Undergraduate Degree

  • Santa Clara University , 1983 , Santa Clara , CA

Medical School

  • Chicago Medical School , 1987 , Chicago , IL


  • UCSF Valley Medical Center of Fresno , 1988 , Fresno , CA


  • UCSF - Fresno Hospitals , 1992 , Fresno , CA


  • Boston Children's Hospital , 1994 , Boston , MA

Philosophy of Care

My goal is to provide thoughtful, individualized imaging evaluation of the fetus, infant, and child through direct collaboration with the patient, family, sonographers/technologists, referring clinicians, and subspecialists, while minimizing cost and exposure to risks such as ionizing radiation and sedation/anesthesia.


I have been a full-time radiology faculty member since 1994.  Areas of interest were broad initially and have gradually become more concentrated in the areas of integrated fetal and pediatric genitourinary imaging and ultrasound/MRI correlation.  This has led to a close relationship and collaboration with pediatric gynecology, urology, general surgery, rheumatology, orthopedic, and fetal subspecialists in daily problem solving.  My work centers around the Advanced Fetal Care Center at Children's Hospital and the development of techniques in fetal imaging as a natural extension of expertise in the field of Pediatric Radiology.  Our goal is to cultivate a center that supports families faced with anomalous pregnancies beginning with accurate, precise diagnosis, connection with appropriate subspecialties, counseling, delivery, treatment, and health care throughout childhood.


  • American Board of Radiology, Diagnostic Radiology
  • American Board of Radiology, Pediatric Radiology


Publications powered by Harvard Catalyst Profiles

  1. Ultrasound Assessment of Quadriceps Femoris Muscle Thickness in Critically Ill Children. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2021 10 01; 22(10):889-897. View abstract
  2. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound of the spleen, pancreas and gallbladder in children. Pediatr Radiol. 2021 Aug 24. View abstract
  3. Contrast-enhanced voiding urosonography part 2: urethral imaging. Pediatr Radiol. 2021 Aug 13. View abstract
  4. Does age affect the test performance of secondary sonographic findings for pediatric appendicitis? Pediatr Radiol. 2021 Oct; 51(11):2018-2026. View abstract
  5. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound of pediatric lungs. Pediatr Radiol. 2021 May 12. View abstract
  6. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound for musculoskeletal indications in children. Pediatr Radiol. 2021 Mar 30. View abstract
  7. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound of the pediatric brain. Pediatr Radiol. 2021 Feb 18. View abstract
  8. Contrast enhanced colostography: New applications in preoperative evaluation of anorectal malformations. J Pediatr Surg. 2021 Jan; 56(1):192-195. View abstract
  9. Leveraging the Combined Predictive Value of Ultrasound and Laboratory Data to Reduce Radiation Exposure and Resource Utilization in Children with Suspected Appendicitis. J Surg Res. 2021 01; 257:529-536. View abstract
  10. Fetal Echoplanar Imaging: Promises and Challenges. Top Magn Reson Imaging. 2019 Oct; 28(5):245-254. View abstract
  11. Interobserver and Intra-Observer Reliability of the Urinary Tract Dilation Classification System in Neonates: A Multicenter Study. J Urol. 2019 06; 201(6):1186-1192. View abstract
  12. The association of postnatal urinary tract dilation risk score with clinical outcomes. J Pediatr Urol. 2019 Aug; 15(4):341.e1-341.e6. View abstract
  13. Prenatal imaging throughout gestation in Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome. Prenat Diagn. 2019 08; 39(9):792-795. View abstract
  14. A new variant of type III jejunoileal atresia. J Pediatr Surg. 2019 Jun; 54(6):1257-1260. View abstract
  15. The Distended Fetal Hypopharynx: A Sensitive and Novel Sign for the Prenatal Diagnosis of Esophageal Atresia. J Pediatr Surg. 2018 Jun; 53(6):1137-1141. View abstract
  16. Pediatric contrast-enhanced ultrasound in the United States: a survey by the Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound Task Force of the Society for Pediatric Radiology. Pediatr Radiol. 2018 06; 48(6):852-857. View abstract
  17. Early Outcomes of Vein Grafting for Reconstruction of Brachial Arterial Injuries in Children. J Hand Surg Am. 2018 03; 43(3):287.e1-287.e7. View abstract
  18. Radiographic measurement of intestinal length among children with short bowel syndrome: Retrospective determination remains problematic. J Pediatr Surg. 2017 Dec; 52(12):1921-1924. View abstract
  19. Erratum to "Creation and Validation of a Simulator for Neonatal Brain Ultrasonography: A Pilot Study": [Acad Radiol 2017; 24:76-83]. Acad Radiol. 2018 05; 25(5):684. View abstract
  20. Percent predicted lung volume changes on fetal magnetic resonance imaging throughout gestation in congenital diaphragmatic hernia. J Pediatr Surg. 2017 Jun; 52(6):933-937. View abstract
  21. Teratoma of the neonatal head and neck: A 41-year experience. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2017 Jun; 97:66-71. View abstract
  22. Creation and Validation of a Simulator for Neonatal Brain Ultrasonography: A Pilot Study. Acad Radiol. 2017 01; 24(1):76-83. View abstract
  23. Intrarenal Reflux: Diagnosis at Contrast-Enhanced Voiding Urosonography. J Ultrasound Med. 2016 Aug; 35(8):1811-9. View abstract
  24. Residual intravesical iodinated contrast: a potential cause of false-negative reflux study at contrast-enhanced voiding urosonography. Pediatr Radiol. 2016 Oct; 46(11):1614-7. View abstract
  25. Fetal lung apparent diffusion coefficient measurement using diffusion-weighted MRI at 3 Tesla: Correlation with gestational age. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2016 12; 44(6):1650-1655. View abstract
  26. Fetal MRI: A Technical Update with Educational Aspirations. Concepts Magn Reson Part A Bridg Educ Res. 2014 Nov; 43(6):237-266. View abstract
  27. Utility of ultrasound in the diagnosis of polycystic ovary syndrome in adolescents. Fertil Steril. 2014 Nov; 102(5):1432-8. View abstract
  28. Human fetal sacrococcygeal extension or 'tail' in the second trimester: prenatal diagnosis, associated findings, and clinical outcome. Prenat Diagn. 2013 Feb; 33(2):134-40. View abstract
  29. A prospective study of expectant observation as primary therapy for neuroblastoma in young infants: a Children's Oncology Group study. Ann Surg. 2012 Oct; 256(4):573-80. View abstract
  30. Identifying ureteropelvic junction obstruction by fluorescence imaging: a comparative study of imaging modalities to assess renal function and degree of obstruction in a mouse model. J Urol. 2011 Jun; 185(6):2405-13. View abstract
  31. Serial amnioinfusions prevent fetal pulmonary hypoplasia in a large animal model of oligohydramnios. J Pediatr Surg. 2011 Jan; 46(1):67-71. View abstract
  32. Frequency and cause of disagreements in imaging diagnosis in children with ventriculomegaly diagnosed prenatally. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2010 Nov; 36(5):582-95. View abstract
  33. Fetal brain volumetry through MRI volumetric reconstruction and segmentation. Int J Comput Assist Radiol Surg. 2011 May; 6(3):329-39. View abstract
  34. Correlation between prenatal urinary matrix metalloproteinase activity and the degree of kidney damage in a large animal model of congenital obstructive uropathy. J Pediatr Surg. 2010 Jun; 45(6):1120-5. View abstract
  35. Neurodevelopmental outcome of fetuses referred for ventriculomegaly. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2010 Apr; 35(4):405-16. View abstract
  36. Posthemorrhagic cerebellar disruption mimicking Dandy-Walker malformation: fetal imaging and neuropathology findings. Semin Pediatr Neurol. 2010 Mar; 17(1):75-81. View abstract
  37. Prenatal urinary matrix metalloproteinase profiling as a potential diagnostic tool in fetal obstructive uropathy. J Pediatr Surg. 2010 Jan; 45(1):70-3. View abstract
  38. Prenatal diagnosis and treatment of congenital differences of the hand and upper limb. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2009 Jul; 91 Suppl 4:31-9. View abstract
  39. Differential risk for neonatal surgical airway intervention in prenatally diagnosed neck masses. J Pediatr Surg. 2009 Jan; 44(1):76-9. View abstract
  40. Pediatric radiation exposure and effective dose reduction during voiding cystourethrography. Radiology. 2008 Dec; 249(3):1002-9. View abstract
  41. In utero treatment for bladder outlet obstruction using robot assisted laparoscopic techniques. J Urol. 2008 Oct; 180(4 Suppl):1790-4; discussion 1794. View abstract
  42. Prenatal diagnosis and subsequent treatment of an intermediate-risk paraspinal neuroblastoma: case report and review of the literature. Fetal Diagn Ther. 2008; 24(2):119-25. View abstract
  43. How accurately does current fetal imaging identify posterior fossa anomalies? AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2008 Jun; 190(6):1637-43. View abstract
  44. Frequency and cause of disagreements in diagnoses for fetuses referred for ventriculomegaly. Radiology. 2008 May; 247(2):516-27. View abstract
  45. Liver position is a prenatal predictive factor of prosthetic repair in congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Fetal Diagn Ther. 2008; 23(4):258-62. View abstract
  46. Prenatal diagnosis of thoracic ectopia cordis by real-time fetal cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and by echocardiography. Congenit Heart Dis. 2008 Mar-Apr; 3(2):128-31. View abstract
  47. Large fetal congenital cystic adenomatoid malformations: growth trends and patient survival. J Pediatr Surg. 2007 Feb; 42(2):404-10. View abstract
  48. Ex utero intrapartum treatment with placement on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for fetal thoracic masses. J Pediatr Surg. 2007 Feb; 42(2):420-5. View abstract
  49. Percent predicted lung volumes as measured on fetal magnetic resonance imaging: a useful biometric parameter for risk stratification in congenital diaphragmatic hernia. J Pediatr Surg. 2007 Jan; 42(1):193-7. View abstract
  50. Ex utero intrapartum treatment with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for severe congenital diaphragmatic hernia. J Pediatr Surg. 2007 Jan; 42(1):98-104; discussion 104-6. View abstract
  51. Bronchial atresia is common to extralobar sequestration, intralobar sequestration, congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation, and lobar emphysema. Pediatr Dev Pathol. 2006 Sep-Oct; 9(5):361-73. View abstract
  52. Fetal lung volume measurements: determination with MR imaging--effect of various factors. Radiology. 2006 Jul; 240(1):187-93. View abstract
  53. Cleft of the secondary palate without cleft lip diagnosed with three-dimensional ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging in a fetus with Fryns' syndrome. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2006 May; 27(5):566-70. View abstract
  54. Diagnosis of inferior vermian hypoplasia by fetal magnetic resonance imaging: potential pitfalls and neurodevelopmental outcome. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2006 Apr; 194(4):1070-6. View abstract
  55. Radiation exposure reduction during voiding cystourethrography in a pediatric porcine model of vesicoureteral reflux. Radiology. 2006 Jan; 238(1):96-106. View abstract
  56. Fetal sheep development on ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging: a standard for the in utero assessment of models of congenital abnormalities. Fetal Diagn Ther. 2006; 21(5):444-57. View abstract
  57. Bronchial atresia: the hidden pathology within a spectrum of prenatally diagnosed lung masses. J Pediatr Surg. 2006 Jan; 41(1):61-5; discussion 61-5. View abstract
  58. Magnetic resonance imaging of pelvic musculoskeletal and genitourinary anatomy in patients before and after complete primary repair of bladder exstrophy. J Urol. 2005 Oct; 174(4 Pt 2):1559-66; discussion 1566. View abstract
  59. Fetal surgery in otolaryngology: a new era in the diagnosis and management of fetal airway obstruction because of advances in prenatal imaging. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2005 May; 131(5):393-8. View abstract
  60. Pediatric ceftriaxone nephrolithiasis. J Urol. 2005 Feb; 173(2):577-8. View abstract
  61. Validation of a clinical prediction rule for the differentiation between septic arthritis and transient synovitis of the hip in children. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2004 Aug; 86(8):1629-35. View abstract
  62. Oropharyngeal teratoma: prenatal diagnosis and assessment using sonography, MRI, and CT with management by ex utero intrapartum treatment procedure. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2004 Aug; 183(2):493-6. View abstract
  63. Prenatal diagnosis of cleft lip and cleft palate using MRI. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2004 Jul; 183(1):229-35. View abstract
  64. Sonography of the fetal central nervous system. Neuroimaging Clin N Am. 2004 May; 14(2):255-71, viii. View abstract
  65. MR imaging of fetal head and neck anomalies. Neuroimaging Clin N Am. 2004 May; 14(2):273-91, viii. View abstract
  66. Congenital abnormalities of the gastrointestinal tract. Semin Roentgenol. 2004 Apr; 39(2):263-81. View abstract
  67. Calcified ureteral stricture in a child with polyarteritis nodosa. J Urol. 2004 Mar; 171(3):1254-5. View abstract
  68. Intratesticular varicocele in adolescents: a reversible anechoic lesion of the testis. J Urol. 2004 Jan; 171(1):381-3. View abstract
  69. Fetal thoracic abnormalities: MR imaging. Radiology. 2003 Aug; 228(2):379-88. View abstract
  70. Correlation of contrast-enhanced power Doppler sonography and conventional angiography of abduction-induced hip ischemia in piglets. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2003 Jun; 180(6):1731-5. View abstract
  71. Ultrasonographic guidance for location of the trachea during the EXIT procedure for cervical teratoma. J Pediatr Surg. 2003 Apr; 38(4):E12. View abstract
  72. Pediatric spine ultrasound. Rumack C, editor. Diagnostic Ultrasound (In Press). 2003. View abstract
  73. A comparison of MRI and laparoscopy in detecting pelvic structures in cases of vaginal agenesis. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol. 2002 Apr; 15(2):101-4. View abstract
  74. Ultrasound-guided fetal tracheal occlusion. J Pediatr Surg. 2002 Mar; 37(3):300-2. View abstract
  75. Ultrasound of the Newborn Hip. Syllabus for the Refresher Course; Annual Meeting of the SPR. 2002. View abstract
  76. Ultrasound-guided fetal tracheal occlusion. Presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Pediatric Surgical Association. 2001; Naples, FL. View abstract
  77. Definition of normal ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging characteristics of fetal sheep development as a standard for in utero evaluation of models of congenital abnormality. Presented at the International Society for Pediatric Radiology meeting. 2001; Paris, France. View abstract
  78. Progressive fetal bronchial obstruction caused by a bronchogenic cyst diagnosed using prenatal MR imaging. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2001 Jan; 176(1):49-52. View abstract
  79. 99m Technetium dimercapto-succinic acid renal scintigraphy abnormalities in infants with sterile high grade vesicoureteral reflux. J Urol. 2000 Nov; 164(5):1674-8; discussion 1678-9. View abstract
  80. Imaging of fetal thoracic abnormalities with ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging. Presented at the Radiological Society of North America Meeting. 2000; Chicago, IL. View abstract
  81. Nonradiopaque penetrating foreign body: "a sticky situation". Pediatr Radiol. 1999 Sep; 29(9):702-4. View abstract
  82. Experimental fetal vesicoureteral reflux induces renal tubular and glomerular damage, and is associated with persistent bladder instability. J Urol. 1999 Sep; 162(3 Pt 2):1090-5. View abstract
  83. Depiction of renal perfusion defects with contrast-enhanced harmonic sonography in a porcine model. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1999 Sep; 173(3):757-60. View abstract
  84. Renal blood flow in pigs: changes depicted with contrast-enhanced harmonic US imaging during acute urinary obstruction. Radiology. 1999 Sep; 212(3):725-31. View abstract
  85. Pediatric Musculoskeletal MR Techniques. Syllabus - Special Course in Pediatric Radiology. Current Concepts in Body Imaging at the Millenium. Annual Meeting of the Radiological Society of North America. 1999; 183-91. View abstract
  86. Renal findings on radiological followup of patients with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome. J Urol. 1999 Jan; 161(1):235-9. View abstract
  87. Techniques, coils, pulse sequences, and contrast enhancement in pediatric musculoskeletal MR imaging. Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am. 1998 Aug; 6(3):441-53. View abstract
  88. Excitotoxin-induced cerebral hyperemia in newborn piglets: regional cerebral blood flow mapping with contrast-enhanced power Doppler US. Radiology. 1998 Jul; 208(1):73-9. View abstract
  89. Ossifying renal tumor of infancy presenting as a palpable abdominal mass. Pediatr Radiol. 1998 Jun; 28(6):454-7. View abstract
  90. Neonatal pig brain: lack of heating during Doppler US. Radiology. 1998 May; 207(2):525-8. View abstract
  91. Renal cortical ischemia in rabbits revealed by contrast-enhanced power Doppler sonography. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1998 Feb; 170(2):417-22. View abstract
  92. Imaging techniques to assess the pelvis in young females. Semin Pediatr Surg. 1998 Feb; 7(1):73-81. View abstract
  93. Genitourinary tract. Practical pediatric imaging: diagnostic radiology of infants and children. 1998; 1009-1170. View abstract
  94. Radiologic-Pathologic Conference of Children's Hospital Boston: bilateral asymptomatic renal enlargement. Pediatr Radiol. 1997 Jul; 27(7):614-7. View abstract
  95. Normal gadolinium-enhanced MR images of the developing appendicular skeleton: Part 2. Epiphyseal and metaphyseal marrow. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1997 Jul; 169(1):191-6. View abstract
  96. Normal gadolinium-enhanced MR images of the developing appendicular skeleton: Part I. Cartilaginous epiphysis and physis. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1997 Jul; 169(1):183-9. View abstract
  97. Use of the mastoid fontanelle for improved sonographic visualization of the neonatal midbrain and posterior fossa. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1997 Apr; 168(4):1021-5. View abstract
  98. The sonographic diagnosis of infravesical obstruction in children: evaluation of bladder wall thickness indexed to bladder filling. J Urol. 1997 Mar; 157(3):989-91. View abstract
  99. Pediatric case of the day. Hepatorenal tyrosinemia (tyrosinemia type I). Radiographics. 1996 Sep; 16(5):1221-4. View abstract
  100. Potential role of Color Doppler sonograpy in defining the location of extracerebral fluid collections in infants. Radiology. 1996; 201(P):282. View abstract
  101. Absence of a renal sinus echo complex in the ectopic kidney of a child: a normal finding. Pediatr Radiol. 1996; 26(5):318-23. View abstract
  102. Serial imaging of the liver in patients with glycogen storage disease. ESPR 32nd Congress Abstracts. 1995; 78. View abstract
  103. Computer-aided differential diagnosis in radiology - Hyperray. Arenson R, Friedenberg R, editors. Computer applications to assist radiology. 1990. View abstract
  104. Transendothelial transport of macromolecules in isolated perfused microvessels. Clinical Research. 1985; 33(4). View abstract