Medical School

  • Madras University , 1988 , Chennai , India


General Surgery
  • Brigham and Women's Hospital , 2001 , Boston , MA


  • Boston Children's Hospital , 2003 , Boston , MA


Cardiothoracic Surgery
  • Brigham and Women's Hosital , 2005 , Boston , MA


Cardiac Surgery
  • Boston Children's Hospital , 2005 , Boston , MA


Cardiac Research
  • Boston Children's Hospital , 2010 , Boston , MA

Graduate Degree

  • Harvard T. H. Chang School of Public Health , 2016 , Boston , MA


I am a pediatric cardiac surgeon primarily involved in clinical research and teaching medical students and residents. I have over 10 years of research experience encompassing the period of my residency training and current faculty position. I have been actively involved in research and teaching throughout my career and as a junior faculty I have mentored undergraduate, premed students, and medical students through summer internships in outcomes research. I have successfully graduated with an MPH degree from the Harvard TH Chang School of Public Health with my area of interest being clinical effectiveness. I now mentor MPH students as well. My clinical and research focus is on clinical outcomes and quality improvement. As a surgeon involved in clinical health services research, I am using my expertise as a pediatric cardiac surgeon to innovate in this field.


  • American Board of Surgery, General Surgery
  • American Board of Thoracic Surgery


Publications powered by Harvard Catalyst Profiles

  1. Left Pulmonary Artery Sling: Postoperative Outcomes for Patients at a Single Center. World J Pediatr Congenit Heart Surg. 2021 Nov; 12(6):715-727. View abstract
  2. Difficult tracheal intubation and perioperative outcomes in patients with congenital heart disease: A retrospective study. J Clin Anesth. 2022 Feb; 76:110565. View abstract
  3. Enhancing Recovery in Congenital Cardiac Surgery. Ann Thorac Surg. 2021 Oct 25. View abstract
  4. Translation and Validation of the Boston Technical Performance Score in a Developing Country. Braz J Cardiovasc Surg. 2021 10 17; 36(5):589-598. View abstract
  5. Digital solution for follow-up in congenital cardiac surgery. Cardiol Young. 2021 Sep 09; 1-9. View abstract
  6. Aortic Valve Surgery After Neonatal Balloon Aortic Valvuloplasty in Congenital Aortic Stenosis. Circ Cardiovasc Interv. 2021 06; 14(6):e009933. View abstract
  7. Impact of Major Residual Lesions on Outcomes After Surgery for Congenital Heart Disease. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2021 05 18; 77(19):2382-2394. View abstract
  8. Better preoperative exercise function is associated with shorter hospital stay after paediatric pulmonary valve replacement or conduit revision. Cardiol Young. 2021 Oct; 31(10):1636-1643. View abstract
  9. Thromboelastography During Rewarming for Management of Pediatric Cardiac Surgery Patients. Ann Thorac Surg. 2021 Mar 02. View abstract
  10. Updating an Empirically Based Tool for Analyzing Congenital Heart Surgery Mortality. World J Pediatr Congenit Heart Surg. 2021 Mar; 12(2):246-281. View abstract
  11. Commentary: The perfect arch: A pipe dream that may be achievable! J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2021 12; 162(6):1805-1806. View abstract
  12. Long-term outcomes of truncus arteriosus repair: A modulated renewal competing risks analysis. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2022 Jan; 163(1):224-236.e6. View abstract
  13. Hyperlactataemia as a predictor of adverse outcomes post-cardiac surgery in neonates with congenital heart disease. Cardiol Young. 2021 Sep; 31(9):1401-1406. View abstract
  14. Management of Complex Left Ventricular Outflow Tract Obstruction: A Comparison of Konno and Modified Konno Techniques. Pediatr Cardiol. 2021 Mar; 42(3):614-627. View abstract
  15. Risk Factors for Left Ventricular Dysfunction Following Surgical Management of Cardiac Fibroma. Circ Cardiovasc Imaging. 2021 02; 14(2):e011748. View abstract
  16. Surgical Repair of Congenital Atresia of the Left Coronary Ostium. JACC Case Rep. 2021 Feb; 3(2):198-201. View abstract
  17. Technical Performance Score: A Predictor of Outcomes After the Norwood Procedure. Ann Thorac Surg. 2021 10; 112(4):1290-1297. View abstract
  18. Seizure Prediction After Neonatal Cardiac Surgery: The Search Continues. Ann Thorac Surg. 2021 06; 111(6):2048-2049. View abstract
  19. Preoperative Factors That Predict Recurrence After Repair of Discrete Subaortic Stenosis. Ann Thorac Surg. 2021 05; 111(5):1613-1619. View abstract
  20. De Novo Damaging Variants, Clinical Phenotypes, and Post-Operative Outcomes in Congenital Heart Disease. Circ Genom Precis Med. 2020 08; 13(4):e002836. View abstract
  21. Technical Performance Score's Association With Arterial Switch Operation Outcomes. Ann Thorac Surg. 2021 04; 111(4):1367-1373. View abstract
  22. Commentary: Approach With Caution - Aorto Right Ventricular Tunnel. Semin Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2020; 32(4):881-882. View abstract
  23. Mechanical Mitral Valve Replacement: A Multicenter Study of Outcomes With Use of 15- to 17-mm Prostheses. Ann Thorac Surg. 2020 12; 110(6):2062-2069. View abstract
  24. Registry-based trials: a potential model for cost savings? Cardiol Young. 2020 Jun; 30(6):807-817. View abstract
  25. Atrioventricular Valve Function Predicts Reintervention in Complete Atrioventricular Septal Defect. World J Pediatr Congenit Heart Surg. 2020 03; 11(2):247-248. View abstract
  26. The Pediatric Heart Network Residual Lesion Score Study: Design and objectives. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2020 07; 160(1):218-223.e1. View abstract
  27. Initial experience introducing an enhanced recovery program in congenital cardiac surgery. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2020 11; 160(5):1313-1321.e5. View abstract
  28. Lessons learned in the use of clinical registry data in a multi-centre prospective study: the Pediatric Heart Network Residual Lesion Score Study. Cardiol Young. 2019 Jul; 29(7):930-938. View abstract
  29. Factors Associated With Adverse Outcomes After Repair of Anomalous Coronary From Pulmonary Artery. Ann Thorac Surg. 2019 09; 108(3):785-791. View abstract
  30. The left atrioventricular valve: The Achilles' heel of incomplete endocardial cushion defects. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2019 Mar; 157(3):1130-1131. View abstract
  31. Accurate Prediction of Congenital Heart Surgical Length of Stay Incorporating a Procedure-Based Categorical Variable. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2018 10; 19(10):949-956. View abstract
  32. Neoaortic Root Incorporation of Anomalous Left Coronary Artery From Pulmonary Artery in Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome: An Alternative Technique. Semin Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2018; 30(4):460-461. View abstract
  33. Rates of Interventions in Isolated Coarctation Repair in Neonates Versus Infants: Does Age Matter? Ann Thorac Surg. 2019 01; 107(1):180-186. View abstract
  34. Physiologic effects of delayed sternal closure following stage 1 palliation. Cardiol Young. 2018 Dec; 28(12):1393-1403. View abstract
  35. Three-Dimensional Mitral Valve Morphology in Children and Young Adults With Marfan Syndrome. J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 2018 11; 31(11):1168-1177.e1. View abstract
  36. Reply to Buratto et al. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2018 06 01; 53(6):1296. View abstract
  37. Predictors of Postoperative Rehabilitation Therapy Following Congenital Heart Surgery. J Am Heart Assoc. 2018 05 12; 7(10). View abstract
  38. Normal Values and Growth-Related Changes of Left Ventricular Volumes, Stress, and Strain in Healthy Children Measured by 3-Dimensional Echocardiography. Am J Cardiol. 2018 07 15; 122(2):331-339. View abstract
  39. A red cell preservation strategy reduces postoperative transfusions in pediatric heart surgery patients. Paediatr Anaesth. 2018 05; 28(5):450-457. View abstract
  40. Technical Performance Score Predicts Partial/Transitional Atrioventricular Septal Defect Outcomes. Ann Thorac Surg. 2018 05; 105(5):1461-1468. View abstract
  41. Valve-sparing repair with intraoperative balloon dilation in tetralogy of Fallot: Midterm results and therapeutic implications. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2018 03; 155(3):1163-1173.e4. View abstract
  42. Mid-term outcomes in unbalanced complete atrioventricular septal defect: role of biventricular conversion from single-ventricle palliation. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2017 Sep 01; 52(3):565-572. View abstract
  43. Pseudoaneurysm complicating right ventricle-to-pulmonary artery conduit surgery: Incidence and risk factors. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2017 12; 154(6):2046-2049. View abstract
  44. Technical performance scores are predictors of midterm mortality and reinterventions following congenital mitral valve repair. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2017 Aug 01; 52(2):218-224. View abstract
  45. Technical Performance Score: Predictor of Outcomes in Complete Atrioventricular Septal Defect Repair. Ann Thorac Surg. 2017 Oct; 104(4):1371-1377. View abstract
  46. A Method to Account for Variation in Congenital Heart Surgery Length of Stay. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2017 Jun; 18(6):550-560. View abstract
  47. Duration of Mechanical Ventilation and Perioperative Care Quality After Neonatal Cardiac Operations. Ann Thorac Surg. 2017 Jun; 103(6):1956-1962. View abstract
  48. Photo-oxidized bovine pericardium in congenital cardiac surgery: single-centre experience. Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg. 2017 02 01; 24(2):240-244. View abstract
  49. A rare triple threat: Rat bite fever, endocarditis of ventricular septal defect patch, and multivalve endocarditis with sinus of Valsalva fistula. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2017 03; 153(3):e47-e48. View abstract
  50. Association of Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Support Adequacy and Residual Lesions With Outcomes in Neonates Supported After Cardiac Surgery. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2016 11; 17(11):1045-1054. View abstract
  51. Implementation of a Quality Improvement Bundle Improves Echocardiographic Imaging after Congenital Heart Surgery in Children. J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 2016 12; 29(12):1163-1170.e3. View abstract
  52. Completeness and Accuracy of Local Clinical Registry Data for Children Undergoing Heart Surgery. Ann Thorac Surg. 2017 Feb; 103(2):629-636. View abstract
  53. Anomalous Aortic Origin of Coronary Arteries: A Single-Center Experience. Semin Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2016 Winter; 28(4):791-800. View abstract
  54. Technical Performance Score Predicts Resource Utilization in Congenital Cardiac Procedures. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2016 06 07; 67(22):2696-8. View abstract
  55. Pediatric Index of Cardiac Surgical Intensive Care Mortality: A New Severity of Illness Score for Cardiac Surgical Patients in ICUs. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2015 Nov; 16(9):885-6. View abstract
  56. Impact of Variability in Echocardiographic Interpretation on Assessment of Adequacy of Repair Following Congenital Heart Surgery: A Pilot Study. Pediatr Cardiol. 2016 Jan; 37(1):144-50. View abstract
  57. Do the benefits outweigh the risks? A review of the history of atrial septal defect repairs and device closures. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2015 Oct; 150(4):e57-8. View abstract
  58. Electrocardiographic monitoring for detecting atrial fibrillation after ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack: systematic review and meta-analysis. Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol. 2015 Apr; 8(2):263-9. View abstract
  59. Modified end-to-end anastomosis for the treatment of congenital tracheal stenosis with a bridging bronchus. Ann Thorac Surg. 2015 Jan; 99(1):346-8. View abstract
  60. Technical performance score as predictor for post-discharge reintervention in valve-sparing tetralogy of Fallot repair. Semin Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2014; 26(4):297-303. View abstract
  61. D-transposition of the great arteries: the current era of the arterial switch operation. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2014 Aug 05; 64(5):498-511. View abstract
  62. Outcomes differ in patients who undergo immediate intraoperative revision versus patients with delayed postoperative revision of residual lesions in congenital heart operations. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2014 Dec; 148(6):2540-6.e1-5. View abstract
  63. Technical performance score is associated with outcomes after the Norwood procedure. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2014 Nov; 148(5):2208-13, 2214.e1-6. View abstract
  64. Takedown of cavopulmonary shunt at biventricular repair. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2014 Oct; 148(4):1506-11. View abstract
  65. Late arterial switch operation for transposition with intact septum. World J Pediatr Congenit Heart Surg. 2014 Apr; 5(2):226-8. View abstract
  66. Preliminary experience with porcine intestinal submucosa (CorMatrix) for valve reconstruction in congenital heart disease: histologic evaluation of explanted valves. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2014 Nov; 148(5):2216-4, 2225.e1. View abstract
  67. Successful surgical management of ventricular fibromas in children. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2014 Dec; 148(6):2602-8. View abstract
  68. Association between Technical Performance Scores and neurodevelopmental outcomes after congenital cardiac surgery. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2014 Jul; 148(1):232-237.e3. View abstract
  69. Technical Performance Scores are strongly associated with early mortality, postoperative adverse events, and intensive care unit length of stay-analysis of consecutive discharges for 2 years. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2014 Jan; 147(1):389-94, 396.e1-396.e3. View abstract
  70. Inadequate technical performance scores are associated with late mortality and late reintervention. Ann Thorac Surg. 2013 Aug; 96(2):664-9. View abstract
  71. Biventricular conversion after single-ventricle palliation in unbalanced atrioventricular canal defects. Ann Thorac Surg. 2013 Jun; 95(6):2086-95; discussion 2095-6. View abstract
  72. Change in regional (somatic) near-infrared spectroscopy is not a useful indicator of clinically detectable low cardiac output in children after surgery for congenital heart defects. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2012 Sep; 13(5):529-34. View abstract
  73. Surgical technical performance scores are predictors of late mortality and unplanned reinterventions in infants after cardiac surgery. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2012 Nov; 144(5):1095-1101.e7. View abstract
  74. Technical performance scores in congenital cardiac operations: a quality assessment initiative. Ann Thorac Surg. 2012 Oct; 94(4):1317-23; discussion 1323. View abstract
  75. Mortality in hypoplastic left heart syndrome: review of 216 autopsy cases of aortic atresia with attention to coronary artery disease. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2012 Dec; 144(6):1301-6. View abstract
  76. Intraoperative adverse events can be compensated by technical performance in neonates and infants after cardiac surgery: a prospective study. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2011 Nov; 142(5):1098-107, 1107.e1-5. View abstract
  77. Anomalous left coronary artery arising from the pulmonary artery in hypoplastic left hearts: case series and review of literature. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2011 Jul; 142(1):225-7. View abstract
  78. Abiomed biventricular assist device as a bridge to transplantation in a 14-year-old with cardiomyopathy resulting from ventricular noncompaction. Pediatr Cardiol. 2010 Nov; 31(8):1249-51. View abstract
  79. The use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, high-frequency oscillatory ventilation, and surfactant for the management of intraoperative acute pulmonary hemorrhage in tetralogy of Fallot. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2011 Apr; 25(2):313-5. View abstract
  80. Myocardial hypertrophy overrides the angiogenic response to hypoxia. PLoS One. 2008; 3(12):e4042. View abstract
  81. Enteroviral sepsis and ischemic cardiomyopathy in a neonate: case report and review of literature. ASAIO J. 2008 Sep-Oct; 54(5):554-5. View abstract
  82. Robotic division of an unusual variant of a right aortic arch. Ann Thorac Surg. 2007 Aug; 84(2):670-3. View abstract
  83. Early repair of hemitruncus: excellent early and late outcomes. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2007 May; 133(5):1329-35. View abstract
  84. Aortic atresia or severe left ventricular outflow tract obstruction with ventricular septal defect: results of primary biventricular repair in neonates. Ann Thorac Surg. 2006 Dec; 82(6):2227-32. View abstract
  85. Successful implantation of a Berlin heart biventricular assist device in a failing single ventricle. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2006 Jun; 131(6):1407-8. View abstract
  86. Hypothermic circulatory arrest enables aortic valve replacement in patients with unclampable aorta. Ann Thorac Surg. 2005 Nov; 80(5):1679-86; discussion 1686-7. View abstract
  87. Impaired insulin-signaling in hypertrophied hearts contributes to ischemic injury. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005 May 27; 331(1):15-22. View abstract
  88. Cyclosporin A but not FK-506 protects against dopamine-induced apoptosis in the stunned heart. Ann Thorac Surg. 2005 May; 79(5):1620-6. View abstract
  89. Transmyocardial laser revascularization. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2004 Feb; 18(1):85-92. View abstract
  90. Hepatic duct confluence injury in blunt abdominal trauma: case report and synopsis on management. Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech. 2003 Oct; 13(5):350-2. View abstract