Robin Sequence

Robin Sequence

Dr. Cory M. Resnick discusses the sequence of events that characterize Robin Sequence.


Medical School

Doctor of Medicine in Dentistry (DMD)
  • University of Pennsylvania , 2005 , Philadelphia , PA

Medical School

  • Harvard Medical School , 2008 , Boston , MA


General Surgery
  • Massachusetts General Hospital , 2010 , Boston , MA


Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery
  • Massachusetts General Hospital , 2011 , Boston , MA


Dr. Resnick practices pediatric oral and maxillofacial surgery at Boston Children’s Hospital, with an emphasis on craniofacial anomalies and syndromes, orthognathic (jaw) surgery, management of Robin Sequence and pediatric obstructive sleep apnea, management of maxillofacial cysts and tumors, and the surgical management of temporomandibular joint disorders. Dr. Resnick is an active member of the multidisciplinary Craniofacial and Vascular Anomalies teams. In addition to these clinical interests, Dr. Resnick practices a full scope of outpatient “primary care” oral surgery, including the use of ambulatory intravenous anesthesia, removal of third molars (wisdom teeth) and management of other impacted teeth, placement of dental implants, and complex bone grafting.

Dr. Resnick was born and raised in St. Petersburg, FL. He attended the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia for undergraduate school, and continued at Penn to earn his dental degree. He then moved to Boston to earn his medical degree at Harvard Medical School and complete a 6-year Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery residency program at the Massachusetts General Hospital. His residency training included 2 years as a general surgery resident, as well as extensive training in inpatient and outpatient general anesthesia. This anesthesia training allows Dr. Resnick to hold an active General Anesthesia Permit. Dr. Resnick’s education also included training in pediatric oral and maxillofacial surgery here at Boston Children’s Hospital. After completing his residency training, Dr. Resnick went in to private practice in the New York area for several years before deciding to return to academic surgery. Dr. Resnick is certified by the American Board of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery. He has also been inducted as a Fellow of the American College of Surgeons (FACS), a prestigious surgical society that maintains the highest standards for surgical education and practice across all surgical specialties. In addition to Children’s Hospital, Dr. Resnick maintains privileges at the Massachusetts General and Brigham and Women’s Hospitals.

In addition to Dr. Resnick’s busy clinical practice, he is dedicated to innovation and improvement of his field through research and education. Dr. Resnick is the author of many publications in peer reviewed journals within and outside the scope of oral surgery, and he has been asked to contribute chapters to multiple textbooks. He lectures to medical and dental students at the Harvard Medical School and Harvard School of Dental Medicine, and he mentors oral and maxillofacial surgery residents through the Massachusetts General Hospital residency program. He has also been invited to lecture on multiple topics locally, nationally and internationally. He has many ongoing clinical research projects designed to improve treatment and outcomes in several areas of pediatric oral and maxillofacial surgery.


  • American Board of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery


Publications powered by Harvard Catalyst Profiles

  1. Patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis are at increased risk for obstructive sleep apnoea: a population-based cohort study. Eur J Orthod. 2021 Oct 13. View abstract
  2. Feeding considerations for infants with craniofacial malformations. Semin Fetal Neonatal Med. 2021 Sep 20; 101280. View abstract
  3. Assessing the Reliability of the OMERACT Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis Magnetic Resonance Scoring System for Temporomandibular Joints (JAMRIS-TMJ). J Clin Med. 2021 Sep 07; 10(18). View abstract
  4. Pain Management for Dental Medicine in 2021: Opioids, Coronavirus and Beyond. J Pain Res. 2021; 14:1371-1387. View abstract
  5. Objective measurements for upper airway obstruction in infants with Robin sequence: what are we measuring? A systematic review. J Clin Sleep Med. 2021 May 07. View abstract
  6. Discrete Choice Experiment on a Magnetic Resonance Imaging Scoring System for Temporomandibular Joints in Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken). 2021 Feb 08. View abstract
  7. Do Infants With Robin Sequence Have Improved Feeding and Weight Gain After Mandibular Distraction? J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2021 06; 79(6):1331-1338. View abstract
  8. Bradycardia and asystole during temporomandibular joint reconstruction. Paediatr Anaesth. 2020 10; 30(10):1146-1148. View abstract
  9. Is Intensive Care Unit Admission Necessary After Removal of Mandibular Distraction Devices in Infants With Robin Sequence? Cleft Palate Craniofac J. 2021 03; 58(3):306-312. View abstract
  10. Assessment of Risk Factors for Suicide Among US Health Care Professionals. JAMA Surg. 2020 08 01; 155(8):713-721. View abstract
  11. Idiopathic condylar resorption: A systematic review of etiology and management. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol. 2020 Dec; 130(6):632-639. View abstract
  12. Characteristics of National Malpractice Claims in Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2020 Aug; 78(8):1314-1318. View abstract
  13. An Overview of Craniosynostosis Craniofacial Syndromes for Combined Orthodontic and Surgical Management. Oral Maxillofac Surg Clin North Am. 2020 May; 32(2):233-247. View abstract
  14. Regional differences in temporomandibular joint inflammation in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis: a dynamic post-contrast magnetic resonance imaging study. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2020 Sep; 49(9):1210-1216. View abstract
  15. International Pediatric ORL Group (IPOG) Robin Sequence consensus recommendations. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2020 Mar; 130:109855. View abstract
  16. A comparison of airway interventions and gastrostomy tube placement in infants with Robin sequence. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2020 Jun; 49(6):734-738. View abstract
  17. Interdisciplinary Management of Dentofacial Deformity in Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis. Oral Maxillofac Surg Clin North Am. 2020 Feb; 32(1):117-134. View abstract
  18. Can Robin Sequence Be Predicted From Prenatal Ultrasonography? J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2020 Apr; 78(4):612-618. View abstract
  19. Retropalatal Cross-Sectional Area Is Predictive of Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Patients With Syndromic Craniosynostosis. Cleft Palate Craniofac J. 2020 05; 57(5):560-565. View abstract
  20. Craniofacial Anthropometry: Normative Data for Caucasian Infants. J Craniofac Surg. 2019 Sep; 30(6):e539-e542. View abstract
  21. Is Obstructive Apnea More Severe in Syndromic Than Nonsyndromic Patients With Robin Sequence? J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2019 Dec; 77(12):2529-2533. View abstract
  22. Impact of Obstructive Sleep Apnea on Optic Nerve Function in Patients With Craniosynostosis and Recurrent Intracranial Hypertension. Am J Ophthalmol. 2019 11; 207:356-362. View abstract
  23. Giant Cell Lesions of the Maxillofacial Skeleton Express RANKL by RNA In Situ Hybridization Regardless of Histologic Pattern. Am J Surg Pathol. 2019 06; 43(6):819-826. View abstract
  24. Is It Cost Effective to Add an Intraoral Scanner to an Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Practice? J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2019 Aug; 77(8):1687-1694. View abstract
  25. Retroposition of the Globe After Le Fort III Midfacial Distraction. J Craniofac Surg. 2019 Mar/Apr; 30(2):358-362. View abstract
  26. An Algorithm for Management of Dentofacial Deformity Resulting From Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis: Results of a Multinational Consensus Conference. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2019 Jun; 77(6):1152.e1-1152.e33. View abstract
  27. Do Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons Over-Prescribe Opioids After Extraction of Asymptomatic Third Molars? J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2019 Jul; 77(7):1332-1336. View abstract
  28. Surgical correction of dentofacial deformities in juvenile idiopathic arthritis: a systematic literature review. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2019 Aug; 48(8):1032-1042. View abstract
  29. Standardizing Terminology and Assessment for Orofacial Conditions in Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis: International, Multidisciplinary Consensus-based Recommendations. J Rheumatol. 2019 05; 46(5):518-522. View abstract
  30. Pediatric Sleep Surgery: Skeletal Procedures. Atlas Oral Maxillofac Surg Clin North Am. 2019 Mar; 27(1):67-75. View abstract
  31. Imaging of the Temporomandibular Joint in Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis: How Does Quantitative Compare to Semiquantitative MRI Scoring? J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2019 May; 77(5):951-958. View abstract
  32. Is Amniotic Fluid Level a Predictor for Syndromic Diagnosis in Robin Sequence? Cleft Palate Craniofac J. 2019 07; 56(6):773-777. View abstract
  33. Is Tongue-Lip Adhesion or Mandibular Distraction More Effective in Relieving Obstructive Apnea in Infants With Robin Sequence? J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2019 Mar; 77(3):591-600. View abstract
  34. Management of Temporomandibular Joint Arthritis in JIA: Tradition-based or Evidence-based? J Rheumatol. 2018 08; 45(9):1205-1207. View abstract
  35. Does Mandibular Distraction Change the Laryngoscopy Grade in Infants With Robin Sequence? J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2019 Feb; 77(2):371-379. View abstract
  36. Early Management of Infants With Robin Sequence: An International Survey and Algorithm. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2019 Jan; 77(1):136-156. View abstract
  37. Is There a Difference in Orbital Volume Between Affected and Unaffected Sides in Patients With Unilateral Craniofacial Microsomia? J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2018 12; 76(12):2625-2629. View abstract
  38. Temporomandibular Joint Ankylosis After Ramus Construction With Free Fibula Flaps in Children With Hemifacial Microsomia. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2018 09; 76(9):2001.e1-2001.e15. View abstract
  39. Maxillary Sagittal Position in Relation to the Forehead: A Target for Orthognathic Surgery. J Craniofac Surg. 2018 May; 29(3):688-691. View abstract
  40. Augmentation of the Median Tubercle with Dermis-Fat Graft in Children with Repaired Cleft Lip. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2018 04; 141(4):540e-546e. View abstract
  41. Evaluation of Andrews' Analysis as a Predictor of Ideal Sagittal Maxillary Positioning in Orthognathic Surgery. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2018 10; 76(10):2169-2176. View abstract
  42. Hypertrophic Mental Tubercles of the Mandible. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2018 Aug; 76(8):1785.e1-1785.e4. View abstract
  43. An algorithm for predicting Robin sequence from fetal MRI. Prenat Diagn. 2018 04; 38(5):357-364. View abstract
  44. Assessment of dentofacial growth deviation in juvenile idiopathic arthritis: Reliability and validity of three-dimensional morphometric measures. PLoS One. 2018; 13(3):e0194177. View abstract
  45. Time to Reconsider Management of the Temporomandibular Joint in Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2018 Jun; 76(6):1145-1146. View abstract
  46. Temporomandibular Joint Reconstruction in the Growing Child. Oral Maxillofac Surg Clin North Am. 2018 Feb; 30(1):109-121. View abstract
  47. Does Andrews facial analysis predict esthetic sagittal maxillary position? Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol. 2018 04; 125(4):376-381. View abstract
  48. In Utero Glossoptosis in Fetuses With Robin Sequence: Measurements From Prenatal MRI. Cleft Palate Craniofac J. 2018 04; 55(4):562-567. View abstract
  49. Optimization of Quantitative Dynamic Postgadolinium MRI Technique Using Normalized Ratios for the Evaluation of Temporomandibular Joint Synovitis in Patients with Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2017 Dec; 38(12):2344-2350. View abstract
  50. Pathogenesis of Cleft Palate in Robin Sequence: Observations From Prenatal Magnetic Resonance Imaging. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2018 May; 76(5):1058-1064. View abstract
  51. Precise osteotomies for mandibular distraction in infants with Robin sequence using virtual surgical planning. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2018 Jan; 47(1):35-43. View abstract
  52. Micrognathia and Oropharyngeal Space in Patients With Robin Sequence: Prenatal MRI Measurements. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2018 02; 76(2):408-415. View abstract
  53. Virtual Surgical Planning for Mandibular Distraction in Infants with Robin Sequence. Plast Reconstr Surg Glob Open. 2017 Jun; 5(6):e1379. View abstract
  54. Velopharyngeal Insufficiency After Le Fort I Osteotomy in a Patient With Undiagnosed Occult Submucous Cleft Palate. J Craniofac Surg. 2017 May; 28(3):752-754. View abstract
  55. Surgical Uprighting Is a Successful Procedure for Management of Impacted Mandibular Second Molars. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2017 Aug; 75(8):1581-1590. View abstract
  56. Velopharyngeal Insufficiency After Le Fort I Osteotomy in a Patient With Undiagnosed Occult Submucous Cleft Palate. J Craniofac Surg. 2017 Jan 18. View abstract
  57. Frequency and Morbidity of Temporomandibular Joint Involvement in Adult Patients With a History of Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2017 Jun; 75(6):1191-1200. View abstract
  58. Quantifying Temporomandibular Joint Synovitis in Children With Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken). 2016 12; 68(12):1795-1802. View abstract
  59. Accuracy of three-dimensional soft tissue prediction for Le Fort I osteotomy using Dolphin 3D software: a pilot study. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2017 Mar; 46(3):289-295. View abstract
  60. Is Intra-Articular Steroid Injection to the Temporomandibular Joint for Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis More Effective and Efficient When Performed With Image Guidance? J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2017 Apr; 75(4):694-700. View abstract
  61. Commentary: Does Mandibular Distraction Vector Influence Airway Volumes and Outcome? J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2017 Jan; 75(1):178-179. View abstract
  62. Physician Assistants Improve Efficiency and Decrease Costs in Outpatient Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2016 Nov; 74(11):2128-2135. View abstract
  63. Quantifying the Effect of Temporomandibular Joint Intra-Articular Steroid Injection on Synovial Enhancement in Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2016 Dec; 74(12):2363-2369. View abstract
  64. Novel Rigid External Distraction Device Improves Stability and Controls the Vector During Midfacial Advancement. J Craniofac Surg. 2016 Jun; 27(4):1056-9. View abstract
  65. Pediatric Chronic Nonbacterial Osteomyelitis of the Jaw: Clinical, Radiographic, and Histopathologic Features. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2016 Dec; 74(12):2393-2402. View abstract
  66. Pressure or Pain in the Dental Chair? J Anesth Hist. 2016 07; 2(3):69-70. View abstract
  67. Is There a Difference in Cost Between Standard and Virtual Surgical Planning for Orthognathic Surgery? J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2016 Sep; 74(9):1827-33. View abstract
  68. Comparison of time required for traditional versus virtual orthognathic surgery treatment planning. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2016 Sep; 45(9):1065-9. View abstract
  69. Quantifying Synovial Enhancement of the Pediatric Temporomandibular Joint. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2016 Oct; 74(10):1937-45. View abstract
  70. Meaningful use: A program in transition. Bull Am Coll Surg. 2016 Mar; 101(3):10-6. View abstract
  71. Anesthesia Complications of Diazepam Use for Adolescents Receiving Extraction of Third Molars. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2016 Jun; 74(6):1140-4. View abstract
  72. A Management Strategy for Idiopathic Bone Cavities of the Jaws. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2016 Jun; 74(6):1153-8. View abstract
  73. What Is the Cost of Meaningful Use? J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2016 Feb; 74(2):227-9. View abstract
  74. Effectiveness of Tongue-lip Adhesion for Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Infants With Robin Sequence Measured by Polysomnography. Cleft Palate Craniofac J. 2016 09; 53(5):584-8. View abstract
  75. Tissue-engineered bone with 3-dimensionally printed ß-tricalcium phosphate and polycaprolactone scaffolds and early implantation: an in vivo pilot study in a porcine mandible model. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2015 May; 73(5):1016.e1-1016.e11. View abstract
  76. Do histologic criteria predict biologic behavior of giant cell lesions? J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2012 Nov; 70(11):2573-80. View abstract
  77. Accessory mandibular condyle at the coronoid process. J Craniofac Surg. 2011 Nov; 22(6):2168-71. View abstract
  78. Maxillofacial and axial/appendicular giant cell lesions: unique tumors or variants of the same disease?--A comparison of phenotypic, clinical, and radiographic characteristics. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2010 Jan; 68(1):130-7. View abstract
  79. Minimally invasive orthognathic surgery. Facial Plast Surg. 2009 Feb; 25(1):49-62. View abstract
  80. Cemento-osseous dysplasia, a radiological mimic of periapical dental abscess. Emerg Radiol. 2008 Nov; 15(6):367-74. View abstract
  81. The effect of head injury on family and marital stability. Soc Work Health Care. 1993; 18(2):49-62. View abstract