Caregiver Profile

Caregiver Profile

Meet Dr. Richard S. Lee


Undergraduate Degree

  • Princeton University , 1998 , Princeton , NJ

Medical School

  • Jefferson Medical College, Thomas Jefferson University , 1998 , Philadelphia , PA


  • University of Washington , 1999 , Seattle , WA


  • University of Washington , 2000 , Seattle , WA


  • University of Washington , 2003 , Seattle , WA


Chief Urology Resident
  • University of Washington , 2004 , Seattle , WA


Pediatric Urology
  • Boston Children's Hospital , 2007 , Boston , MA


  • American Board of Urology, Pediatric Urology


Publications powered by Harvard Catalyst Profiles

  1. Coll-Font J, Afacan O, Chow JS, Lee RS, Warfield SK, Kurugol S. Modeling dynamic radial contrast enhanced MRI with linear time invariant systems for motion correction in quantitative assessment of kidney function. Med Image Anal. 2021 Jan; 67:101880. View abstract
  2. Li H, Patel V, DiMartino SE, Froehlich JW, Lee RS. An in-depth Comparison of the Pediatric and Adult Urinary N-glycomes. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2020 11; 19(11):1767-1776. View abstract
  3. Kurugol S, Afacan O, Lee RS, Seager CM, Ferguson MA, Stein DR, Nichols RC, Dugan M, Stemmer A, Warfield SK, Chow JS. Correction to: Prospective pediatric study comparing glomerular filtration rate estimates based on motion-robust dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging and serum creatinine (eGFR) to 99mTc DTPA. Pediatr Radiol. 2020 May; 50(5):755-756. View abstract
  4. Finkelstein JB, Rague JT, Chow J, Venna A, Logvinenko T, Nelson CP, Lee RS. Accuracy of Ultrasound in Identifying Renal Scarring as Compared to DMSA Scan. Urology. 2020 Apr; 138:134-137. View abstract
  5. Kurugol S, Afacan O, Lee RS, Seager CM, Ferguson MA, Stein DR, Nichols RC, Dugan M, Stemmer A, Warfield SK, Chow JS. Prospective pediatric study comparing glomerular filtration rate estimates based on motion-robust dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging and serum creatinine (eGFR) to 99mTc DTPA. Pediatr Radiol. 2020 05; 50(5):698-705. View abstract
  6. Vitko D, Cho PS, Kostel SA, DiMartino SE, Cabour LD, Migliozzi MA, Logvinenko T, Warren PG, Froehlich JW, Lee RS. Characterizing Patients with Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections in Vesicoureteral Reflux: A Pilot Study of the Urinary Proteome. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2020 03; 19(3):456-466. View abstract
  7. Kurugol S, Seager CM, Thaker H, Coll-Font J, Afacan O, Nichols RC, Warfield SK, Lee RS, Chow JS. Feed and wrap magnetic resonance urography provides anatomic and functional imaging in infants without anesthesia. J Pediatr Urol. 2020 Feb; 16(1):116-120. View abstract
  8. Mann N, Kause F, Henze EK, Gharpure A, Shril S, Connaughton DM, Nakayama M, Klämbt V, Majmundar AJ, Wu CW, Kolvenbach CM, Dai R, Chen J, van der Ven AT, Ityel H, Tooley MJ, Kari JA, Bownass L, El Desoky S, De Franco E, Shalaby M, Tasic V, Bauer SB, Lee RS, Beckel JM, Yu W, Mane SM, Lifton RP, Reutter H, Ellard S, Hibbs RE, Kawate T, Hildebrandt F. CAKUT and Autonomic Dysfunction Caused by Acetylcholine Receptor Mutations. Am J Hum Genet. 2019 12 05; 105(6):1286-1293. View abstract
  9. Coquillette M, Lee RS, Pagni SE, Cataltepe S, Stein DR. Renal outcomes of neonates with early presentation of posterior urethral valves: a 10-year single center experience. J Perinatol. 2020 01; 40(1):112-117. View abstract
  10. Nelson CP, Lee RS, Trout AT, Servaes S, Kraft KH, Barnewolt CE, Logvinenko T, Chow JS. Interobserver and Intra-Observer Reliability of the Urinary Tract Dilation Classification System in Neonates: A Multicenter Study. J Urol. 2019 06; 201(6):1186-1192. View abstract
  11. van der Ven AT, Connaughton DM, Ityel H, Mann N, Nakayama M, Chen J, Vivante A, Hwang DY, Schulz J, Braun DA, Schmidt JM, Schapiro D, Schneider R, Warejko JK, Daga A, Majmundar AJ, Tan W, Jobst-Schwan T, Hermle T, Widmeier E, Ashraf S, Amar A, Hoogstraaten CA, Hugo H, Kitzler TM, Kause F, Kolvenbach CM, Dai R, Spaneas L, Amann K, Stein DR, Baum MA, Somers MJG, Rodig NM, Ferguson MA, Traum AZ, Daouk GH, Bogdanovic R, Stajic N, Soliman NA, Kari JA, El Desoky S, Fathy HM, Milosevic D, Al-Saffar M, Awad HS, Eid LA, Selvin A, Senguttuvan P, Sanna-Cherchi S, Rehm HL, MacArthur DG, Lek M, Laricchia KM, Wilson MW, Mane SM, Lifton RP, Lee RS, Bauer SB, Lu W, Reutter HM, Tasic V, Shril S, Hildebrandt F. Whole-Exome Sequencing Identifies Causative Mutations in Families with Congenital Anomalies of the Kidney and Urinary Tract. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2018 09; 29(9):2348-2361. View abstract
  12. Varda BK, Cho P, Wagner AA, Lee RS. Collaborating with our adult colleagues: A case series of robotic surgery for suspicious and cancerous lesions in children and young adults performed in a free-standing children's hospital. J Pediatr Urol. 2018 04; 14(2):182.e1-182.e8. View abstract
  13. Varda BK, Wang Y, Chung BI, Lee RS, Kurtz MP, Nelson CP, Chang SL. Has the robot caught up? National trends in utilization, perioperative outcomes, and cost for open, laparoscopic, and robotic pediatric pyeloplasty in the United States from 2003 to 2015. J Pediatr Urol. 2018 08; 14(4):336.e1-336.e8. View abstract
  14. Dagher A, Curatolo A, Sachdev M, Stephens AJ, Mullins C, Landis JR, van Bokhoven A, El-Hayek A, Froehlich JW, Briscoe AC, Roy R, Yang J, Pontari MA, Zurakowski D, Lee RS, Moses MA. Identification of novel non-invasive biomarkers of urinary chronic pelvic pain syndrome: findings from the Multidisciplinary Approach to the Study of Chronic Pelvic Pain (MAPP) Research Network. BJU Int. 2017 07; 120(1):130-142. View abstract
  15. Forster CS, Johnson K, Patel V, Wax R, Rodig N, Barasch J, Bachur R, Lee RS. Urinary NGAL deficiency in recurrent urinary tract infections. Pediatr Nephrol. 2017 06; 32(6):1077-1080. View abstract
  16. McQuaid JW, Lee RS. Biomarkers for Wilms Tumor: A Brave New World. J Urol. 2016 11; 196(5):1337-1338. View abstract
  17. Froehlich JW, Kostel SA, Cho PS, Briscoe AC, Steen H, Vaezzadeh AR, Lee RS. Urinary Proteomics Yield Pathological Insights for Ureteropelvic Junction Obstruction. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2016 08; 15(8):2607-15. View abstract
  18. Zhou H, Morley S, Kostel S, Freeman MR, Joshi V, Brewster D, Lee RS. Universal Solid-Phase Reversible Sample-Prep for Concurrent Proteome and N-Glycome Characterization. J Proteome Res. 2016 Mar 04; 15(3):891-9. View abstract
  19. Kohl S, Chen J, Vivante A, Hwang DY, Shril S, Dworschak GC, Van Der Ven A, Sanna-Cherchi S, Bauer SB, Lee RS, Soliman NA, Kehinde EO, Reutter HM, Tasic V, Hildebrandt F. Targeted sequencing of 96 renal developmental microRNAs in 1213 individuals from 980 families with congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2016 08; 31(8):1280-3. View abstract
  20. Cornejo KM, Frazier L, Lee RS, Kozakewich HP, Young RH. Yolk Sac Tumor of the Testis in Infants and Children: A Clinicopathologic Analysis of 33 Cases. Am J Surg Pathol. 2015 Aug; 39(8):1121-31. View abstract
  21. Vivante A, Kleppa MJ, Schulz J, Kohl S, Sharma A, Chen J, Shril S, Hwang DY, Weiss AC, Kaminski MM, Shukrun R, Kemper MJ, Lehnhardt A, Beetz R, Sanna-Cherchi S, Verbitsky M, Gharavi AG, Stuart HM, Feather SA, Goodship JA, Goodship TH, Woolf AS, Westra SJ, Doody DP, Bauer SB, Lee RS, Adam RM, Lu W, Reutter HM, Kehinde EO, Mancini EJ, Lifton RP, Tasic V, Lienkamp SS, Jüppner H, Kispert A, Hildebrandt F. Mutations in TBX18 Cause Dominant Urinary Tract Malformations via Transcriptional Dysregulation of Ureter Development. Am J Hum Genet. 2015 Aug 06; 97(2):291-301. View abstract
  22. Zhou H, Warren PG, Froehlich JW, Lee RS. Dual modifications strategy to quantify neutral and sialylated N-glycans simultaneously by MALDI-MS. Anal Chem. 2014 Jul 01; 86(13):6277-84. View abstract
  23. Lee RS. Can we do better? J Urol. 2014 Apr; 191(4):893-4. View abstract
  24. Paltiel HJ, Estrada CR, Alomari AI, Stamoulis C, Passerotti CC, Meral FC, Lee RS, Clement GT. Multi-planar dynamic contrast-enhanced ultrasound assessment of blood flow in a rabbit model of testicular torsion. Ultrasound Med Biol. 2014 Feb; 40(2):361-70. View abstract
  25. Zhou H, Froehlich JW, Briscoe AC, Lee RS. The GlycoFilter: a simple and comprehensive sample preparation platform for proteomics, N-glycomics and glycosylation site assignment. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2013 Oct; 12(10):2981-91. View abstract
  26. Froehlich JW, Vaezzadeh AR, Kirchner M, Briscoe AC, Hofmann O, Hide W, Steen H, Lee RS. An in-depth comparison of the male pediatric and adult urinary proteomes. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2014 May; 1844(5):1044-50. View abstract
  27. Serang O, Froehlich JW, Muntel J, McDowell G, Steen H, Lee RS, Steen JA. SweetSEQer, simple de novo filtering and annotation of glycoconjugate mass spectra. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2013 Jun; 12(6):1735-40. View abstract
  28. Froehlich JW, Dodds ED, Wilhelm M, Serang O, Steen JA, Lee RS. A classifier based on accurate mass measurements to aid large scale, unbiased glycoproteomics. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2013 Apr; 12(4):1017-25. View abstract
  29. Zhou H, Briscoe AC, Froehlich JW, Lee RS. PNGase F catalyzes de-N-glycosylation in a domestic microwave. Anal Biochem. 2012 Aug 01; 427(1):33-5. View abstract
  30. Routh JC, Grant FD, Kokorowski PJ, Nelson CP, Fahey FH, Treves ST, Lee RS. Economic and radiation costs of initial imaging approaches after a child's first febrile urinary tract infection. Clin Pediatr (Phila). 2012 Jan; 51(1):23-30. View abstract
  31. Routh JC, Grant FD, Kokorowski P, Lee RS, Fahey FH, Treves ST, Nelson CP. Costs and consequences of universal sibling screening for vesicoureteral reflux: decision analysis. Pediatrics. 2010 Nov; 126(5):865-71. View abstract
  32. Vaezzadeh AR, Briscoe AC, Steen H, Lee RS. One-step sample concentration, purification, and albumin depletion method for urinary proteomics. J Proteome Res. 2010 Nov 05; 9(11):6082-9. View abstract
  33. Passerotti CC, Kalish LA, Chow J, Passerotti AM, Recabal P, Cendron M, Lee RS, Lopez AB, Retik AB, Nguyen HT. The predictive value of the first postnatal ultrasound in children with antenatal hydronephrosis. J Pediatr Urol. 2011 Apr; 7(2):128-36. View abstract
  34. Gong EM, Arellano CM, Chow JS, Lee RS. Sonourethrogram to manage adolescent anterior urethral stricture. J Urol. 2010 Oct; 184(4 Suppl):1699-702. View abstract
  35. Routh JC, Lee RS, Chow JS. Radiation dose and screening for vesicoureteral reflux. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2010 Feb; 194(2):W243. View abstract
  36. Lee RS, Sethi AS, Passerotti CC, Peters CA. Robot-assisted laparoscopic nephrectomy and contralateral ureteral reimplantation in children. J Endourol. 2010 Jan; 24(1):123-8. View abstract
  37. Drzewiecki BA, Kelly PR, Marinaccio B, Borer JG, Estrada CR, Lee RS, Bauer SB. Biofeedback training for lower urinary tract symptoms: factors affecting efficacy. J Urol. 2009 Oct; 182(4 Suppl):2050-5. View abstract
  38. Passerotti C, Chow JS, Silva A, Schoettler CL, Rosoklija I, Perez-Rossello J, Cendron M, Cilento BG, Lee RS, Nelson CP, Estrada CR, Bauer SB, Borer JG, Diamond DA, Retik AB, Nguyen HT. Ultrasound versus computerized tomography for evaluating urolithiasis. J Urol. 2009 Oct; 182(4 Suppl):1829-34. View abstract
  39. Estrada CR, Passerotti CC, Graham DA, Peters CA, Bauer SB, Diamond DA, Cilento BG, Borer JG, Cendron M, Nelson CP, Lee RS, Zhou J, Retik AB, Nguyen HT. Nomograms for predicting annual resolution rate of primary vesicoureteral reflux: results from 2,462 children. J Urol. 2009 Oct; 182(4):1535-41. View abstract
  40. Vaezzadeh AR, Steen H, Freeman MR, Lee RS. Proteomics and opportunities for clinical translation in urological disease. J Urol. 2009 Sep; 182(3):835-43. View abstract
  41. Lee RS. Biomarkers for pediatric urological disease. Curr Opin Urol. 2009 Jul; 19(4):397-401. View abstract
  42. Lee RS, Diamond DA. Perinatal Urology. Pediatric Nephrology Ellis Avner and William Harmon, editors. 2009. View abstract
  43. Cannon GM, Jr., Lee RS. Pediatric Laparoscopic Nephrectomy / Partial Nephrectomy. Glenn’s Urologic Surgery Sam Graham and Thomas Keane, editors . 2009. View abstract
  44. Lee RS, Sethi AS, Passerotti CC, Retik AB, Borer JG, Nguyen HT, Peters CA. Robot assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy: a viable and safe option in children. J Urol. 2009 Feb; 181(2):823-8; discussion 828-9. View abstract
  45. Lee RS, Monigatti F, Briscoe AC, Waldon Z, Freeman MR, Steen H. Optimizing sample handling for urinary proteomics. J Proteome Res. 2008 Sep; 7(9):4022-30. View abstract
  46. Lee RS, Retik AB. Does the Deflux procedure reduce the incidence of urinary tract infections in children with vesicoureteral reflux? Nat Clin Pract Urol. 2008 Apr; 5(4):182-3. View abstract
  47. Lee RS, Monigatti F, Lutchman M, Patterson T, Budnik B, Steen JA, Freeman MR, Steen H. Temporal variations of the postnatal rat urinary proteome as a reflection of systemic maturation. Proteomics. 2008 Mar; 8(5):1097-112. View abstract
  48. Passerotti CC, Nguyen HT, Lais A, Dunning P, Harrell B, Estrada C, Lee R, Retik AB, Peters CA. Robot-assisted laparoscopic ileal bladder augmentation: defining techniques and potential pitfalls. J Endourol. 2008 Feb; 22(2):355-60. View abstract
  49. Herrin JT, Lee RS. Obstruction of the Urinary Tract, including Hydronephrosis. Hansen AR, Puder M, editors. Manual of Neonatal Surgical Intensive Care. 2008. View abstract
  50. Passerotti CC, Nguyen HT, Eisner BH, Lee RS, Peters CA. Laparoscopic reoperative pediatric pyeloplasty with robotic assistance. J Endourol. 2007 Oct; 21(10):1137-40. View abstract
  51. Lee RS, Passerotti CC, Cendron M, Estrada CR, Borer JG, Peters CA. Early results of robot assisted laparoscopic lithotomy in adolescents. J Urol. 2007 Jun; 177(6):2306-9; discussion 2309-10. View abstract
  52. Lee RS, Bakthavatsalam R, Marsh CL, Kuhr CS. Ureteral complications in renal transplantation: a comparison of the Lich-Gregoir versus the Taguchi technique. Transplant Proc. 2007 Jun; 39(5):1461-4. View abstract
  53. Lee RS, Monigatti F, Briscoe AC, Budnik BA, Steen AJ, Freeman MR, Steen H. Determining the optimal method of extracting proteins from urine for proteomic biomarker discovery. American Society of Mass Spectrometry. 2007. View abstract
  54. Lee RS. Health A to Z: Male Infertility. 2007. View abstract
  55. Lee RS. Health A to Z: Phimosis and Paraphimosis. 2007. View abstract
  56. Lee RS. Health A to Z: Priapism. 2007. View abstract
  57. Lee RS. Ask the Expert: Cystoscopy. 2007. View abstract
  58. Lee RS, Grady R, Joyner B, Casale P, Mitchell M. Can a complete primary repair approach be applied to cloacal exstrophy? J Urol. 2006 Dec; 176(6 Pt 1):2643-8. View abstract
  59. Budnik BA, Lee RS, Steen JA. Global methods for protein glycosylation analysis by mass spectrometry. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2006 Dec; 1764(12):1870-80. View abstract
  60. Lee RS, Diamond DA, Chow JS. Applying the ALARA concept to the evaluation of vesicoureteric reflux. Pediatr Radiol. 2006 Sep; 36 Suppl 2:185-91. View abstract
  61. Lee RS, Cendron M, Kinnamon DD, Nguyen HT. Antenatal hydronephrosis as a predictor of postnatal outcome: a meta-analysis. Pediatrics. 2006 Aug; 118(2):586-93. View abstract
  62. Lee RS, Borer JG. Robotic surgery for ureteropelvic junction obstruction. Curr Opin Urol. 2006 Jul; 16(4):291-4. View abstract
  63. Lee RS. Health A to Z: Peyronies Disease. 2006. View abstract
  64. Lee RS. Ask the Expert: Radiation treatment and the bladder. 2006. View abstract
  65. Monigatti F, Budnik B, Lee RS, Patterson T, Steen J, Steen H. The SeqR – a software tool for the analysis of high accuracy mass spectral data. American Society of Mass Spectrometry,. 2006. View abstract
  66. Budnik B, Monigatti F, Lee RS, Patterson T, Steen J, Steen H. A proteomics platform based on spectrum alignment for de novo sequencing by LTQ FT MS. American Society of Mass Spectrometry. 2006. View abstract
  67. Lee RS. Health A to Z: Impotence. 2006. View abstract
  68. Lee RS. Health A to Z: Retrograde Ejaculation. 2006. View abstract
  69. Lee RS, Retik AB, Borer JG, Peters CA. Pediatric robot assisted laparoscopic dismembered pyeloplasty: comparison with a cohort of open surgery. J Urol. 2006 Feb; 175(2):683-7; discussion 687. View abstract
  70. Lee RS, Retik AB, Borer JG, Diamond DA, Peters CA. Pediatric retroperitoneal laparoscopic partial nephrectomy: comparison with an age matched cohort of open surgery. J Urol. 2005 Aug; 174(2):708-11; discussion 712. View abstract
  71. Shoji T, Wain JC, Houser SL, Benjamin LC, Johnston DR, Hoerbelt R, Hasse RS, Lee RS, Muniappan A, Guenther DA, Bravard MA, Ledgerwood LG, Sachs DH, Sayegh MH, Madsen JC, Allan JS. Indirect recognition of MHC class I allopeptides accelerates lung allograft rejection in miniature swine. Am J Transplant. 2005 Jul; 5(7):1626-34. View abstract
  72. Lee RS. Health A to Z: Epididymitis and Orchitis. 2005. View abstract
  73. Casale P, Grady RW, Lee RS, Joyner BD, Mitchell ME. Symptomatic refluxing distal ureteral stumps after nephroureterectomy and heminephroureterectomy. What should we do? J Urol. 2005 Jan; 173(1):204-6; discussion 206. View abstract
  74. Lee RS, Retik AR. Commentary on: Timing of Follow-up Voiding Cystourethrogram in Children with Primary Vesicoureteral Reflux: Development and Application of a Clinical Algorithm. American Journal of Urology Review. 2005; 3(11):481-3. View abstract
  75. Lee JH, Joo YD, Yim D, Lee R, Ostrander EA, Loretz C, Little MT, Storb R, Kuhr CS. Molecular cloning and characterization of canine ICOS. Genomics. 2004 Oct; 84(4):730-6. View abstract
  76. Dell'Agnola C, Wang Z, Storb R, Tapscott SJ, Kuhr CS, Hauschka SD, Lee RS, Sale GE, Zellmer E, Gisburne S, Bogan J, Kornegay JN, Cooper BJ, Gooley TA, Little MT. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation does not restore dystrophin expression in Duchenne muscular dystrophy dogs. Blood. 2004 Dec 15; 104(13):4311-8. View abstract
  77. Casale P, Feng WC, Grady RW, Joyner BD, Lee RS, Mitchell ME. Intracorporeal laparoscopic appendicovesicostomy: a case report of a novel approach. J Urol. 2004 May; 171(5):1899. View abstract
  78. Lee RS, Berger RE. Vasoepididymostomy. Graham SD, editor. Glenn's Urology Surgery. 2004; 455-461. View abstract
  79. Lee RS, Porter JR. Traumatic renal artery pseudoaneurysm: diagnosis and management techniques. J Trauma. 2003 Nov; 55(5):972-8. View abstract
  80. Lee RS, Kuhr CS, Sale GE, Zellmer E, Hogan WJ, Storb R, Little MT. FTY720 does not abrogate acute graft-versus-host disease in the dog leukocyte antigen-nonidentical unrelated canine model. Transplantation. 2003 Oct 27; 76(8):1155-8. View abstract
  81. Mezrich JD, Yamada K, Lee RS, Mawulawde K, Benjamin LC, Schwarze ML, Maloney ME, Amoah HC, Houser SL, Sachs DH, Madsen JC. Induction of tolerance to heart transplants by simultaneous cotransplantation of donor kidneys may depend on a radiation-sensitive renal-cell population. Transplantation. 2003 Aug 27; 76(4):625-31. View abstract
  82. Hogan WJ, Little MT, Zellmer E, Friedetzky A, Diaconescu R, Gisburne S, Lee R, Kuhr C, Storb R. Postgrafting immunosuppression with sirolimus and cyclosporine facilitates stable mixed hematopoietic chimerism in dogs given sublethal total body irradiation before marrow transplantation from DLA-identical littermates. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2003 Aug; 9(8):489-95. View abstract
  83. Lee RS, Marsh CL, Miller EA, Kuhr CS. Intermediate outcomes of dual renal allografts. Transplant Proc. 2003 Mar; 35(2):854-5. View abstract
  84. Lee RS, Miller E, Marsh CL, Kuhr CS. Intermediate outcomes of dual renal allografts: the University of Washington experience. J Urol. 2003 Mar; 169(3):855-8. View abstract
  85. Yunusov MY, Kuhr C, Georges GE, Sale GE, Spector M, Lesnikova M, Lee R, Little MT, Gass MJ, Weber K, Joslyn A, Storb R, Nash RA. Survival of small bowel transplants in canine mixed hematopoietic chimeras: preliminary results. Transplant Proc. 2002 Dec; 34(8):3366-7. View abstract
  86. Lee R, Storb R, Little MT, Joslyn A, Spector M, Kuhr CS. Percutaneous central dual-lumen catheter for apheresis in the canine. J Invest Surg. 2002 Nov-Dec; 15(6):337-41. View abstract
  87. Strichman-Almashanu LZ, Lee RS, Onyango PO, Perlman E, Flam F, Frieman MB, Feinberg AP. A genome-wide screen for normally methylated human CpG islands that can identify novel imprinted genes. Genome Res. 2002 Apr; 12(4):543-54. View abstract
  88. Lee R, Penson DF. Treatment outcomes in localized prostate cancer: a patient-oriented approach. Semin Urol Oncol. 2002 Feb; 20(1):63-73. View abstract
  89. Vaccaro AR, Ring D, Lee RS, Scuderi G, Garfin SR. Salvage anterior C1-C2 screw fixation and arthrodesis through the lateral approach in a patient with a symptomatic pseudoarthrosis. Am J Orthop (Belle Mead NJ). 1997 May; 26(5):349-53. View abstract
  90. Lee RS, Vaccaro AR, Cotler JM. Cervical Orthoses: A biomechanical and functional review. Jefferson Orthopaedic J. 1995; 24:29-36. View abstract
  91. Lee RS. An Examination of the Application of a Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell for Cogeneration in a Hospital. 1994. View abstract