramatikov BI, Guyton DL. Pediatric Vision Screener 1: instrument design and operation. J Biomed Opt. 2004 Nov-Dec; 9(6):1363-8.
  69. Hunter DG, Nusz KJ, Gandhi NK, Quraishi IH, Gramatikov BI, Guyton DL. Automated detection of ocular focus. J Biomed Opt. 2004 Sep-Oct; 9(5):1103-9.
  70. Hunter DG, Shah AS, Sau S, Nassif D, Guyton DL. Automated detection of ocular alignment with binocular retinal birefringence scanning. Appl Opt. 2003 Jun 01; 42(16):3047-53.
  71. Parsa CF, Goldberg MF, Hunter DG. No colobomas in "renal coloboma" syndrome. Ophthalmology. 2003 Feb; 110(2):251; author reply 251-2.
  72. Parsa CF, Goldberg MF, Hunter DG. Papillorenal syndrome in a Brazilian family. Arch Ophthalmol. 2002 Dec; 120(12):1772-3; author reply 1773.
  73. Parsa CF, Goldberg MF, Hunter DG. Papillorenal ("renal coloboma") syndrome. Am J Ophthalmol. 2002 Aug; 134(2):300-1; author reply 301.
  74. Hunter DG, Kelly JB, Buffenn AN, Ellis FJ. Long-term outcome of uncomplicated infantile exotropia. J AAPOS. 2001 Dec; 5(6):352-6.
  75. Buffenn AN, de Juan E, Fujii G, Hunter DG. Diplopia after limited macular translocation surgery. J AAPOS. 2001 Dec; 5(6):388-94.
  76. Hunter DG. Dynamic retinoscopy: the missing data. Surv Ophthalmol. 2001 Nov-Dec; 46(3):269-74.
  77. Phillips PH, Guyton DL, Hunter DG. Superior oblique overaction from local anesthesia for cataract surgery. J AAPOS. 2001 Oct; 5(5):329-32.
  78. Hunter DG. Multifocal intraocular lenses in children. Ophthalmology. 2001 Aug; 108(8):1373-4.
  79. Suh DW, Guyton DL, Hunter DG. An adjustable superior oblique tendon spacer with the use of nonabsorbable suture. J AAPOS. 2001 Jun; 5(3):164-71.
  80. Parsa CF, Silva ED, Sundin OH, Goldberg MF, De Jong MR, Sunness JS, Zeimer R, Hunter DG. Redefining papillorenal syndrome: an underdiagnosed cause of ocular and renal morbidity. Ophthalmology. 2001 Apr; 108(4):738-49.
  81. Kushner BJ, Hunter DG, Freeman RS, Cruz OA, Castanera de Molina A, Brodsky MC, Siatkowski RM. Grand rounds #63: a case of a bilateral gaze limitation with diplopia for reading after two surgical procedures to treat a right medical rectus muscle paresis. Binocul Vis Strabismus Q. 2001; 16(3):192-200.
  82. Hunter DG, Spriggs J. Investigation into the relationship between the passive flexibility and active stiffness of the ankle plantar-flexor muscles. Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon). 2000 Oct; 15(8):600-6.
  83. Congdon NG, Spaeth GL, Augsburger J, Klancnik J, Patel K, Hunter DG. A proposed simple method for measurement in the anterior chamber angle: biometric gonioscopy. Ophthalmology. 1999 Nov; 106(11):2161-7.
  84. Hunter DG, Ellis FJ. Prevalence of systemic and ocular disease in infantile exotropia: comparison with infantile esotropia. Ophthalmology. 1999 Oct; 106(10):1951-6.
  85. Hunter DG, Sandruck JC, Sau S, Patel SN, Guyton DL. Mathematical modeling of retinal birefringence scanning. J Opt Soc Am A Opt Image Sci Vis. 1999 Sep; 16(9):2103-11.
  86. Hunter DG, Patel SN, Guyton DL. Automated detection of foveal fixation by use of retinal birefringence scanning. Appl Opt. 1999 Mar 01; 38(7):1273-9.
  87. Cheeseman EW, Bressler NM, Hunter DG. Familial exudative vitreoretinopathy associated with monocular axial myopia. Retina. 1999; 19(3):257-9.
  88. Goodman CR, Hunter DG, Repka MX. A randomized comparison study of drop versus spray topical cycloplegic application. Binocul Vis Strabismus Q. 1999; 14(2):107-10.
  89. Hunter DG, Guyton DL. Vertical location of the corneal light reflex in strabismus photography. Arch Ophthalmol. 1998 Jun; 116(6):767-71.
  90. Hunter DG, Nguyen T, Patel SN, Repka MX. Automated analysis of electromyographic (EMG) recordings during botulinum injections. J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 1996 Sep-Oct; 33(5):241-6.
  91. Hunter DG. Benefits of strabismus surgery in patients with one blind eye. Arch Ophthalmol. 1995 Apr; 113(4):404.
  92. Hunter DG, Lam GC, Guyton DL. Inferior oblique muscle injury from local anesthesia for cataract surgery. Ophthalmology. 1995 Mar; 102(3):501-9.
  93. Hunter DG, Repka MX. Diode laser photocoagulation for threshold retinopathy of prematurity. A randomized study. Ophthalmology. 1993 Feb; 100(2):238-44.
  94. Marcus DM, Azar D, Boerner C, Hunter DG. Pupillary capture of a flexible silicone posterior chamber intraocular lens. Arch Ophthalmol. 1992 May; 110(5):609.
  95. Hunter DG, Mukai S. Retinopathy of prematurity: pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment. Int Ophthalmol Clin. 1992; 32(1):163-84.
  96. Hunter DG, Fishman GA, Kretzer FL. Abnormal axonemes in X-linked retinitis pigmentosa. Arch Ophthalmol. 1988 Mar; 106(3):362-8.
  97. Hunter DG, Fishman GA, Mehta RS, Kretzer FL. Abnormal sperm and photoreceptor axonemes in Usher's syndrome. Arch Ophthalmol. 1986 Mar; 104(3):385-9.
  98. Hunter DG, Kretzer FL. Abnormal axonemes in sperm of fertile men. Arch Androl. 1986; 16(1):1-12.
  99. Kretzer FL, Mehta RS, Johnson AT, Hunter DG, Brown ES, Hittner HM. Vitamin E protects against retinopathy of prematurity through action on spindle cells. Nature. 1984 Jun 28-Jul 4; 309(5971):793-5.
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