I believe that paying careful attention to the details of history provided by children and their families is the most important skill a neurologist can develop.




  • English

  • Hindi

  • Bengali

  • Mandarin Chinese


Undergraduate Degree

  • Yale University , 1991 , New Haven , CT

Graduate Degree

  • Tufts University School of Medicine , 1997 , Boston , MA

Medical School

  • Tufts University School of Medicine , 1997 , Boston , MA


  • New England Medical Center , 2000 , Boston , MA


Chief Resident
  • New England Medical Center , 2001 , Boston , MA


Child Neurology
  • Boston Children's Hospital , 2004 , Boston , MA


Research Fellowship
  • Harvard Pediatric Health Services , 2006 , Boston , MA

Graduate Degree

MSc, Epidemiology
  • Harvard School of Public Health , 2006 , Boston , MA


Interdisciplinary Training Program in Neurotoxicology Research
  • Harvard School of Public Health , 2008 , Boston , MA

Philosophy of Care

I observed that doctors often play an important role in a family’s life, often at a time that is particularly stressful for the family. I thought that as a doctor, I could use my own particular skills – my knowledge of science – to be a resource for families during difficult times.


My current research program studies the associations between environmental arsenic exposure and neural tube defects, a particular group of birth defects that involve the developing brain and spinal cord.  The study of neural tube defects provides a unique opportunity to learn about the complex interaction between environment, genes, and nutrition, and their combined effects on the developing nervous system. The long-range goals of my research program are 1) to develop novel screening strategies, appropriate for use in resource poor settings, to identify populations at high risk of neural tube defects, 2) to direct the development of more effective, mechanism-based preventive interventions for neural tube defects and 3) to test whether the biological pathways discovered linking nutrition, environmental hazards and neural tube defect risk are also involved in less severe neurodevelopmental disorders in children. Currently, this NIH-supported research takes place among infants and children in Bangladesh, a country grappling with the largest arsenic epidemic in world history.


  • American Board of Pediatrics, General Pediatrics
  • American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology, Child and Adolescent Neurology


Publications powered by Harvard Catalyst Profiles

  1. Bayesian kernel machine regression-causal mediation analysis. Stat Med. 2022 Jan 07. View abstract
  2. Parental metal exposures as potential risk factors for spina bifida in Bangladesh. Environ Int. 2021 12; 157:106800. View abstract
  3. Umbilical Cord Blood Metal Mixtures and Birth Size in Bangladeshi Children. Environ Health Perspect. 2021 05; 129(5):57006. View abstract
  4. Feasibility of Lead Exposure Assessment in Blood Spots using Energy-Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence. Environ Sci Technol. 2021 04 20; 55(8):5050-5055. View abstract
  5. Stunting and lead: using causal mediation analysis to better understand how environmental lead exposure affects cognitive outcomes in children. J Neurodev Disord. 2020 12 16; 12(1):39. View abstract
  6. EEG markers predictive of epilepsy risk in pediatric cerebral malaria - A feasibility study. Epilepsy Behav. 2020 12; 113:107536. View abstract
  7. Development and Evaluation of a Pediatric Epilepsy Training Program for First Level Providers in Zambia. Glob Pediatr Health. 2020; 7:2333794X20968718. View abstract
  8. Association of prenatal pesticide exposures with adverse pregnancy outcomes and stunting in rural Bangladesh. Environ Int. 2019 12; 133(Pt B):105243. View abstract
  9. A case-control analysis of maternal diet and risk of neural tube defects in Bangladesh. Birth Defects Res. 2019 08 15; 111(14):967-981. View abstract
  10. Med4way: a Stata command to investigate mediating and interactive mechanisms using the four-way effect decomposition. Int J Epidemiol. 2018 Nov 16. View abstract
  11. Lead in Air in Bangladesh: Exposure in a Rural Community with Elevated Blood Lead Concentrations among Young Children. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2018 09 06; 15(9). View abstract
  12. Identification of novel loci associated with infant cognitive ability. Mol Psychiatry. 2020 11; 25(11):3010-3019. View abstract
  13. Growth parameters at birth mediate the relationship between prenatal manganese exposure and cognitive test scores among a cohort of 2- to 3-year-old Bangladeshi children. Int J Epidemiol. 2018 08 01; 47(4):1169-1179. View abstract
  14. Prenatal arsenic exposure, child marriage, and pregnancy weight gain: Associations with preterm birth in Bangladesh. Environ Int. 2018 03; 112:23-32. View abstract
  15. Prenatal folic acid use associated with decreased risk of myelomeningocele: A case-control study offers further support for folic acid fortification in Bangladesh. PLoS One. 2017; 12(11):e0188726. View abstract
  16. Investigating causal relation between prenatal arsenic exposure and birthweight: Are smaller infants more susceptible? Environ Int. 2017 11; 108:32-40. View abstract
  17. Genome-wide gene by lead exposure interaction analysis identifies UNC5D as a candidate gene for neurodevelopment. Environ Health. 2017 07 28; 16(1):81. View abstract
  18. Anthropometric measures at birth and early childhood are associated with neurodevelopmental outcomes among Bangladeshi children aged 2-3years. Sci Total Environ. 2017 Dec 31; 607-608:475-482. View abstract
  19. The Joint Effect of Prenatal Exposure to Metal Mixtures on Neurodevelopmental Outcomes at 20-40 Months of Age: Evidence from Rural Bangladesh. Environ Health Perspect. 2017 06 26; 125(6):067015. View abstract
  20. Associations between post translational histone modifications, myelomeningocele risk, environmental arsenic exposure, and folate deficiency among participants in a case control study in Bangladesh. Epigenetics. 2017 06 03; 12(6):484-491. View abstract
  21. Does arsenic increase the risk of neural tube defects among a highly exposed population? A new case-control study in Bangladesh. Birth Defects Res. 2017 01 30; 109(2):92-98. View abstract
  22. Stunting is associated with blood lead concentration among Bangladeshi children aged 2-3 years. Environ Health. 2016 11 04; 15(1):103. View abstract
  23. Neurodevelopmental outcomes among 2- to 3-year-old children in Bangladesh with elevated blood lead and exposure to arsenic and manganese in drinking water. Environ Health. 2016 Mar 12; 15:44. View abstract
  24. Estimating Effects of Arsenic Exposure During Pregnancy on Perinatal Outcomes in a Bangladeshi Cohort. Epidemiology. 2016 Mar; 27(2):173-81. View abstract
  25. Polymorphisms in maternal folate pathway genes interact with arsenic in drinking water to influence risk of myelomeningocele. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 2015 Sep; 103(9):754-62. View abstract
  26. Arsenic is associated with reduced effect of folic acid in myelomeningocele prevention: a case control study in Bangladesh. Environ Health. 2015 Apr 10; 14:34. View abstract
  27. Elevated sweat chloride levels due to arsenic toxicity. N Engl J Med. 2015 Feb 05; 372(6):582-4. View abstract
  28. Bayesian kernel machine regression for estimating the health effects of multi-pollutant mixtures. Biostatistics. 2015 Jul; 16(3):493-508. View abstract
  29. Contaminated turmeric is a potential source of lead exposure for children in rural Bangladesh. J Environ Public Health. 2014; 2014:730636. View abstract
  30. Journal club: pretreatment EEG in childhood absence epilepsy. Neurology. 2014 May 06; 82(18):e158-60. View abstract
  31. A prospective cohort study of the association between drinking water arsenic exposure and self-reported maternal health symptoms during pregnancy in Bangladesh. Environ Health. 2014 Apr 16; 13(1):29. View abstract
  32. Prenatal lead levels, plasma amyloid ß levels, and gene expression in young adulthood. Environ Health Perspect. 2012 May; 120(5):702-7. View abstract
  33. Low-level environmental lead exposure in childhood and adult intellectual function: a follow-up study. Environ Health. 2011 Mar 30; 10:24. View abstract
  34. Risk of death is not increased in children with simple febrile seizures. J Pediatr. 2009 Jan; 154(1):150-1. View abstract
  35. Febrile seizures and risk of death. Lancet. 2008 Aug 09; 372(9637):429-30. View abstract
  36. No association between parental or subject occupation and brain tumor risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2008 Jul; 17(7):1835-7. View abstract
  37. Preventing stroke among children with sickle cell anemia: an analysis of strategies that involve transcranial Doppler testing and chronic transfusion. Pediatrics. 2007 Oct; 120(4):e1107-16. View abstract
  38. Does albendazole affect seizure remission and computed tomography response in children with neurocysticercosis? A Systematic review and meta-analysis. J Child Neurol. 2007 Feb; 22(2):135-42. View abstract
  39. X-linked creatine transporter defect: a report on two unrelated boys with a severe clinical phenotype. J Inherit Metab Dis. 2006 Feb; 29(1):214-9. View abstract
  40. Creatine deficiency syndrome: A case of defective creatine transport presenting with episodic dystonia. Annals of Neurology. 2003; 54(Suppl. 7):S157. View abstract