Adult Congenital Heart Service | Conditions and Treatments

Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Return (TAPVR or PAPVR)

"The care of critically ill infants with obstructed anomalous pulmonary venous return requires a multidisciplinary team of cardiac ICU doctors and nurses, non-invasive cardiologists and surgeons to...

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Atrial Septal Defect (ASD)

What is an atrial septal defect? An atrial septal defect (ASD) is a hole in the wall that separates the upper right and left heart collecting chambers (atria). “Atrial” is the name we give to the...

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What is an arrhythmia? An arrhythmia is an abnormal rhythm of the heart, which can cause the heart to pump less effectively. It most often occurs in adults but can also occur in children. Some...

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Atrioventricular Canal Defect

What is atrioventricular canal defect? An atrioventricular canal defect or AV canal is a combination of several closely-associated heart problems that result in a large defect in the center of the...

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Bacterial Endocarditis

What is bacterial endocarditis? Bacterial endocarditis is an infection of the lining of the heart. It occurs when bacteria (germs) enter the bloodstream and lodge inside the heart, where they multiply...

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Coarctation of the Aorta

What is coarctation of the aorta? Coarctation of the aorta is a narrowing of the aorta, the main artery that delivers oxygen-rich (red) blood to the body. A coarctation is located just past the aortic...

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Congenital Heart Defects

What is a congenital heart defect? A congenital heart defect is a structural problem of the heart that develops during pregnancy. About 1 out of 100 babies are born with a congenital heart defect....

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What is cyanosis? Cyanosis is a bluish color in the skin, lips and nail beds caused by a shortage of oxygen in the blood. Cyanosis occurs because blood with decreased oxygen turns blue or purple. This...

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Ebstein's anomaly

What is Ebstein’s anomaly? Ebstein’s anomaly is a rare heart defect that affects the tricuspid valve. Ebstein’s anomaly has a wide range of severity — from mild to severe. About one in 10,000 babies...

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Edema refers to swelling in the body’s tissues caused by a build up of fluid, most often in the feet, ankles, face, eyelids or abdomen. It can have many causes, including: sitting or standing in one...

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Heart Murmur

What is a heart murmur? A heart murmur is a sound made by blood moving through the heart's chambers or valves. Murmurs range from quite faint to very loud. There are two main types of heart murmurs:...

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Most people think of hypertension (high blood pressure) as something that affects adults, children can also be affected. In fact, it’s estimated that up to 5 percent of children and adolescents now...

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Pulmonary Atresia

What is pulmonary atresia? Pulmonary atresia is type of heart defect that a baby is born with. It occurs when the pulmonary valve — normally located between the right ventricle and the pulmonary...

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Patent Ductus Arteriosus

What is patent ductus arteriosus? Patent ductus arteriosus is a congenital heart condition where there is a persistent connection between the pulmonary artery and the aorta. This causes blood to mix...

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Pulmonary Hypertension

Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is abnormally high blood pressure that occurs in the arteries of the lungs (the pulmonary arteries). Some cases of PH have no identifiable cause (idiopathic pulmonary...

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Septal Defects

What is a septal defect? A septal defect is a hole in the septum, which is the muscle wall that separates the heart's left and right chambers. A septal defect is sometimes called "a hole in the heart....

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Single Ventricle Defects

What is a single ventricle defect? A single ventricle defect is a type of heart defect that a child is born with. It occurs when one of the two pumping chambers in the heart, called ventricles, isn’t...

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What is syncope? Syncope is the medical term for fainting. It’s a temporary loss of consciousness that occurs when not enough blood goes to the brain. Syncope can affect people of all ages, from...

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Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) with Pulmonary Atresia

What is tetralogy of Fallot with pulmonary atresia? Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) with pulmonary atresia is a more severe form of TOF, a type of heart defect. It’s a congenital condition, which means it’s...

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Transposition of the Great Arteries (TGA)

What is transposition of the great arteries? In transposition of the great arteries (TGA), the “great” arteries, the aorta and the right ventricle, are reversed in their origins from the heart. The...

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Tricuspid Atresia

What is tricuspid atresia? Tricuspid atresia is a congenital heart defect, occurring in two out of every 10,000 live births. Relatively rare, it accounts for about 1 to 2 percent of all cases of...

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Vascular Ring

What is a vascular ring? A vascular ring is a rare heart condition where the aorta, the artery that carries blood from the heart to the body, is formed abnormally. In this condition, the trachea ...

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Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD)

What is a ventricular septal defect? A ventricular septal defect (VSD) is a hole in the wall that separates the lower right and left heart chambers (ventricles). It is the most common type of...

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Tufted Angioma

Tufted angioma is a benign (non-cancerous) vascular tumor and mild variant of Kaposiform hemangioendothelioma (KHE). On biopsy, a tumor may be called tufted angioma, KHE or “tufted angioma/KHE...

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