Undergraduate Degree

  • Clark University , 1970 , Worcester , MA

Medical School

  • Cornell University Medical College , 1974 , New York , NY


  • The New York Hospital , 1975 , New York , NY


  • The New York Hospital , 1977 , New York , NY


  • Boston Children's Hospital , 1980 , Boston , MA


  • Harvard Medical School , 1980 , Boston , MA

Philosophy of Care

I was raised to treat others as I would like to be treated, and I try to bring that philosophy to every patient encounter. To do this, one must always have respect for the patient and be an outstanding listener.


After completing his medical degree at Cornell University and pediatric residency training at the New York Hospital, he spent three years in the fellowship program at Boston Children’s Hospital. Following completion of this program, he joined the Division of Pediatric Cardiology at The Floating Hospital for Children, where he engaged in all aspects of cardiology practice including cardiac catheterization and echocardiography. In 1983, he established the first cardiology satellite clinic at North Shore Children’s Hospital, which became a landmark for outreach subspecialty care in Massachusetts. Based on its success, eight additional clinics were initiated in eastern Massachusetts. He became chief of cardiology in 1990 and associate chairman of pediatrics at Floating in 1992. He introduced the novel concept of team-based nurse practitioners in pediatric cardiology which pre-dated similar programs at all other programs in the country. In 1998, he was recruited as Chief of Cardiology Outpatient Services at Boston Children’s. Other professional activities at Boston Children’s included director of the Pediatric Network, president of the Physician’s Organization and associate chief of Cardiology for Administration. In 2017, after recruiting a successor as outpatient chief, he is dedicating my efforts to outpatient clinical care and fellowship training.


  • American Board of Pediatrics, Pediatric Cardiology
  • American Board of Pediatrics, General Pediatrics
  • Certified, Pediatric Advanced Life Support


Publications powered by Harvard Catalyst Profiles

  1. Atrioventricular Block in Children With Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome. Pediatrics. 2020 11; 146(5). View abstract
  2. Impact of Socioeconomic Status on Outcomes of Patients with Kawasaki Disease. J Pediatr. 2019 09; 212:87-92. View abstract
  3. Association of Initially Normal Coronary Arteries With Normal Findings on Follow-up Echocardiography in Patients With Kawasaki Disease. JAMA Pediatr. 2018 12 01; 172(12):e183310. View abstract
  4. Resource reduction in pediatric chest pain: Standardized clinical assessment and management plan. Congenit Heart Dis. 2018 Jan; 13(1):46-51. View abstract
  5. Predicting Coronary Artery Aneurysms in Kawasaki Disease at a North American Center: An Assessment of Baseline z Scores. J Am Heart Assoc. 2017 May 31; 6(6). View abstract
  6. Safety and Efficacy of Warfarin Therapy in Kawasaki Disease. J Pediatr. 2017 10; 189:61-65. View abstract
  7. Pediatric Chest Pain-Low-Probability Referral: A Multi-Institutional Analysis From Standardized Clinical Assessment and Management Plans (SCAMPs®), the Pediatric Health Information Systems Database, and the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey. Clin Pediatr (Phila). 2017 Nov; 56(13):1201-1208. View abstract
  8. Coronary Artery Aneurysms in Kawasaki Disease: Risk Factors for Progressive Disease and Adverse Cardiac Events in the US Population. J Am Heart Assoc. 2016 09 15; 5(9). View abstract
  9. Needles in Hay II: Detecting Cardiac Pathology by the Pediatric Chest Pain Standardized Clinical Assessment and Management Plan. Congenit Heart Dis. 2016 Sep; 11(5):396-402. View abstract
  10. Regional Implementation of a Pediatric Cardiology Syncope Algorithm Using Standardized Clinical Assessment and Management Plans (SCAMPS) Methodology. J Am Heart Assoc. 2016 Feb 19; 5(2). View abstract
  11. Prevalence of Undiagnosed Structural Heart Disease in Children Undergoing Echocardiography for Kawasaki Disease. Clin Pediatr (Phila). 2016 Jun; 55(6):557-9. View abstract
  12. Task Force 1: Pediatric Cardiology Fellowship Training in General Cardiology. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2015 Aug 11; 66(6):677-86. View abstract
  13. Task Force 1: Pediatric Cardiology Fellowship Training in General Cardiology. SPCTPD/ACC/AAP/AHA. Circulation. 2015 Aug 11; 132(6):e48-56. View abstract
  14. 2015 SPCTPD/ACC/AAP/AHA Training Guidelines for Pediatric Cardiology Fellowship Programs (Revision of the 2005 Training Guidelines for Pediatric Cardiology Fellowship Programs). J Am Coll Cardiol. 2015 Mar 13. View abstract
  15. Regional implementation of a pediatric cardiology chest pain guideline using SCAMPs methodology. Pediatrics. 2013 Oct; 132(4):e1010-7. View abstract
  16. Vascular health in Kawasaki disease. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2013 Sep 17; 62(12):1114-1121. View abstract
  17. Coronary artery dimensions in febrile children without Kawasaki disease. Circ Cardiovasc Imaging. 2013 Mar 01; 6(2):239-44. View abstract
  18. Resource Utilization Reduction for Evaluation of Chest Pain in Pediatrics Using a Novel Standardized Clinical Assessment and Management Plan (SCAMP). J Am Heart Assoc. 2012 Apr; 1(2). View abstract
  19. Paediatric nurse practitioner managed cardiology clinics: patient satisfaction and appointment access. J Adv Nurs. 2012 Oct; 68(10):2165-74. View abstract
  20. Provider attitudes toward Standardized Clinical Assessment and Management Plans (SCAMPs). Congenit Heart Dis. 2011 Nov-Dec; 6(6):558-65. View abstract
  21. Management of pediatric chest pain using a standardized assessment and management plan. Pediatrics. 2011 Aug; 128(2):239-45. View abstract
  22. Infliximab for intravenous immunoglobulin resistance in Kawasaki disease: a retrospective study. J Pediatr. 2011 Apr; 158(4):644-649.e1. View abstract
  23. A novel approach to gathering and acting on relevant clinical information: SCAMPs. Congenit Heart Dis. 2010 Jul-Aug; 5(4):343-53. View abstract
  24. Resource utilization after introduction of a standardized clinical assessment and management plan. Congenit Heart Dis. 2010 Jul-Aug; 5(4):374-81. View abstract
  25. Needles in hay: chest pain as the presenting symptom in children with serious underlying cardiac pathology. Congenit Heart Dis. 2010 Jul-Aug; 5(4):366-73. View abstract
  26. Coronary revascularization in patients with Kawasaki disease. J Pediatr. 2010 Jul; 157(1):8-10. View abstract
  27. Performance of 2004 American Heart Association recommendations for treatment of Kawasaki disease. Pediatrics. 2010 Feb; 125(2):e234-41. View abstract
  28. Diastolic function in children with Kawasaki disease. Int J Cardiol. 2011 May 05; 148(3):309-12. View abstract
  29. Treatment of Kawasaki disease: analysis of 27 US pediatric hospitals from 2001 to 2006. Pediatrics. 2009 Jul; 124(1):1-8. View abstract
  30. Dominant-negative Hsp90 reduces VEGF-stimulated nitric oxide release and migration in endothelial cells. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2008 Jan; 28(1):105-11. View abstract
  31. Kawasaki disease. Curr Treat Options Cardiovasc Med. 2007 Apr; 9(2):148-58. View abstract
  32. Sustained effects of cardiac rehabilitation in children with serious congenital heart disease. Pediatrics. 2006 Sep; 118(3):e586-93. View abstract
  33. Impact of cardiac rehabilitation on the exercise function of children with serious congenital heart disease. Pediatrics. 2005 Dec; 116(6):1339-45. View abstract
  34. Images in cardiovascular medicine. Cardiac hemangioma. Circulation. 2005 Aug 23; 112(8):e103-4. View abstract
  35. Kawasaki disease. Curr Opin Pediatr. 2004 Oct; 16(5):508-14. View abstract
  36. Targeting of endothelial nitric-oxide synthase to the cytoplasmic face of the Golgi complex or plasma membrane regulates Akt- versus calcium-dependent mechanisms for nitric oxide release. J Biol Chem. 2004 Jul 16; 279(29):30349-57. View abstract
  37. A new role for Nogo as a regulator of vascular remodeling. Nat Med. 2004 Apr; 10(4):382-8. View abstract
  38. Vanadate is a potent activator of endothelial nitric-oxide synthase: evidence for the role of the serine/threonine kinase Akt and the 90-kDa heat shock protein. Mol Pharmacol. 2004 Feb; 65(2):407-15. View abstract
  39. Phosphorylation of threonine 497 in endothelial nitric-oxide synthase coordinates the coupling of L-arginine metabolism to efficient nitric oxide production. J Biol Chem. 2003 Nov 07; 278(45):44719-26. View abstract
  40. Corticosteroids in the initial treatment of Kawasaki disease: report of a randomized trial. J Pediatr. 2003 Jun; 142(6):611-6. View abstract
  41. The phosphorylation of caveolin-2 on serines 23 and 36 modulates caveolin-1-dependent caveolae formation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003 May 27; 100(11):6511-6. View abstract
  42. Physical and psychosocial health in children who have had Kawasaki disease. Pediatrics. 2003 Mar; 111(3):579-83. View abstract
  43. Compensatory phosphorylation and protein-protein interactions revealed by loss of function and gain of function mutants of multiple serine phosphorylation sites in endothelial nitric-oxide synthase. J Biol Chem. 2003 Apr 25; 278(17):14841-9. View abstract
  44. Parental anxiety associated with referral of a child to a pediatric cardiologist for evaluation of a Still's murmur. J Pediatr. 2002 Jun; 140(6):747-52. View abstract
  45. Phosphorylation of eNOS initiates excessive NO production in early phases of portal hypertension. . 2002 Jun; 282(6):H2084-90. View abstract
  46. Functional reconstitution of endothelial nitric oxide synthase reveals the importance of serine 1179 in endothelium-dependent vasomotion. Circ Res. 2002 May 03; 90(8):904-10. View abstract
  47. Domain mapping studies reveal that the M domain of hsp90 serves as a molecular scaffold to regulate Akt-dependent phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and NO release. Circ Res. 2002 May 03; 90(8):866-73. View abstract
  48. Baculovirus expression and antigenic characterization of the capsid proteins of three Norwalk-like viruses. Arch Virol. 2002; 147(1):119-30. View abstract
  49. Post-translational control of endothelial nitric oxide synthase: why isn't calcium/calmodulin enough? J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2001 Dec; 299(3):818-24. View abstract
  50. Localization of endothelial nitric-oxide synthase phosphorylated on serine 1179 and nitric oxide in Golgi and plasma membrane defines the existence of two pools of active enzyme. J Biol Chem. 2002 Feb 08; 277(6):4277-84. View abstract
  51. Akt down-regulation of p38 signaling provides a novel mechanism of vascular endothelial growth factor-mediated cytoprotection in endothelial cells. J Biol Chem. 2001 Aug 10; 276(32):30359-65. View abstract
  52. Acidic hydrolysis as a mechanism for the cleavage of the Glu(298)-->Asp variant of human endothelial nitric-oxide synthase. J Biol Chem. 2001 Jul 13; 276(28):26674-9. View abstract
  53. Aortic root dilation in Kawasaki disease. Am J Cardiol. 2001 Apr 01; 87(7):919-22. View abstract
  54. Membrane estrogen receptor engagement activates endothelial nitric oxide synthase via the PI3-kinase-Akt pathway in human endothelial cells. Circ Res. 2000 Oct 13; 87(8):677-82. View abstract
  55. The HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor simvastatin activates the protein kinase Akt and promotes angiogenesis in normocholesterolemic animals. Nat Med. 2000 Sep; 6(9):1004-10. View abstract
  56. Acute modulation of endothelial Akt/PKB activity alters nitric oxide-dependent vasomotor activity in vivo. J Clin Invest. 2000 Aug; 106(4):493-9. View abstract
  57. Long-term cardiac sequelae of Kawasaki disease. Curr Rheumatol Rep. 2000 Aug; 2(4):324-9. View abstract
  58. Early recognition of Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy. Crit Care Nurs Q. 2000 Aug; 23(2):35-42. View abstract
  59. Temporal events underlying arterial remodeling after chronic flow reduction in mice: correlation of structural changes with a deficit in basal nitric oxide synthesis. Circ Res. 2000 Jun 09; 86(11):1160-6. View abstract
  60. Vascular endothelial growth factor-stimulated actin reorganization and migration of endothelial cells is regulated via the serine/threonine kinase Akt. Circ Res. 2000 Apr 28; 86(8):892-6. View abstract
  61. Angiopoietin-1 inhibits endothelial cell apoptosis via the Akt/survivin pathway. J Biol Chem. 2000 Mar 31; 275(13):9102-5. View abstract
  62. Enhanced electron flux and reduced calmodulin dissociation may explain "calcium-independent" eNOS activation by phosphorylation. J Biol Chem. 2000 Mar 03; 275(9):6123-8. View abstract
  63. Quantification of eNOS mRNA in the canine cardiac vasculature by competitive PCR. . 2000 Feb; 278(2):H658-65. View abstract
  64. Nonobstructive cor triatriatum in infancy. Clin Pediatr (Phila). 1999 Aug; 38(8):489-91. View abstract
  65. Regulation of endothelium-derived nitric oxide production by the protein kinase Akt. Nature. 1999 Jun 10; 399(6736):597-601. View abstract
  66. Evidence against anandamide as the hyperpolarizing factor mediating the nitric oxide-independent coronary vasodilator effect of bradykinin in the rat. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1998 Sep; 286(3):1146-51. View abstract
  67. Proarrhythmia associated with cisapride in children. Pediatrics. 1998 Jun; 101(6):1053-6. View abstract
  68. Phase I study of paclitaxel in patients with recurrent malignant glioma: a North American Brain Tumor Consortium report. J Clin Oncol. 1998 Jun; 16(6):2188-94. View abstract
  69. Effect of pulmonary artery stenoses on the cardiopulmonary response to exercise following repair of tetralogy of Fallot. Am J Cardiol. 1998 May 15; 81(10):1217-9. View abstract
  70. Neonatal radiofrequency catheter ablation of junctional tachycardias. J Interv Card Electrophysiol. 1998 Mar; 2(1):91-100. View abstract
  71. Electrocardiographic markers of late sudden death risk in postoperative tetralogy of Fallot children. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 1997 Dec; 8(12):1349-56. View abstract
  72. Fate of mitral regurgitation following repair of atrioventricular septal defect. Am J Cardiol. 1997 Nov 01; 80(9):1194-7. View abstract
  73. Effect of multiple coil closure of patent ductus arteriosus on blood flow to the left lung as determined by lung perfusion scans. Am J Cardiol. 1997 Jul 15; 80(2):242-4. View abstract
  74. Comparison Between the Mean dP/dt During Isovolumetric Contraction and Other Echocardiographic Indexes of Ventricular Systolic Function. Echocardiography. 1997 May; 14(3):215-222. View abstract
  75. Evaluation of Ventricular dP/dt Before and After Open Heart Surgery Using Transesophageal Echocardiography. Echocardiography. 1997 Jan; 14(1):15-22. View abstract
  76. Prevention of respiratory syncytial virus infection in high risk infants: consensus opinion on the role of immunoprophylaxis with respiratory syncytial virus hyperimmune globulin. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 1996 Dec; 15(12):1059-68. View abstract
  77. Aerobic exercise function of patients with persistent coronary artery aneurysms secondary to Kawasaki disease. Pediatr Cardiol. 1996 Jul-Aug; 17(4):226-30. View abstract
  78. Stent implantation for relief of pulmonary artery stenosis: immediate and short-term results. Cathet Cardiovasc Diagn. 1996 May; 38(1):16-23. View abstract
  79. Excision of a pulmonary valve abscess in a 61-year-old woman with single ventricle. Ann Thorac Surg. 1996 Jan; 61(1):213-5. View abstract
  80. Superantigens in Kawasaki syndrome. Clin Immunol Immunopathol. 1995 Nov; 77(2):119-26. View abstract
  81. In-hospital mortality for surgical repair of congenital heart defects: preliminary observations of variation by hospital caseload. Pediatrics. 1995 Nov; 96(5 Pt 1):980-1. View abstract
  82. The potential role of bacterial superantigens in the pathogenesis of Kawasaki syndrome. J Clin Immunol. 1995 Nov; 15(6 Suppl):11S-17S. View abstract
  83. Delineation of site, relative size and dynamic geometry of atrial septal defects by real-time three-dimensional echocardiography. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1995 Feb; 25(2):482-90. View abstract
  84. Physiologic significance of chronic coronary aneurysms in patients with Kawasaki disease. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1994 Dec; 24(7):1633-8. View abstract
  85. Enhanced comprehension of dynamic cardiovascular anatomy by three-dimensional echocardiography with the use of mixed shading techniques. Echocardiography. 1994 Nov; 11(6):627-33. View abstract
  86. A new low profile balloon atrial septostomy catheter: initial animal and clinical experience. J Invasive Cardiol. 1994 Jul-Aug; 6(6):209-12. View abstract
  87. Dynamic three-dimensional echocardiographic imaging of congenital heart defects in infants and children by computer-controlled tomographic parallel slicing using a single integrated ultrasound instrument. Echocardiography. 1994 Mar; 11(2):155-64. View abstract
  88. Toxic shock syndrome toxin-secreting Staphylococcus aureus in Kawasaki syndrome. Lancet. 1993 Dec 04; 342(8884):1385-8. View abstract
  89. A new noninvasive method for the estimation of peak dP/dt. Circulation. 1993 Dec; 88(6):2693-9. View abstract
  90. Prophylactic administration of respiratory syncytial virus immune globulin to high-risk infants and young children. The Respiratory Syncytial Virus Immune Globulin Study Group. N Engl J Med. 1993 Nov 18; 329(21):1524-30. View abstract
  91. Successful placement and re-expansion of a new balloon expandable stent to maintain patency of the ductus arteriosus in a newborn animal model. J Invasive Cardiol. 1993 Nov-Dec; 5(9):351-7. View abstract
  92. Restoration of the pulmonary valve reduces right ventricular volume overload after previous repair of tetralogy of Fallot. Circulation. 1993 Nov; 88(5 Pt 2):II189-97. View abstract
  93. Controlled trial to evaluate protection of high-risk infants against respiratory syncytial virus disease by using standard intravenous immune globulin. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1993 Aug; 37(8):1655-8. View abstract
  94. Characterization of T cell repertoire changes in acute Kawasaki disease. J Exp Med. 1993 Mar 01; 177(3):791-6. View abstract
  95. Intracardiac echocardiography in humans using a small-sized (6F), low frequency (12.5 MHz) ultrasound catheter. Methods, imaging planes and clinical experience. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1993 Jan; 21(1):189-98. View abstract
  96. Immune hemolysis, disseminated intravascular coagulation, and serum sickness after large doses of immune globulin given intravenously for Kawasaki disease. J Pediatr. 1992 Jun; 120(6):926-8. View abstract
  97. A single intravenous infusion of gamma globulin as compared with four infusions in the treatment of acute Kawasaki syndrome. N Engl J Med. 1991 Jun 06; 324(23):1633-9. View abstract
  98. Autoimmune hemolytic anemia in Kawasaki disease: a case report. Transfusion. 1990 Oct; 30(8):738-40. View abstract
  99. Urinary N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase and the selection of children for radiologic evaluation after urinary tract infection. Pediatrics. 1990 Aug; 86(2):211-6. View abstract
  100. Diagnostic implications of the echocardiographically demonstrated pericardial peel. Am Heart J. 1990 Apr; 119(4):965-8. View abstract
  101. Effects of current therapy of Kawasaki disease on eicosanoid metabolism. Am J Cardiol. 1988 Jun 01; 61(15):1323-7. View abstract
  102. One-year follow-up of cardiac and coronary artery disease in infants and children with Kawasaki disease. Am Heart J. 1988 Jun; 115(6):1263-7. View abstract
  103. Cystic medial necrosis in coarctation of the aorta: a potential factor contributing to adverse consequences observed after percutaneous balloon angioplasty of coarctation sites. Circulation. 1987 Apr; 75(4):689-95. View abstract
  104. Cor triatriatum associated with partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection to the coronary sinus: echocardiographic and angiocardiographic features. Pediatr Cardiol. 1987; 8(4):279-83. View abstract
  105. A randomized controlled trial of amoxicillin plus clavulanate compared with cefaclor for treatment of acute otitis media. J Pediatr. 1986 Nov; 109(5):891-6. View abstract
  106. Ventricular tachycardia in children without heart disease. Am J Cardiol. 1985 May 01; 55(11):1328-31. View abstract
  107. Measurement of extravascular lung water in infants and children after cardiac surgery. Am J Cardiol. 1984 Jul 01; 54(1):161-5. View abstract
  108. Combined discrete subaortic stenosis and ventricular septal defect in infants and children. Am J Cardiol. 1984 May 15; 53(10):1429-32. View abstract
  109. Repeat aortic valvotomy in children. Am Heart J. 1983 Jul; 106(1 Pt 1):60-3. View abstract
  110. Pediatric cardiac emergencies. Emerg Med Clin North Am. 1983 Apr; 1(1):45-61. View abstract
  111. Cardiac and coronary arterial involvement in infants and children from New England with mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome (Kawasaki disease). Angiocardiographic-echocardiographic correlations. Am J Cardiol. 1982 Jul; 50(1):136-42. View abstract