Medical School

  • Harvard Medical School , 1997 , Boston , MA


  • Boston Combined Residency Program (BCRP) , 1998 , Boston , MA


  • Boston Combined Residency Program (BCRP) , 2000 , Boston , MA


Chief Residency
  • Boston Children's Hospital , 2001 , Boston , MA


Pediatric Infectious Diseases
  • Boston Children's Hospital , 2004 , Boston , MA

Graduate Degree

  • Harvard School of Public Health , 2004 , Boston , MA

Philosophy of Care

From a young age, I always loved science. In eighth grade I competed on our school’s Science Olympiad team that earned 3rd place at the National Tournament, where I won medals in Astronomy and Anatomy events. Although no one from my family had ever been a physician before, I was drawn to medicine because of the opportunity to apply science to helping people. I have always loved children and never seriously considered any field other than pediatrics; it is a privilege to care for vulnerable infants, children, and adolescents and to help them recover from illnesses so they can go on and live happy, healthy, and productive lives.

Infectious diseases are fascinating and have had an immense impact throughout history in shaping human populations. My love of epidemiology (the study of the distribution and determinants of health and disease in populations) and public health led me to specialize in infection prevention and control. Bacteria and viruses are constantly emerging and evolving, and we must be prepared to face new threats and challenges. I am proud that the work I do every day can have a direct and positive impact on keeping children healthy both in the hospital and in their homes and communities.


Dr. Sandora is a nationally recognized expert in the field of pediatric healthcare epidemiology and infection prevention. He has served as the Hospital Epidemiologist and Medical Director of Infection Prevention and Control at Boston Children’s Hospital since 2005.

Dr. Sandora conducted several randomized controlled trials of hand hygiene interventions to reduce the transmission of viral infections among children and their families in childcare and school settings. He has also published extensively on healthcare-associated infections in children, including epidemiology and management of pediatric Clostridium difficile infection and central line-associated bloodstream infections. He is a co-author of several key national guidelines, including the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology (SHEA) Compendium of strategies to prevent C. difficile infection and central line-associated bloodstream infections, as well as the IDSA-SHEA Clinical Practice Guidelines for Clostridium difficile infection in adults and children. He speaks regularly about pediatric infection prevention at national conferences.

In 2012 Dr. Sandora received the SHEA Pediatric Investigator Award in recognition of his research in infection prevention. He has served as the steering committee chair for the Pediatric Leadership Council of SHEA and is a member of the Children’s Hospital Association Infection Prevention Directors Forum. He served as a course director for the SHEA Primer on Healthcare Epidemiology, Infection Control, & Antimicrobial Stewardship online course. He also holds several leadership roles in medical education and is the recipient of numerous teaching awards at Harvard Medical School and Boston Children’s Hospital.


  • American Board of Pediatrics, General Pediatrics
  • American Board of Pediatrics, Infectious Diseases


Publications powered by Harvard Catalyst Profiles

  1. Mycobacterium chimaera Outbreak Management and Outcomes at a Large Pediatric Cardiac Surgery Center. Ann Thorac Surg. 2021 Aug 26. View abstract
  2. Predictive Value of Direct Disk Diffusion Testing from Positive Blood Cultures in a Children's Hospital and Its Utility in Antimicrobial Stewardship. J Clin Microbiol. 2021 05 19; 59(6). View abstract
  3. Toxocara Myopericarditis and Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging in a Young Girl. Case Rep Pediatr. 2021; 2021:5526968. View abstract
  4. A scoping review of paediatric latent tuberculosis infection care cascades: initial steps are lacking. BMJ Glob Health. 2021 05; 6(5). View abstract
  5. Risk factors for pediatric surgical site infection following neurosurgical procedures for hydrocephalus: a retrospective single-center cohort study. BMC Anesthesiol. 2021 04 21; 21(1):124. View abstract
  6. Leadership Training in Pediatric Residency Programs: Identifying Content, Characterizing Practice, and Planning for the Future. Acad Pediatr. 2021 07; 21(5):772-776. View abstract
  7. Non-SARS-CoV-2 Infections Among Patients Evaluated for MIS-C Associated With COVID-19. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2021 02 01; 40(2):e90-e93. View abstract
  8. Trends in Pediatric Candidemia: Epidemiology, Anti-Fungal Susceptibility, and Patient Characteristics in a Children's Hospital. J Fungi (Basel). 2021 Jan 22; 7(2). View abstract
  9. Practice Improvement for Standardized Evaluation and Management of Acute Tracheitis in Mechanically Ventilated Children. Pediatr Qual Saf. 2021 Jan-Feb; 6(1):e368. View abstract
  10. Pediatric research priorities in healthcare-associated infections and antimicrobial stewardship. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2021 05; 42(5):519-522. View abstract
  11. The Role of Anesthetic Management in Surgical Site Infections After Pediatric Intestinal Surgery. J Surg Res. 2021 03; 259:546-554. View abstract
  12. Limiting Vancomycin Exposure in Pediatric Oncology Patients With Febrile Neutropenia May Be Associated With Decreased Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus Incidence. J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc. 2020 Sep 17; 9(4):428-436. View abstract
  13. Central venous catheter bundle adherence: Kamishibai card (K-card) rounding for central-line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) prevention. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2020 09; 41(9):1058-1063. View abstract
  14. Facilitators and barriers to a family empowerment strategy to improve healthcare worker hand hygiene in a resource-limited setting. Am J Infect Control. 2020 12; 48(12):1485-1490. View abstract
  15. A family empowerment strategy is associated with increased healthcare worker hand hygiene in a resource-limited setting. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2020 02; 41(2):202-208. View abstract
  16. Genomic and epidemiological evidence of bacterial transmission from probiotic capsule to blood in ICU patients. Nat Med. 2019 11; 25(11):1728-1732. View abstract
  17. Multidisciplinary Quality Improvement Intervention to Achieve Sustained Improvement in Hand Hygiene Reliability in a Pediatric Intensive Care Unit. Pediatr Qual Saf. 2019 Nov-Dec; 4(6):e227. View abstract
  18. A Consensus Guideline to Support Resident-as-Teacher Programs and Enhance the Culture of Teaching and Learning. J Grad Med Educ. 2019 Jun; 11(3):313-318. View abstract
  19. Impact of a Resident Research Grant on Scholarly Output During Pediatric Residency. Acad Pediatr. 2019 May - Jun; 19(4):477-479. View abstract
  20. Reducing Redundant Anaerobic Therapy Through Spaced Education and Antimicrobial Stewardship Interventions. J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc. 2018 Dec 03; 7(4):317-322. View abstract
  21. Variability in antimicrobial use in pediatric ventilator-associated events. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2019 01; 40(1):32-39. View abstract
  22. SHEA neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) white paper series: Practical approaches to Clostridioides difficile prevention. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2018 10; 39(10):1149-1153. View abstract
  23. Clinical Practice Guidelines for Clostridium difficile Infection in Adults and Children: 2017 Update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) and Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America (SHEA). Clin Infect Dis. 2018 03 19; 66(7):e1-e48. View abstract
  24. Clinical Practice Guidelines for Clostridium difficile Infection in Adults and Children: 2017 Update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) and Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America (SHEA). Clin Infect Dis. 2018 03 19; 66(7):987-994. View abstract
  25. A novel wall water system for cardiopulmonary bypass may reduce the risk of aerosolized infection. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2018 07; 156(1):318-324. View abstract
  26. Adherence to guidelines for testing and treatment of children with pharyngitis: a retrospective study. BMC Pediatr. 2018 02 09; 18(1):43. View abstract
  27. Promoting Resident Professional Development Using Scholarly Academies. Acad Pediatr. 2018 May - Jun; 18(4):477-479. View abstract
  28. Attributable Cost of Clostridium difficile Infection in Pediatric Patients. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2017 12; 38(12):1472-1477. View abstract
  29. Clinical Utility of Preimplantation Homograft Cultures in Patients Undergoing Congenital Cardiac Surgery. J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc. 2017 Jun 01; 6(2):202-204. View abstract
  30. A qualitative study to identify reasons for Clostridium difficile testing in pediatric inpatients receiving laxatives or stool softeners. Am J Infect Control. 2017 May 01; 45(5):539-541. View abstract
  31. A Pediatric Approach to Ventilator-Associated Events Surveillance. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2017 03; 38(3):327-333. View abstract
  32. Association Between Storage Interval and Contamination of Reprocessed Flexible Endoscopes in a Pediatric Gastrointestinal Procedural Unit. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2017 02; 38(2):131-135. View abstract
  33. The Brief Case: Safe To Go Back in the Water? Vibrio parahaemolyticus Wound Infection Associated with Brackish Water. J Clin Microbiol. 2016 06; 54(6):1414-1415. View abstract
  34. Closing the Brief Case: Safe To Go Back in the Water? Vibrio parahaemolyticus Wound Infection Associated with Brackish Water. J Clin Microbiol. 2016 06; 54(6):1672. View abstract
  35. National Variability and Appropriateness of Surgical Antibiotic Prophylaxis in US Children's Hospitals. JAMA Pediatr. 2016 06 01; 170(6):570-6. View abstract
  36. Ventilator-Associated Events in Neonates and Children--A New Paradigm. Crit Care Med. 2016 Jan; 44(1):14-22. View abstract
  37. Impact of Mandatory Public Reporting of Central Line-Associated Bloodstream Infections on Blood Culture and Antibiotic Utilization in Pediatric and Neonatal Intensive Care Units. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2015 Aug; 36(8):878-85. View abstract
  38. Infection prevention and control practices in children's hospitals. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2015 May; 36(5):597-600. View abstract
  39. Barriers to the use of face protection for standard precautions by health care providers. Am J Infect Control. 2015 Feb; 43(2):169-70. View abstract
  40. Central line-associated bloodstream infections in neonates with gastrointestinal conditions: developing a candidate definition for mucosal barrier injury bloodstream infections. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2014 Nov; 35(11):1391-9. View abstract
  41. Strategies to prevent Clostridium difficile infections in acute care hospitals: 2014 update. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2014 Sep; 35 Suppl 2:S48-65. View abstract
  42. Strategies to prevent central line-associated bloodstream infections in acute care hospitals: 2014 update. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2014 Jul; 35(7):753-71. View abstract
  43. Strategies to prevent Clostridium difficile infections in acute care hospitals: 2014 Update. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2014 Jun; 35(6):628-45. View abstract
  44. Impact of needleless connector change frequency on central line-associated bloodstream infection rate. Am J Infect Control. 2014 May; 42(5):485-9. View abstract
  45. An adolescent presenting with a pleural mass. Clin Pediatr (Phila). 2014 May; 53(5):504-6. View abstract
  46. What's your subtype? The epidemiologic utility of bacterial whole-genome sequencing. Clin Chem. 2014 Apr; 60(4):586-8. View abstract
  47. Hospital Epidemiology and Infection Control for Children: Report From the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America Pediatric Leadership Council. J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc. 2014 Mar; 3(1):4-6. View abstract
  48. A randomized controlled trial of a vancomycin loading dose in children. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2013 Nov; 32(11):1217-23. View abstract
  49. Diagnosis and Management of Clostridium difficile Infection by Pediatric Infectious Diseases Physicians. J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc. 2014 Mar; 3(1):43-8. View abstract
  50. Beyond the bundle: a survey of central line-associated bloodstream infection prevention practices used in US and Canadian pediatric hospitals. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2013 Nov; 34(11):1208-10. View abstract
  51. Improving stethoscope disinfection at a children's hospital. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2013 Nov; 34(11):1189-93. View abstract
  52. Polymerase chain reaction test for Clostridium difficile toxin B gene reveals similar prevalence rates in children with and without inflammatory bowel disease. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2013 Sep; 57(3):293-7. View abstract
  53. Vancomycin Use for Pediatric Clostridium difficile Infection Is Increasing and Associated with Specific Patient Characteristics. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2013 Sep; 57(9):4307-4313. View abstract
  54. National variability in surveillance, testing, and infection prevention for Clostridium difficile infection in pediatric populations. Am J Infect Control. 2013 Oct; 41(10):933-5. View abstract
  55. Bloodstream infections occurring in patients with percutaneously implanted bioprosthetic pulmonary valve: a single-center experience. Circ Cardiovasc Interv. 2013 Jun; 6(3):301-10. View abstract
  56. Identifying antibiotic-resistant bacteria in hospitalized patients: what is the role of active-surveillance cultures? Clin Chem. 2013 Nov; 59(11):1556-60. View abstract
  57. Microbiology and risk factors for central line-associated bloodstream infections among pediatric oncology outpatients: a single institution experience of 41 cases. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2013 Mar; 35(2):e71-6. View abstract
  58. Disinfection of needleless connectors with chlorhexidine-alcohol provides long-lasting residual disinfectant activity. Am J Infect Control. 2013 Aug; 41(8):e77-9. View abstract
  59. Pediatric infectious diseases fellowship training in healthcare epidemiology: a national needs assessment. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2013 Feb; 34(2):195-9. View abstract
  60. Preventing lethal hospital outbreaks of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. N Engl J Med. 2012 Dec 06; 367(23):2168-70. View abstract
  61. Changing epidemiology of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonization in paediatric intensive-care units. Epidemiol Infect. 2013 Sep; 141(9):1983-92. View abstract
  62. Hand, foot, and mouth disease caused by coxsackievirus a6. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012 Oct; 18(10):1702-4. View abstract
  63. Randomized controlled trial of an immunization recall intervention for adolescents. Pediatrics. 2012 Sep; 130(3):507-14. View abstract
  64. Clostridium difficile Infection in Children: Current State and Unanswered Questions. J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc. 2012 Sep; 1(3):230-43. View abstract
  65. Hand sanitizer and cough hygiene can reduce the number of influenza A infections in school children. J Pediatr. 2012 May; 160(5):881-2. View abstract
  66. Predictors of stethoscope disinfection among pediatric health care providers. Am J Infect Control. 2012 Dec; 40(10):922-5. View abstract
  67. Photo quiz: an 11-year-old with abdominal pain. J Clin Microbiol. 2012 Apr; 50(4):1139, 1508. View abstract
  68. Moving CLABSI prevention beyond the intensive care unit: risk factors in pediatric oncology patients. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2011 Nov; 32(11):1079-85. View abstract
  69. Epidemiology and risk factors for Clostridium difficile infection in children. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2011 Jul; 30(7):580-4. View abstract
  70. Recent trends in the use of antibiotic prophylaxis in pediatric surgery. J Pediatr Surg. 2011 Feb; 46(2):366-71. View abstract
  71. Risk factors for central line-associated bloodstream infection in pediatric intensive care units. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2010 Oct; 31(10):1049-56. View abstract
  72. Prevention of healthcare-associated infections in children: new strategies and success stories. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2010 Aug; 23(4):300-5. View abstract
  73. Higher prevalence of pharyngeal than nasal Staphylococcus aureus carriage in pediatric intensive care units. J Clin Microbiol. 2010 Aug; 48(8):2957-9. View abstract
  74. Risk factors for surgical site infection after cardiac surgery in children. Ann Thorac Surg. 2010 Jun; 89(6):1833-41; discussion 1841-2. View abstract
  75. Test characteristics of commercial influenza assays for detecting pandemic influenza A (H1N1) in children. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2010 Mar; 29(3):261-2. View abstract
  76. Neisseria meningitidis: epidemiology, treatment and prevention in adolescents. Curr Opin Pediatr. 2009 Aug; 21(4):437-43. View abstract
  77. Reforming procedural skills training for pediatric residents: a randomized, interventional trial. Pediatrics. 2009 Aug; 124(2):610-9. View abstract
  78. Risk factors for central line-associated bloodstream infection in a pediatric cardiac intensive care unit. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2009 Jul; 10(4):453-9. View abstract
  79. Assessing quality indicators for pediatric community-acquired pneumonia. Am J Med Qual. 2009 Sep-Oct; 24(5):419-27. View abstract
  80. Adverse events after administration of tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis vaccine to healthcare workers. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2009 Apr; 30(4):389-91. View abstract
  81. Tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis vaccination of adults in the USA. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2008 Jul; 7(5):621-34. View abstract
  82. Pertussis vaccination for health care workers. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2008 Jul; 21(3):426-34. View abstract
  83. Reducing absenteeism from gastrointestinal and respiratory illness in elementary school students: a randomized, controlled trial of an infection-control intervention. Pediatrics. 2008 Jun; 121(6):e1555-62. View abstract
  84. Systematic intervention to reduce central line-associated bloodstream infection rates in a pediatric cardiac intensive care unit. Pediatrics. 2008 May; 121(5):915-23. View abstract
  85. Assessing procedural skills training in pediatric residency programs. Pediatrics. 2007 Oct; 120(4):715-22. View abstract
  86. The association of television and video viewing with fast food intake by preschool-age children. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2006 Nov; 14(11):2034-41. View abstract
  87. A randomized, controlled trial of a multifaceted intervention including alcohol-based hand sanitizer and hand-hygiene education to reduce illness transmission in the home. Pediatrics. 2005 Sep; 116(3):587-94. View abstract
  88. Pneumonia in hospitalized children. Pediatr Clin North Am. 2005 Aug; 52(4):1059-81, viii. View abstract
  89. Medical errors detected and corrected by a pediatric infectious diseases consultation service. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2005 Apr; 26(4):417-20. View abstract
  90. Neonatal jaundice, animal-induced injuries, and immunizations. Curr Opin Pediatr. 2001 Aug; 13(4):377-85. View abstract