Undergraduate Degree

  • University of Alabama , 1996 , Tuscaloosa , Alabama

Graduate Degree

  • Harvard School of Public Health , Boston , MA

Medical School

  • University of Alabama School of Medicine , 2001 , Birmingham , Alabama

Graduate Degree

  • University of Utah School of Medicine , Salt Lake City , UT


  • University of Utah Medical Center , 2004 , Salt Lake City , Utah


Pediatric Health Services Research Fellowship
  • Harvard School of Public Health , 2006 , Boston , MA


  • American Board of Pediatrics, General Pediatrics


Publications powered by Harvard Catalyst Profiles

  1. Assessment of Underpayment for Inpatient Care at Children's Hospitals. JAMA Pediatr. 2021 Sep 01; 175(9):972-974. View abstract
  2. Low-Resource Emergency Department Visits for Children With Complex Chronic Conditions. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2021 Apr 20. View abstract
  3. The Pediatric-Specific American Society of Anesthesiologists Physical Status Score: A Multicenter Study. Anesth Analg. 2021 03 01; 132(3):807-817. View abstract
  4. Hospitals' Diversity of Diagnosis Groups and Associated Costs of Care. Pediatrics. 2021 03; 147(3). View abstract
  5. Parent Perspectives on Short-Term Recovery After Spinal Fusion Surgery in Children With Neuromuscular Scoliosis. J Patient Exp. 2020 Dec; 7(6):1369-1377. View abstract
  6. Risk factors for gastrointestinal complications after spinal fusion in children with cerebral palsy. Spine Deform. 2021 Mar; 9(2):567-578. View abstract
  7. Hospital resource use after hip reconstruction surgery in children with neurological complex chronic conditions. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2021 02; 63(2):204-210. View abstract
  8. Comprehensive Risk Assessment of Morbidity in Pediatric Patients Undergoing Noncardiac Surgery: An Institutional Experience. Anesth Analg. 2020 11; 131(5):1607-1615. View abstract
  9. Hospitalization Outcomes for Rural Children with Mental Health Conditions. J Pediatr. 2021 02; 229:240-246.e1. View abstract
  10. Comprehensive Risk Assessment of Morbidity in Pediatric Patients Undergoing Noncardiac Surgery: An Institutional Experience. Anesth Analg. 2020 Sep 07. View abstract
  11. The Interwoven Nature of Medical and Social Complexity in US Children. JAMA Pediatr. 2020 09 01; 174(9):891-893. View abstract
  12. Being Mindful About Follow-up Care After Pediatric Hospitalization for Bronchiolitis. JAMA Pediatr. 2020 09 01; 174(9):e201945. View abstract
  13. A systematic concept analysis of 'technology dependent': challenging the terminology. Eur J Pediatr. 2021 Jan; 180(1):1-12. View abstract
  14. One Size Does Not Fit All: A Perspective on the American Society of Anesthesiologists Physical Status Classification for Pediatric Patients. Anesth Analg. 2020 06; 130(6):1685-1692. View abstract
  15. The Elephant in the Hospital Room Charge. Pediatrics. 2020 06; 145(6). View abstract
  16. Key constituents for integration of care for children assisted with long-term home ventilation: a European study. BMC Pediatr. 2020 02 15; 20(1):71. View abstract
  17. Implementing a Multidisciplinary Clinical Pathway Can Reduce the Deep Surgical Site Infection Rate After Posterior Spinal Fusion in High-Risk Patients. Spine Deform. 2019 Jan; 7(1):33-39. View abstract
  18. Does the Current American Society of Anesthesiologists Physical Status Classification Represent the Chronic Disease Burden in Children Undergoing General Anesthesia? Anesth Analg. 2019 10; 129(4):1175-1180. View abstract
  19. Identification of Children With High-Intensity Neurological Impairment. JAMA Pediatr. 2019 Oct 01; 173(10):989-991. View abstract
  20. Variation in Hospitalization Rates Following Emergency Department Visits in Children with Medical Complexity. J Pediatr. 2019 11; 214:113-120.e1. View abstract
  21. Pediatric complex care and surgery comanagement: Preparation for spinal fusion. J Child Health Care. 2020 09; 24(3):402-410. View abstract
  22. Hospital Readmission of Adolescents and Young Adults With Complex Chronic Disease. JAMA Netw Open. 2019 07 03; 2(7):e197613. View abstract
  23. Parent-to-Parent Advice on Considering Spinal Fusion in Children with Neuromuscular Scoliosis. J Pediatr. 2019 10; 213:149-154. View abstract
  24. Outpatient Prescription Opioid Use in Pediatric Medicaid Enrollees With Special Health Care Needs. Pediatrics. 2019 06; 143(6). View abstract
  25. Modelling collaboration of primary and secondary care for children with complex care needs: long-term ventilation as an example. Eur J Pediatr. 2019 Jun; 178(6):891-901. View abstract
  26. Neonatal Herpes Simplex Virus Infection Among Medicaid-Enrolled Children: 2009-2015. Pediatrics. 2019 04; 143(4). View abstract
  27. Chronic Medication Use in Children Insured by Medicaid: A Multistate Retrospective Cohort Study. Pediatrics. 2019 04; 143(4). View abstract
  28. Predicting Postoperative Physiologic Decline After Surgery. Pediatrics. 2019 04; 143(4). View abstract
  29. Association of Extending Hospital Length of Stay With Reduced Pediatric Hospital Readmissions. JAMA Pediatr. 2019 02 01; 173(2):186-188. View abstract
  30. Association of Home Respiratory Equipment and Supply Use with Health Care Resource Utilization in Children. J Pediatr. 2019 04; 207:169-175.e2. View abstract
  31. Implementing a Multidisciplinary Clinical Pathway Can Reduce the Deep Surgical Site Infection Rate After Posterior Spinal Fusion in High-Risk Patients. Spine Deform. 2019 01; 7(1):33-39. View abstract
  32. Pediatric patients with home mechanical ventilation: The health services landscape. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2019 01; 54(1):40-46. View abstract
  33. Management and integration of care for children living with complex care needs at the acute-community interface in Europe. Lancet Child Adolesc Health. 2018 11; 2(11):822-831. View abstract
  34. Principles for provision of integrated complex care for children across the acute-community interface in Europe. Lancet Child Adolesc Health. 2018 11; 2(11):832-838. View abstract
  35. Healthcare expenditures for privately insured US patients with cystic fibrosis, 2010-2016. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2018 12; 53(12):1611-1618. View abstract
  36. Caring for Patients With Neurological Impairment: Conversations Between a Pediatrician and Geriatrician. JAMA Pediatr. 2018 09 01; 172(9):795-796. View abstract
  37. Mental Health Conditions and Unplanned Hospital Readmissions in Children. J Hosp Med. 2018 07; 13(7):445-452. View abstract
  38. Timing and Causes of Common Pediatric Readmissions. J Pediatr. 2018 09; 200:240-248.e1. View abstract
  39. Associations of Coexisting Conditions with Healthcare Spending for Children with Cerebral Palsy. J Pediatr. 2018 09; 200:111-117.e1. View abstract
  40. Well-Child Visits of Medicaid-Insured Children with Medical Complexity. J Pediatr. 2018 08; 199:223-230.e2. View abstract
  41. Development of Hospitalization Resource Intensity Scores for Kids (H-RISK) and Comparison across Pediatric Populations. J Hosp Med. 2018 09 01; 13(9):602-608. View abstract
  42. Length of Stay and Cost of Pediatric Readmissions. Pediatrics. 2018 04; 141(4). View abstract
  43. Clinician Perceptions of the Importance of Hospital Discharge Components for Children. J Healthc Qual. 2018 Mar/Apr; 40(2):79-88. View abstract
  44. Status Complexicus? The Emergence of Pediatric Complex Care. Pediatrics. 2018 03; 141(Suppl 3):S202-S211. View abstract
  45. Ethical Framework for Risk Stratification and Mitigation Programs for Children With Medical Complexity. Pediatrics. 2018 03; 141(Suppl 3):S250-S258. View abstract
  46. Age trends in 30 day hospital readmissions: US national retrospective analysis. BMJ. 2018 02 27; 360:k497. View abstract
  47. Health-care spending and utilization for children discharged from a neonatal intensive care unit. J Perinatol. 2018 06; 38(6):734-741. View abstract
  48. Issues Identified by Postdischarge Contact after Pediatric Hospitalization: A Multisite Study. J Hosp Med. 2018 04; 13(4):236-242. View abstract
  49. Predicting Low-Resource-Intensity Emergency Department Visits in Children. Acad Pediatr. 2018 04; 18(3):297-304. View abstract
  50. Risk factors for hospitalizations due to bacterial respiratory tract infections after tracheotomy. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2018 03; 53(3):349-357. View abstract
  51. Neonatal HSV Disease: Balancing the Low Incidence With the Need to Treat Promptly. Pediatrics. 2018 02; 141(2). View abstract
  52. Postacute Care after Pediatric Hospitalizations for a Primary Mental Health Condition. J Pediatr. 2018 02; 193:222-228.e1. View abstract
  53. Meta-Analysis of Clinical Trials That Evaluate the Effectiveness of Hospital-Initiated Postdischarge Interventions on Hospital Readmission. J Healthc Qual. 2017 Nov/Dec; 39(6):354-366. View abstract
  54. Admissions to Acute Care Within 30 and 90 Days of Discharge Home From a Pediatric Post-acute Care Hospital. Hosp Pediatr. 2017 11; 7(11):682-685. View abstract
  55. Outpatient Visits Before Ambulatory Care-Sensitive Hospitalization of Children Receiving Medicaid. Acad Pediatr. 2018 May - Jun; 18(4):390-396. View abstract
  56. Perioperative Spending on Spinal Fusion for Scoliosis for Children With Medical Complexity. Pediatrics. 2017 Oct; 140(4). View abstract
  57. Use of Post-Acute Facility Care in Children Hospitalized With Acute Respiratory Illness. J Hosp Med. 2017 08; 12(8):626-631. View abstract
  58. Characteristics of Children Enrolled in Medicaid With High-Frequency Emergency Department Use. Pediatrics. 2017 Sep; 140(3). View abstract
  59. High-Expenditure Pharmaceutical Use Among Children in Medicaid. Pediatrics. 2017 Sep; 140(3). View abstract
  60. Contributions of Children With Multiple Chronic Conditions to Pediatric Hospitalizations in the United States: A Retrospective Cohort Analysis. Hosp Pediatr. 2017 Jul; 7(7):365-372. View abstract
  61. Association of Income Inequality With Pediatric Hospitalizations for Ambulatory Care-Sensitive Conditions. JAMA Pediatr. 2017 06 05; 171(6):e170322. View abstract
  62. Delayed Diagnoses in Children with Constipation: Multicenter Retrospective Cohort Study. J Pediatr. 2017 07; 186:87-94.e16. View abstract
  63. Trends in Hospital Utilization and Costs among Pediatric Palliative Care Recipients. J Palliat Med. 2017 09; 20(9):946-953. View abstract
  64. Exploring Integration of Care for Children Living with Complex Care Needs across the European Union and European Economic Area. Int J Integr Care. 2017 Apr 24; 17(2):1. View abstract
  65. Racial and Ethnic Differences in Pediatric Readmissions for Common Chronic Conditions. J Pediatr. 2017 07; 186:158-164.e1. View abstract
  66. Healthcare utilization and spending by children with cancer on Medicaid. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2017 Nov; 64(11). View abstract
  67. Nursing-led Home Visits Post-hospitalization for Children with Medical Complexity. J Pediatr Nurs. 2017 May - Jun; 34:10-16. View abstract
  68. Constipation-Related Health Care Utilization in Children Before and After Hospitalization for Constipation. Clin Pediatr (Phila). 2018 Jan; 57(1):40-45. View abstract
  69. Comorbidities and Complications of Spinal Fusion for Scoliosis. Pediatrics. 2017 Mar; 139(3). View abstract
  70. Healthcare Utilization and Spending for Constipation in Children With Versus Without Complex Chronic Conditions. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2017 01; 64(1):31-36. View abstract
  71. Shining the Light on Parity and Disparity in Childhood Asthma Care. Pediatrics. 2017 01; 139(1). View abstract
  72. Discharge Interventions and Modifiable Risk Factors for Preventing Hospital Readmissions in Children with Medical Complexity. Rev Recent Clin Trials. 2017; 12(4):290-297. View abstract
  73. Impact of Chronic Conditions on Emergency Department Visits of Children Using Medicaid. J Pediatr. 2017 03; 182:267-274. View abstract
  74. Mental Health Conditions and Medical and Surgical Hospital Utilization. Pediatrics. 2016 12; 138(6). View abstract
  75. Collaborating With a Statistician: Bringing a Clinical Perspective to Statistics. Hosp Pediatr. 2016 12; 6(12):750-752. View abstract
  76. Financial Loss for Inpatient Care of Medicaid-Insured Children. JAMA Pediatr. 2016 11 01; 170(11):1055-1062. View abstract
  77. Psychiatric Disorders and Trends in Resource Use in Pediatric Hospitals. Pediatrics. 2016 11; 138(5). View abstract
  78. Home Health Nursing Care and Hospital Use for Medically Complex Children. Pediatrics. 2016 11; 138(5). View abstract
  79. Family and healthcare professionals' perceptions of a pilot hospice at home programme for children: a qualitative study. BMC Palliat Care. 2016 Oct 28; 15(1):89. View abstract
  80. Association between Postdischarge Oral Corticosteroid Prescription Fills and Readmission in Children with Asthma. J Pediatr. 2017 01; 180:163-169.e1. View abstract
  81. Trends in Health Care Spending for Children in Medicaid With High Resource Use. Pediatrics. 2016 10; 138(4). View abstract
  82. This Is My Hospital's Performance on Quality of Care-No Excuses. JAMA Pediatr. 2016 09 01; 170(9):837-8. View abstract
  83. Diagnostic Testing and Hospital Outcomes of Children with Neurologic Impairment and Bacterial Pneumonia. J Pediatr. 2016 Nov; 178:156-163.e1. View abstract
  84. Long length of hospital stay in children with medical complexity. J Hosp Med. 2016 11; 11(11):750-756. View abstract
  85. Characteristics of Rural Children Admitted to Pediatric Hospitals. Pediatrics. 2016 05; 137(5). View abstract
  86. Two-year mortality, complications, and healthcare use in children with medicaid following tracheostomy. Laryngoscope. 2016 11; 126(11):2611-2617. View abstract
  87. Pediatric Hospital Discharges to Home Health and Postacute Facility Care: A National Study. JAMA Pediatr. 2016 Apr; 170(4):326-33. View abstract
  88. To Risk Adjust or Not to Risk Adjust: Should That Be the Question? JAMA Pediatr. 2016 Apr; 170(4):319-20. View abstract
  89. Hospitalizations of Low-Income Children and Children With Severe Health Conditions: Implications of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. JAMA Pediatr. 2016 Feb; 170(2):176-8. View abstract
  90. Aspiration and Non-Aspiration Pneumonia in Hospitalized Children With Neurologic Impairment. Pediatrics. 2016 Feb; 137(2):e20151612. View abstract
  91. Hospital Utilization Among Children With the Highest Annual Inpatient Cost. Pediatrics. 2016 Feb; 137(2):e20151829. View abstract
  92. Comparison of Health Care Spending and Utilization Among Children With Medicaid Insurance. Pediatrics. 2015 Dec; 136(6):e1521-9. View abstract
  93. Preventing Readmissions in Children: How Do We Do That? Hosp Pediatr. 2015 Nov; 5(11):602-4. View abstract
  94. Health Services and Health Care Needs Fulfilled by Structured Clinical Programs for Children with Medical Complexity. J Pediatr. 2016 Feb; 169:291-6.e1. View abstract
  95. Emergency Department Use of Computed Tomography for Children with Ventricular Shunts. J Pediatr. 2015 Dec; 167(6):1382-8.e2. View abstract
  96. Total Direct Medical Expenses and Characteristics of Privately Insured Adolescents Who Incur High Costs. JAMA Pediatr. 2015 Oct; 169(10):e152682. View abstract
  97. Hospital Use in the Last Year of Life for Children With Life-Threatening Complex Chronic Conditions. Pediatrics. 2015 Nov; 136(5):938-46. View abstract
  98. Pediatric Post-Acute Hospital Care: Striving for Identity and Value. Hosp Pediatr. 2015 Oct; 5(10):548-51. View abstract
  99. Same-Hospital Readmission Rates as a Measure of Pediatric Quality of Care. JAMA Pediatr. 2015 Oct; 169(10):905-12. View abstract
  100. Recognizing Differences in Hospital Quality Performance for Pediatric Inpatient Care. Pediatrics. 2015 Aug; 136(2):251-62. View abstract
  101. Ways to Identify Children with Medical Complexity and the Importance of Why. J Pediatr. 2015 Aug; 167(2):229-37. View abstract
  102. Summary of STARNet: Seamless Transitions and (Re)admissions Network. Pediatrics. 2015 Jan; 135(1):164-75. View abstract
  103. Children with medical complexity and Medicaid: spending and cost savings. Health Aff (Millwood). 2014 Dec; 33(12):2199-206. View abstract
  104. A framework of pediatric hospital discharge care informed by legislation, research, and practice. JAMA Pediatr. 2014 Oct; 168(10):955-62; quiz 965-6. View abstract
  105. Characteristics of recurrent utilization in pediatric emergency departments. Pediatrics. 2014 Oct; 134(4):e1025-31. View abstract
  106. Measuring pediatric hospital readmission rates to drive quality improvement. Acad Pediatr. 2014 Sep-Oct; 14(5 Suppl):S39-46. View abstract
  107. Pediatric hospital care for children with life-threatening illness and the role of palliative care. Pediatr Clin North Am. 2014 Aug; 61(4):719-33. View abstract
  108. Hospitalizations in children with preexisting tracheostomy: a national perspective. Laryngoscope. 2015 Feb; 125(2):462-8. View abstract
  109. Indications, Hospital Course, and Complexity of Patients Undergoing Tracheostomy at a Tertiary Care Pediatric Hospital. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2014 08; 151(2):232-9. View abstract
  110. Does Nissen fundoplication decrease reflux-related problems including respiratory illness in children with neurological impairment?--reply. JAMA Pediatr. 2014 Feb; 168(2):188-9. View abstract
  111. The comparative effectiveness of ventricular shunt placement versus endoscopic third ventriculostomy for initial treatment of hydrocephalus in infants. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2014 Mar; 13(3):295-300. View abstract
  112. Rehospitalization for childhood asthma: timing, variation, and opportunities for intervention. J Pediatr. 2014 Feb; 164(2):300-5. View abstract
  113. Effectiveness of fundoplication at the time of gastrostomy in infants with neurological impairment. JAMA Pediatr. 2013 Oct; 167(10):911-8. View abstract
  114. Hospital readmission and parent perceptions of their child's hospital discharge. Int J Qual Health Care. 2013 Oct; 25(5):573-81. View abstract
  115. Children's hospitals with shorter lengths of stay do not have higher readmission rates. J Pediatr. 2013 Oct; 163(4):1034-8.e1. View abstract
  116. Inpatient growth and resource use in 28 children's hospitals: a longitudinal, multi-institutional study. JAMA Pediatr. 2013 Feb; 167(2):170-7. View abstract
  117. Pediatric readmission prevalence and variability across hospitals. JAMA. 2013 Jan 23; 309(4):372-80. View abstract
  118. Patterns and costs of health care use of children with medical complexity. Pediatrics. 2012 Dec; 130(6):e1463-70. View abstract
  119. Relationship between community prevalence of obesity and associated behavioral factors and community rates of influenza-related hospitalizations in the United States. Influenza Other Respir Viruses. 2013 Sep; 7(5):718-28. View abstract
  120. Unmet eye care needs among U.S. 5th-grade students. Am J Prev Med. 2012 Jul; 43(1):55-8. View abstract
  121. Risk factors of sudden death in young adult patients with myelomeningocele. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2012 Feb; 9(2):149-55. View abstract
  122. Trends in resource utilization by children with neurological impairment in the United States inpatient health care system: a repeat cross-sectional study. PLoS Med. 2012 Jan; 9(1):e1001158. View abstract
  123. Tracheotomy-related catastrophic events: results of a national survey. Laryngoscope. 2012 Jan; 122(1):30-7. View abstract
  124. Tracheotomy outcomes and complications: a national perspective. Laryngoscope. 2012 Jan; 122(1):25-9. View abstract
  125. A national profile of caregiver challenges among more medically complex children with special health care needs. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2011 Nov; 165(11):1020-6. View abstract
  126. Statistical uncertainty of mortality rates and rankings for children's hospitals. Pediatrics. 2011 Oct; 128(4):e966-72. View abstract
  127. Health information management and perceptions of the quality of care for children with tracheotomy: a qualitative study. BMC Health Serv Res. 2011 May 23; 11:117. View abstract
  128. Characteristics of hospitalizations for patients who use a structured clinical care program for children with medical complexity. J Pediatr. 2011 Aug; 159(2):284-90. View abstract
  129. Children with medical complexity: an emerging population for clinical and research initiatives. Pediatrics. 2011 Mar; 127(3):529-38. View abstract
  130. Hospital utilization and characteristics of patients experiencing recurrent readmissions within children's hospitals. JAMA. 2011 Feb 16; 305(7):682-90. View abstract
  131. Health inequity in children and youth with chronic health conditions. Pediatrics. 2010 Dec; 126 Suppl 3:S111-9. View abstract
  132. Children with complex chronic conditions in inpatient hospital settings in the United States. Pediatrics. 2010 Oct; 126(4):647-55. View abstract
  133. Patient characteristics associated with in-hospital mortality in children following tracheotomy. Arch Dis Child. 2010 Sep; 95(9):703-10. View abstract
  134. Metachromatic leukodystrophy: a case of triplets with the late infantile variant and a systematic review of the literature. J Child Neurol. 2010 May; 25(5):572-80. View abstract
  135. Reflux related hospital admissions after fundoplication in children with neurological impairment: retrospective cohort study. BMJ. 2009 Nov 18; 339:b4411. View abstract
  136. Predictors of clinical outcomes and hospital resource use of children after tracheotomy. Pediatrics. 2009 Aug; 124(2):563-72. View abstract
  137. A Multicenter Study of Factors Influencing Cerebrospinal Fluid Shunt Survival in Infants and Children. Neurosurgery. 2009 Jun 01; 64(6):E1206. View abstract
  138. A multicenter study of factors influencing cerebrospinal fluid shunt survival in infants and children. Neurosurgery. 2008 May; 62(5):1095-102; discussion 1102-3. View abstract
  139. A multi-institutional, 5-year analysis of initial and multiple ventricular shunt revisions in children. Neurosurgery. 2008 Feb; 62(2):445-53; discussion 453-4. View abstract
  140. Prognostic value of B-type natriuretic peptide in surgical palliation of children with single-ventricle congenital heart disease. Pediatr Cardiol. 2008 Jan; 29(1):70-5. View abstract
  141. Hospital volumes for common pediatric specialty operations. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2007 Jan; 161(1):38-43. View abstract
  142. In-hospital mortality for children with hypoplastic left heart syndrome after stage I surgical palliation: teaching versus nonteaching hospitals. Pediatrics. 2006 Apr; 117(4):1307-13. View abstract