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Robert D.  Truog, MD

Robert Troug
Department of Anesthesiology, Perioperative and Pain Medicine Research
Critical Care Medicine Research
Hospital Title:
Executive Director, Institute for Professionalism & Ethical Practice; Senior Associate in Critical Care Medicine; Senior Associate in Perioperative Anesthesia
Academic Title:
Frances Glessner Lee Professor of Medical Ethics, Anaesthesia, & Pediatric; Director, Center for Bioethics, Harvard Medical School; Chair, Harvard Embyonic Stem Cell Research Oversight Committee, Harvard University
Research Focus Area:
Informed Consentorgan transplantationmedical futilityrationing stem cell researchEnd-of-Life Care
Contact Via Email
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About Robert Truog

Dr. Truog is the Principal Investigator on an NIH RO1 grant, developed in collaboration with Dr. Millie Solomon and the Education Department Center. The protocol initially involved the development of tools to evaluate the quality of end-of-life care in the pediatric ICU setting. These tools will then be used to examine the outcomes of fifty consecutive deaths occurring in each of eight geographically dispersed pediatric intensive care units. The study will run over four years, from 2005 - 2009. Robert Truog’s research focuses on topics in bioethics. 

Research Overview

Recent areas of interest include: Improving end-of-life care in pediatric critical care medicine: He recently completed a 5 year NIH funded study that developed tools to evaluate the quality of end-of-life care in the pediatric ICU. These tools were then used to investigate both qualitative and quantitative aspects of fifty consecutive deaths occurring in each of eight geographically dispersed pediatric ICUs, from the perspectives of parents, patients, and clinicians. Disclosure and apology following adverse events and medical errors: He is engaged in research to improve the skills of clinicians in communicating with patients and families after adverse events and medical errors, and is lead author on a recent book devoted to this topic. Ethical issues in organ transplantation: He is actively engaged in research on a variety of questions related to organ transplantation, including controversies surrounding the determination of death, the dead donor rule, organ procurement after circulatory determination of death, and the process of obtaining informed consent for organ donation. 

Allocation of resources: He has a longstanding interest in the topic of medical futility, and problems surrounding the allocation of scarce resources and rationing, particularly in critical care medicine. Ethics in clinical research: He is interested in many ethical aspects of clinical research, including placebo controlled trials, first-in-human and phase 1 research, ethical issues in randomized controlled trials, and ethical standards for procuring tissue from patients for research. Improving communication and relational skills in medical practice: For over ten years he as worked with a team of researchers and educators in the Institute for Professionalism and Ethical Practice to explore ethical aspects of the patient / physician relationship, particularly as they arise in the context of difficult conversations in healthcare.


Publications powered by Harvard Catalyst Profiles
  1. Quill TE, Ganzini L, Truog RD, Pope TM. Voluntarily Stopping Eating and Drinking Among Patients With Serious Advanced Illness-Clinical, Ethical, and Legal Aspects. JAMA Intern Med. 2018 Jan 01; 178(1):123-127.
  2. Truog RD. The Concept of Futility: Recognizing the Importance of Context. Perspect Biol Med. 2018; 60(3):428-432.
  3. Alame D, Truog RD. How Should Clinicians Weigh the Benefits and Harms of Discussing Politicized Topics that Influence Their Individual Patients' Health? AMA J Ethics. 2017 Dec 01; 19(12):1174-1182.
  4. Linecker M, Krones T, Berg T, Niemann CU, Steadman RH, Dutkowski P, Clavien PA, Busuttil RW, Truog RD, Petrowsky H. Potentially inappropriate liver transplantation in the era of the "sickest first" policy - A search for the upper limits. J Hepatol. 2017 Nov 11.
  5. Truog RD. Pediatric Donation After Circulatory Determination of Death: Canadian Guidelines Define Parameters of Consensus and Uncertainty. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2017 Nov; 18(11):1068-1070.
  6. Truog RD. The United Kingdom Sets Limits on Experimental Treatments: The Case of Charlie Gard. JAMA. 2017 Sep 19; 318(11):1001-1002.
  7. Truog RD. Expanding the Horizon of Our Obligations in the Clinician-Patient Relationship. Hastings Cent Rep. 2017 Jul; 47(4):40-41.
  8. Truog RD, Tasker RC. Rebuttal From Drs Truog and Tasker. Chest. 2017 Oct; 152(4):705-706.
  9. Truog RD, Tasker RC. COUNTERPOINT: Should Informed Consent Be Required for Apnea Testing in Patients With Suspected Brain Death? Yes. Chest. 2017 Oct; 152(4):702-704.
  10. Truog RD. Patient autonomy and professional expertise in decisions near the end of life: commentary on Francis Kamm. J Med Ethics. 2017 Sep; 43(9):587-588.
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  12. Rubin MA, Truog RD. What to Do When There Aren't Enough Beds in the PICU. AMA J Ethics. 2017 Feb 01; 19(2):157-163.
  13. Burns JP, Truog RD. The DNR Order after 40 Years. N Engl J Med. 2016 Aug 11; 375(6):504-6.
  14. Marron JM, Truog RD. Against "Healthy Paternalism" at the End of Life. JAMA Oncol. 2016 Jun 01; 2(6):832.
  15. Truog R. The price of our illusions and myths about the dead donor rule. J Med Ethics. 2016 05; 42(5):318-9.
  16. Angus DC, Truog RD. Toward Better ICU Use at the End of Life. JAMA. 2016 Jan 19; 315(3):255-6.
  17. Misak CJ, White DB, Truog RD. Medically Inappropriate or Futile Treatment: Deliberation and Justification. J Med Philos. 2016 Feb; 41(1):90-114.
  18. Hey SP, Truog RD. The Question of Clinical Equipoise and Patients' Best Interests. AMA J Ethics. 2015 Dec 01; 17(12):1108-15.
  19. Calhoun AW, Pian-Smith MC, Truog RD, Gaba DM, Meyer EC. The Importance of Deception in Simulation: A Response. Simul Healthc. 2015 Dec; 10(6):387-390.
  20. Brown SD, Feudtner C, Truog RD. Prenatal Decision-Making for Myelomeningocele: Can We Minimize Bias and Variability? Pediatrics. 2015 Sep; 136(3):409-11.
  21. Truog RD, Thiagarajan RR, Harrison CH. Ethical dilemmas with the use of ECMO as a bridge to transplantation. Lancet Respir Med. 2015 Aug; 3(8):597-8.
  22. Fischer DB, Truog RD. What is a reflex? A guide for understanding disorders of consciousness. Neurology. 2015 Aug 11; 85(6):543-8.
  23. Calhoun AW, Pian-Smith MC, Truog RD, Gaba DM, Meyer EC. Deception and simulation education: issues, concepts, and commentary. Simul Healthc. 2015 Jun; 10(3):163-9.
  24. Bosslet GT, Pope TM, Rubenfeld GD, Lo B, Truog RD, Rushton CH, Curtis JR, Ford DW, Osborne M, Misak C, Au DH, Azoulay E, Brody B, Fahy BG, Hall JB, Kesecioglu J, Kon AA, Lindell KO, White DB. An Official ATS/AACN/ACCP/ESICM/SCCM Policy Statement: Responding to Requests for Potentially Inappropriate Treatments in Intensive Care Units. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2015 Jun 01; 191(11):1318-30.
  25. Wilkinson D, Truog R, Savulescu J. In Favour of Medical Dissensus: Why We Should Agree to Disagree About End-of-Life Decisions. Bioethics. 2016 Feb; 30(2):109-18.
  26. Lewis-Newby M, Wicclair M, Pope T, Rushton C, Curlin F, Diekema D, Durrer D, Ehlenbach W, Gibson-Scipio W, Glavan B, Langer RL, Manthous C, Rose C, Scardella A, Shanawani H, Siegel MD, Halpern SD, Truog RD, White DB. An official American Thoracic Society policy statement: managing conscientious objections in intensive care medicine. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2015 Jan 15; 191(2):219-27.
  27. de Vos MA, Bos AP, Plötz FB, van Heerde M, de Graaff BM, Tates K, Truog RD, Willems DL. Talking with parents about end-of-life decisions for their children. Pediatrics. 2015 Feb; 135(2):e465-76.
  28. Truog RD, Brown SD, Browning D, Hundert EM, Rider EA, Bell SK, Meyer EC. Microethics: the ethics of everyday clinical practice. Hastings Cent Rep. 2015 Jan-Feb; 45(1):11-7.
  29. Misak CJ, White DB, Truog RD. Medical futility: a new look at an old problem. Chest. 2014 Dec; 146(6):1667-1672.
  30. Bell SK, Mann KJ, Truog R, Lantos JD. Should we tell parents when we've made an error? Pediatrics. 2015 Jan; 135(1):159-63.
  31. Truog RD, Cohen G, Rockoff MA. Ethical considerations surrounding lethal injection--reply. JAMA. 2014 Nov 05; 312(17):1804-5.
  32. Sprung CL, Truog RD, Curtis JR, Joynt GM, Baras M, Michalsen A, Briegel J, Kesecioglu J, Efferen L, De Robertis E, Bulpa P, Metnitz P, Patil N, Hawryluck L, Manthous C, Moreno R, Leonard S, Hill NS, Wennberg E, McDermid RC, Mikstacki A, Mularski RA, Hartog CS, Avidan A. Seeking worldwide professional consensus on the principles of end-of-life care for the critically ill. The Consensus for Worldwide End-of-Life Practice for Patients in Intensive Care Units (WELPICUS) study. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2014 Oct 15; 190(8):855-66.
  33. Stickney CA, Ziniel SI, Brett MS, Truog RD. Family participation during intensive care unit rounds: goals and expectations of parents and health care providers in a tertiary pediatric intensive care unit. J Pediatr. 2014 Dec; 165(6):1245-1251.e1.
  34. Burns JP, Sellers DE, Meyer EC, Lewis-Newby M, Truog RD. Epidemiology of death in the PICU at five U.S. teaching hospitals*. Crit Care Med. 2014 Sep; 42(9):2101-8.
  35. Truog RD, Miller FG. The meaning of brain death: a different view. JAMA Intern Med. 2014 Aug; 174(8):1215-6.
  36. McLennan S, Rich LE, Truog RD. Apologies in medicine: legal protection is not enough. CMAJ. 2015 Mar 17; 187(5):E156-9.
  37. Truog RD, Cohen IG, Rockoff MA. Physicians, medical ethics, and execution by lethal injection. JAMA. 2014 Jun 18; 311(23):2375-6.
  38. Sellers DE, Dawson R, Cohen-Bearak A, Solomond MZ, Truog RD. Measuring the quality of dying and death in the pediatric intensive care setting: the clinician PICU-QODD. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2015 Jan; 49(1):66-78.
  39. Truog RD, Miller FG. Defining death: the importance of scientific candor and transparency. Intensive Care Med. 2014 Jun; 40(6):885-7.
  40. Truog RD, Miller FG. Changing the conversation about brain death. Am J Bioeth. 2014; 14(8):9-14.
  41. Truog RD, White DB. Futile treatments in intensive care units. JAMA Intern Med. 2013 Nov 11; 173(20):1894-5.
  42. Stickney CA, Ziniel SI, Brett MS, Truog RD. Family participation during intensive care unit rounds: attitudes and experiences of parents and healthcare providers in a tertiary pediatric intensive care unit. J Pediatr. 2014 Feb; 164(2):402-6.e1-4.
  43. Gallagher TH, Mello MM, Levinson W, Wynia MK, Sachdeva AK, Snyder Sulmasy L, Truog RD, Conway J, Mazor K, Lembitz A, Bell SK, Sokol-Hessner L, Shapiro J, Puopolo AL, Arnold R. Talking with patients about other clinicians' errors. N Engl J Med. 2013 Oct 31; 369(18):1752-7.
  44. Truog RD, Miller FG, Halpern SD. The dead-donor rule and the future of organ donation. N Engl J Med. 2013 Oct 03; 369(14):1287-9.
  45. Mularski RA, Reinke LF, Carrieri-Kohlman V, Fischer MD, Campbell ML, Rocker G, Schneidman A, Jacobs SS, Arnold R, Benditt JO, Booth S, Byock I, Chan GK, Curtis JR, Donesky D, Hansen-Flaschen J, Heffner J, Klein R, Limberg TM, Manning HL, Morrison RS, Ries AL, Schmidt GA, Selecky PA, Truog RD, Wang AC, White DB. An official American Thoracic Society workshop report: assessment and palliative management of dyspnea crisis. Ann Am Thorac Soc. 2013 Oct; 10(5):S98-106.
  46. Sprung CL, Danis M, Iapichino G, Artigas A, Kesecioglu J, Moreno R, Lippert A, Curtis JR, Meale P, Cohen SL, Levy MM, Truog RD. Triage of intensive care patients: identifying agreement and controversy. Intensive Care Med. 2013 Nov; 39(11):1916-24.
  47. Gries CJ, White DB, Truog RD, Dubois J, Cosio CC, Dhanani S, Chan KM, Corris P, Dark J, Fulda G, Glazier AK, Higgins R, Love R, Mason DP, Nakagawa TA, Shapiro R, Shemie S, Tracy MF, Travaline JM, Valapour M, West L, Zaas D, Halpern SD. An official American Thoracic Society/International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation/Society of Critical Care Medicine/Association of Organ and Procurement Organizations/United Network of Organ Sharing Statement: ethical and policy considerations in organ donation after circulatory determination of death. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2013 Jul 01; 188(1):103-9.
  48. Wilfond BS, Magnus D, Antommaria AH, Appelbaum P, Aschner J, Barrington KJ, Beauchamp T, Boss RD, Burke W, Caplan AL, Capron AM, Cho M, Clayton EW, Cole FS, Darlow BA, Diekema D, Faden RR, Feudtner C, Fins JJ, Fost NC, Frader J, Hester DM, Janvier A, Joffe S, Kahn J, Kass NE, Kodish E, Lantos JD, McCullough L, McKinney R, Meadow W, O'Rourke PP, Powderly KE, Pursley DM, Ross LF, Sayeed S, Sharp RR, Sugarman J, Tarnow-Mordi WO, Taylor H, Tomlinson T, Truog RD, Unguru YT, Weise KL, Woodrum D, Youngner S. The OHRP and SUPPORT. N Engl J Med. 2013 Jun 20; 368(25):e36.
  49. Truog RD. Palliative care in the ICU: lots of questions, few answers*. Crit Care Med. 2013 Jun; 41(6):1568-9.
  50. Truog R. Ethical challenges in providing eolc in the ICU. BMJ Support Palliat Care. 2013 Jun; 3(2):241.
  51. Truog RD. Talking with families about organ donation in the ICU. BMJ Support Palliat Care. 2013 Jun; 3(2):276.
  52. Dewar R, Parkash V, Forrow L, Truog RD. "Apologies" from pathologists: why, when, and how to say "sorry" after committing a medical error. Int J Surg Pathol. 2014 May; 22(3):242-6.
  53. McLennan SR, Truog RD. Apology laws and open disclosure. Med J Aust. 2013 May 06; 198(8):411-2.
  54. Wilkinson DJ, Truog RD. The luck of the draw: physician-related variability in end-of-life decision-making in intensive care. Intensive Care Med. 2013 Jun; 39(6):1128-32.
  55. Truog RD, Meyer EC. Deception and death in medical simulation. Simul Healthc. 2013 Feb; 8(1):1-3.
  56. Krakower TM, Montello M, Mitchell C, Truog RD. The ethics of reality medical television. J Clin Ethics. 2013; 24(1):50-7.
  57. McGraw SA, Truog RD, Solomon MZ, Cohen-Bearak A, Sellers DE, Meyer EC. "I was able to still be her mom"--parenting at end of life in the pediatric intensive care unit. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2012 Nov; 13(6):e350-6.
  58. Meyer EC, Lamiani G, Foer MR, Truog RD. "What would you do if this were your child?": practitioners' responses during enacted conversations in the United States. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2012 Nov; 13(6):e372-6.
  59. Truog RD, Kesselheim AS, Joffe S. Research ethics. Paying patients for their tissue: the legacy of Henrietta Lacks. Science. 2012 Jul 06; 337(6090):37-8.
  60. Truog RD, White DB. Anesthesia does not reduce suffering at the end of life. Crit Care Med. 2012 Jul; 40(7):2268.
  61. Truog RD, Miller FG. "Brain death" is a useful fiction. Crit Care Med. 2012 Apr; 40(4):1393-4; author reply 1394.
  62. Truog RD. Patients and doctors--evolution of a relationship. N Engl J Med. 2012 Feb 16; 366(7):581-5.
  63. Brown SD, Lehman CD, Truog RD, Browning DM, Gallagher TH. Stepping out further from the shadows: disclosure of harmful radiologic errors to patients. Radiology. 2012 Feb; 262(2):381-6.
  64. Truog RD, Brock DW, White DB. Should patients receive general anesthesia prior to extubation at the end of life?. Crit Care Med. 2012 Feb; 40(2):631-3.
  65. Miller FG, Truog RD. Going all the way: ethical clarity and ethical progress. Am J Bioeth. 2012; 12(6):10-1.
  66. Truog RD. When does a nudge become a shove in seeking consent for organ donation? Am J Bioeth. 2012; 12(2):42-4.
  67. Young MJ, Brown SE, Truog RD, Halpern SD. Rationing in the intensive care unit: to disclose or disguise? Crit Care Med. 2012 Jan; 40(1):261-6.
  68. Truog RD. Tolstoy on transparency and authority in end-of-life decision-making. Intensive Care Med. 2011 Nov; 37(11):1723-4.
  69. Shah SK, Truog RD, Miller FG. Death and legal fictions. J Med Ethics. 2011 Dec; 37(12):719-22.
  70. Truog RD. Do-not-resuscitate orders in evolution: matching medical interventions with patient goals. Crit Care Med. 2011 May; 39(5):1213-4.
  71. Truog RD. Are there some things doctors just shouldn't do? Hastings Cent Rep. 2011 May-Jun; 41(3):3.
  72. Truog RD, Sayeed SA. Neonatal decision-making: beyond the standard of best interests. Am J Bioeth. 2011 Feb; 11(2):44-5.
  73. Lamiani G, Meyer EC, Leone D, Vegni E, Browning DM, Rider EA, Truog RD, Moja EA. Cross-cultural adaptation of an innovative approach to learning about difficult conversations in healthcare. Med Teach. 2011; 33(2):e57-64.
  74. Miller FG, Truog RD, Brock DW. Moral fictions and medical ethics. Bioethics. 2010 Nov; 24(9):453-60.
  75. Miller FG, Truog RD. Decapitation and the definition of death. J Med Ethics. 2010 Oct; 36(10):632-4.
  76. Truog RD, Miller FG. Counterpoint: are donors after circulatory death really dead, and does it matter? No and not really. Chest. 2010 Jul; 138(1):16-8; discussion 18-9.
  77. Truog RD, Miller FG. Brain perfusion scans to diagnose brain death: more than meets the eye. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2010 Jul; 11(4):527-8.
  78. Miller FG, Truog RD, Brock DW. The dead donor rule: can it withstand critical scrutiny? J Med Philos. 2010 Jun; 35(3):299-312.
  79. Truog RD. Translating research on communication in the intensive care unit into effective educational strategies. Crit Care Med. 2010 Mar; 38(3):976-7.
  80. Halpern SD, Truog RD. Organ donors after circulatory determination of death: not necessarily dead, and it does not necessarily matter. Crit Care Med. 2010 Mar; 38(3):1011-2.
  81. Truog RD. Is it always wrong to perform futile CPR? N Engl J Med. 2010 Feb 11; 362(6):477-9.
  82. Truog RD. The conversation around CPR/DNR should not be revived--at least for now. Am J Bioeth. 2010 Jan; 10(1):84-5.
  83. Truog RD. Screening mammography and the "r" word. N Engl J Med. 2009 Dec 24; 361(26):2501-3.
  84. Truog RD. Counterpoint: The Texas advance directives act is ethically flawed: medical futility disputes must be resolved by a fair process. Chest. 2009 Oct; 136(4):968-971.
  85. Miller FG, Truog RD. Controversies about brain death. JAMA. 2009 Jul 22; 302(4):380-1; author reply 381-2.
  86. Miller FG, Truog RD. The incoherence of determining death by neurological criteria: a commentary on "Controversies in the determination of death", a White Paper by the President's Council on Bioethics. Kennedy Inst Ethics J. 2009 Jun; 19(2):185-93.
  87. Meyer EC, Sellers DE, Browning DM, McGuffie K, Solomon MZ, Truog RD. Difficult conversations: improving communication skills and relational abilities in health care. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2009 May; 10(3):352-9.
  88. Waisel DB, Lamiani G, Sandrock NJ, Pascucci R, Truog RD, Meyer EC. Anesthesiology trainees face ethical, practical, and relational challenges in obtaining informed consent. Anesthesiology. 2009 Mar; 110(3):480-6.
  89. Waisel DB, Simon R, Truog RD, Baboolal H, Raemer DB. Anesthesiologist management of perioperative do-not-resuscitate orders: a simulation-based experiment. Simul Healthc. 2009; 4(2):70-6.
  90. Calhoun AW, Rider EA, Meyer EC, Lamiani G, Truog RD. Assessment of communication skills and self-appraisal in the simulated environment: feasibility of multirater feedback with gap analysis. Simul Healthc. 2009; 4(1):22-9.
  91. Miller FG, Truog RD. Rethinking the ethics of vital organ donations. Hastings Cent Rep. 2008 Nov-Dec; 38(6):38-46.
  92. Devictor DJ, Tissieres P, Gillis J, Truog R. Intercontinental differences in end-of-life attitudes in the pediatric intensive care unit: results of a worldwide survey. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2008 Nov; 9(6):560-6.
  93. Truog RD, Miller FG. The dead donor rule and organ transplantation. N Engl J Med. 2008 Aug 14; 359(7):674-5.
  94. Lamiani G, Meyer EC, Rider EA, Browning DM, Vegni E, Mauri E, Moja EA, Truog RD. Assumptions and blind spots in patient-centredness: action research between American and Italian health care professionals. Med Educ. 2008 Jul; 42(7):712-20.
  95. Miller FG, Truog RD. An apology for Socratic bioethics. Am J Bioeth. 2008 Jul; 8(7):3-7.
  96. Waisel DB, Truog RD. A continuum for using placebo interventions in regional anesthesia and analgesia studies. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2008 Jul; 84(1):163-5.
  97. Truog RD. Not euthanasia, simply compassionate clinical care. Crit Care Med. 2008 Apr; 36(4):1387-8; author reply 1389.
  98. Truog RD. Consent for organ donation--balancing conflicting ethical obligations. N Engl J Med. 2008 Mar 20; 358(12):1209-11.
  99. Truog RD, Campbell ML, Curtis JR, Haas CE, Luce JM, Rubenfeld GD, Rushton CH, Kaufman DC. Recommendations for end-of-life care in the intensive care unit: a consensus statement by the American College [corrected] of Critical Care Medicine. Crit Care Med. 2008 Mar; 36(3):953-63.
  100. Gawande A, Denno DW, Truog RD, Waisel D. Physicians and execution--highlights from a discussion of lethal injection. N Engl J Med. 2008 Jan 31; 358(5):448-51.
  101. Truog RD. End-of-life decision-making in the United States. Eur J Anaesthesiol Suppl. 2008; 42:43-50.
  102. Burns JP, Truog RD. Futility: a concept in evolution. Chest. 2007 Dec; 132(6):1987-93.
  103. Truog RD. Ethical assessment of pediatric research protocols. Intensive Care Med. 2008 Jan; 34(1):198-202.
  104. Browning DM, Meyer EC, Truog RD, Solomon MZ. Difficult conversations in health care: cultivating relational learning to address the hidden curriculum. Acad Med. 2007 Sep; 82(9):905-13.
  105. Truog RD. Tackling medical futility in Texas. N Engl J Med. 2007 Jul 05; 357(1):1-3.
  106. Cochrane T, Truog RD. The controversy over artificial hydration and nutrition. Neurology. 2007 Jan 30; 68(5):391; author reply 392.
  107. Browning DM, Meyer EC, Brodsky D, Truog RD. Reflections on love, fear, and specializing in the impossible. J Clin Ethics. 2007; 18(4):373-6.
  108. Truog RD. Doing research on the ethics of doing research. Crit Care. 2007; 11(1):111; discussion 111.
  109. Truog RD. Brain death - too flawed to endure, too ingrained to abandon. J Law Med Ethics. 2007; 35(2):273-81.
  110. Truog RD, Meyer EC, Burns JP. Toward interventions to improve end-of-life care in the pediatric intensive care unit. Crit Care Med. 2006 Nov; 34(11 Suppl):S373-9.
  111. Mularski RA, Curtis JR, Billings JA, Burt R, Byock I, Fuhrman C, Mosenthal AC, Medina J, Ray DE, Rubenfeld GD, Schneiderman LJ, Treece PD, Truog RD, Levy MM. Proposed quality measures for palliative care in the critically ill: a consensus from the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Critical Care Workgroup. Crit Care Med. 2006 Nov; 34(11 Suppl):S404-11.
  112. Truog RD, Mitchell C. Futility--from hospital policies to state laws. Am J Bioeth. 2006 Sep-Oct; 6(5):19-21; discussion W30-2.
  113. Truog RD, Christ G, Browning DM, Meyer EC. Sudden traumatic death in children: "we did everything, but your child didn't survive". JAMA. 2006 Jun 14; 295(22):2646-54.
  114. Brown SD, Truog RD, Johnson JA, Ecker JL. Do differences in the American Academy of Pediatrics and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists positions on the ethics of maternal-fetal interventions reflect subtly divergent professional sensitivities to pregnant women and fetuses? Pediatrics. 2006 Apr; 117(4):1382-7.
  115. Truog RD, Brock DW, Cook DJ, Danis M, Luce JM, Rubenfeld GD, Levy MM. Rationing in the intensive care unit. Crit Care Med. 2006 Apr; 34(4):958-63; quiz 971.
  116. Cochrane TI, Truog RD. Appropriate use of artificial nutrition and hydration. N Engl J Med. 2006 Mar 23; 354(12):1320-1; author reply 1320-1.
  117. Meyer EC, Ritholz MD, Burns JP, Truog RD. Improving the quality of end-of-life care in the pediatric intensive care unit: parents' priorities and recommendations. Pediatrics. 2006 Mar; 117(3):649-57.
  118. Truog RD, Cochrane TI. The truth about "donation after cardiac death". J Clin Ethics. 2006; 17(2):133-6.
  119. Mitchell C, Truog R. When a village is not enough. J Clin Ethics. 2006; 17(1):79.
  120. Truog RD, Cochrane TI. Refusal of hydration and nutrition: irrelevance of the "artificial" vs "natural" distinction. Arch Intern Med. 2005 Dec 12-26; 165(22):2574-6.
  121. Truog RD. End-of-life care: is euthanasia the answer? Intensive Care Med. 2006 Jan; 32(1):6-8.
  122. Truog RD. Organ donation without brain death? Hastings Cent Rep. 2005 Nov-Dec; 35(6):3.
  123. Solomon MZ, Sellers DE, Heller KS, Dokken DL, Levetown M, Rushton C, Truog RD, Fleischman AR. New and lingering controversies in pediatric end-of-life care. Pediatrics. 2005 Oct; 116(4):872-83.
  124. Yaguchi A, Truog RD, Curtis JR, Luce JM, Levy MM, Mélot C, Vincent JL. International differences in end-of-life attitudes in the intensive care unit: results of a survey. Arch Intern Med. 2005 Sep 26; 165(17):1970-5.
  125. Truog RD. The ethics of organ donation by living donors. N Engl J Med. 2005 Aug 04; 353(5):444-6.
  126. Truog RD. Variability in end-of-life care--how much is too much? Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2005 May; 6(3):368-9.
  127. Truog RD. Increasing the participation of children in clinical research. Intensive Care Med. 2005 Jun; 31(6):760-1.
  128. Truog RD, Waisel DB, Burns JP. Do-not-resuscitate orders in the surgical setting. Lancet. 2005 Feb 26-Mar 4; 365(9461):733-5.
  129. Truog RD, Lowney J, Hanto D, Caplan A, Brock D. Soliciting organs on the Internet. Med Ethics (Burlingt Mass). 2005; 12(3):5-8.
  130. Hardart GE, Truog RD. Practicing physicians and the role of family surrogate decision making. J Clin Ethics. 2005; 16(4):345-54.
  131. Truog RD. Informed consent: an end or a means? A response to Miller and Moreno. J Clin Ethics. 2005; 16(4):365-8; discussion 376-9.
  132. Truog RD. Are organs personal property or a societal resource? Am J Bioeth. 2005; 5(4):14-6.
  133. Luce JM, Cook DJ, Martin TR, Angus DC, Boushey HA, Curtis JR, Heffner JE, Lanken PN, Levy MM, Polite PY, Rocker GM, Truog RD. The ethical conduct of clinical research involving critically ill patients in the United States and Canada: principles and recommendations. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2004 Dec 15; 170(12):1375-84.
  134. Truog RD. Will ethical requirements bring critical care research to a halt? Intensive Care Med. 2005 Mar; 31(3):338-44.
  135. Truog R. Brain death: at once "well settled" and "persistently unresolved". Virtual Mentor. 2004 Aug 01; 6(8).
  136. Wise-Faberowski L, Soriano SG, Ferrari L, McManus ML, Wolfsdorf JI, Majzoub J, Scott RM, Truog R, Rockoff MA. Perioperative management of diabetes insipidus in children. J Neurosurg Anesthesiol. 2004 Jul; 16(3):220-5.
  137. Mitchell C, Truog RD. Excerpts from the ethics consult report: MT. J Clin Ethics. 2004; 15(3):302-6.
  138. Wise-Faberowski L, Soriano SG, Ferrari L, McManus ML, Wolfsdorf JI, Majzoub J, Scott RM, Truog R, Rockoff MA. Perioperative management of diabetes insipidus in children [corrected]. J Neurosurg Anesthesiol. 2004 Jan; 16(1):14-9.
  139. Mello MM, Burns JP, Truog RD, Studdert DM, Puopolo AL, Brennan TA. Decision making and satisfaction with care in the pediatric intensive care unit: findings from a controlled clinical trial. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2004 Jan; 5(1):40-7.
  140. Hardart MK, Truog RD. Spinal muscular atrophy--type I. Arch Dis Child. 2003 Oct; 88(10):848-50.
  141. Studdert DM, Burns JP, Mello MM, Puopolo AL, Truog RD, Brennan TA. Nature of conflict in the care of pediatric intensive care patients with prolonged stay. Pediatrics. 2003 Sep; 112(3 Pt 1):553-8.
  142. Truog RD, Robinson WM. Role of brain death and the dead-donor rule in the ethics of organ transplantation. Crit Care Med. 2003 Sep; 31(9):2391-6.
  143. Burns JP, Mello MM, Studdert DM, Puopolo AL, Truog RD, Brennan TA. Results of a clinical trial on care improvement for the critically ill. Crit Care Med. 2003 Aug; 31(8):2107-17.
  144. Studdert DM, Mello MM, Burns JP, Puopolo AL, Galper BZ, Truog RD, Brennan TA. Conflict in the care of patients with prolonged stay in the ICU: types, sources, and predictors. Intensive Care Med. 2003 Sep; 29(9):1489-97.
  145. Hardart GE, Truog RD. Attitudes and preferences of intensivists regarding the role of family interests in medical decision making for incompetent patients. Crit Care Med. 2003 Jul; 31(7):1895-900.
  146. Burns JP, Edwards J, Johnson J, Cassem NH, Truog RD. Do-not-resuscitate order after 25 years. Crit Care Med. 2003 May; 31(5):1543-50.
  147. DeVita MA, Groeger J, Truog R. Current controversies in critical care ethics: not just end of life. Crit Care Med. 2003 May; 31(5 Suppl):S343.
  148. Truog R. Revisiting "Doctor, if this were your child, what would you do?". J Clin Ethics. 2003 Spring-Summer; 14(1-2):63-7.
  149. Truog RD. Organ donation after cardiac death: what role for anesthesiologists? Anesthesiology. 2003 Mar; 98(3):599-600.
  150. Mitchell C, Truog RD. A bridge to nowhere. J Clin Ethics. 2003; 14(3):189.
  151. Truog RD. Dying patients as research subjects. Hastings Cent Rep. 2003 Jan-Feb; 33(1):3.
  152. Waisel DB, Burns JP, Johnson JA, Hardart GE, Truog RD. Guidelines for perioperative do-not-resuscitate policies. J Clin Anesth. 2002 Sep; 14(6):467-73.
  153. Hardart MK, Burns JP, Truog RD. Respiratory support in spinal muscular atrophy type I: a survey of physician practices and attitudes. Pediatrics. 2002 Aug; 110(2 Pt 1):e24.
  154. Meyer EC, Burns JP, Griffith JL, Truog RD. Parental perspectives on end-of-life care in the pediatric intensive care unit. Crit Care Med. 2002 Jan; 30(1):226-31.
  155. Mitchell C, Truog R. Irene's story. J Clin Ethics. 2002; 13(3):230-1.
  156. Mitchell C, Truog R. Case reports from the Harvard Ethics Consortium. J Clin Ethics. 2002; 13(1):49-53.
  157. Truog RD, Cist AF, Brackett SE, Burns JP, Curley MA, Danis M, DeVita MA, Rosenbaum SH, Rothenberg DM, Sprung CL, Webb SA, Wlody GS, Hurford WE. Recommendations for end-of-life care in the intensive care unit: The Ethics Committee of the Society of Critical Care Medicine. Crit Care Med. 2001 Dec; 29(12):2332-48.
  158. Levine DZ, Truog RD. Discontinuing immunosuppression in a child with a renal transplant: are there limits to withdrawing life support? Am J Kidney Dis. 2001 Oct; 38(4):901-15.
  159. Truog RD, Robinson WM. The diagnosis of brain death. N Engl J Med. 2001 Aug 23; 345(8):617; author reply 617-8.
  160. Chalfin DB, Crippen D, Franklin C, Kelly DF, Kilcullen JK, Streat S, Truog RD, Whetstine LM. 'Round-table' ethical debate: is a suicide note an authoritative 'living will'? Crit Care. 2001; 5(3):115-24.
  161. Burns JP, Mitchell C, Griffith JL, Truog RD. End-of-life care in the pediatric intensive care unit: attitudes and practices of pediatric critical care physicians and nurses. Crit Care Med. 2001 Mar; 29(3):658-64.
  162. Truog RD, Waisel DB. Do-not-resuscitate orders: from the ward to the operating room; from procedures to goals. Int Anesthesiol Clin. 2001; 39(3):53-65.
  163. Cist AF, Truog RD, Brackett SE, Hurford WE. Practical guidelines on the withdrawal of life-sustaining therapies. Int Anesthesiol Clin. 2001; 39(3):87-102.
  164. Crippen D, Levy M, Truog R, Whetstine L, Luce J. Debate: what constitutes 'terminality' and how does it relate to a living will? Crit Care. 2000; 4(6):333-8.
  165. Truog RD. Organ transplantation without brain death. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2000 Sep; 913:229-39.
  166. Burns JP, Mitchell C, Outwater KM, Geller M, Griffith JL, Todres ID, Truog RD. End-of-life care in the pediatric intensive care unit after the forgoing of life-sustaining treatment. Crit Care Med. 2000 Aug; 28(8):3060-6.
  167. Burns JP, Truog RD. Insertion of femoral-vein catheters for practice during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. N Engl J Med. 2000 May 04; 342(18):1369; author reply 1369-70.
  168. Truog RD, Burns JP, Mitchell C, Johnson J, Robinson W. Pharmacologic paralysis and withdrawal of mechanical ventilation at the end of life. N Engl J Med. 2000 Feb 17; 342(7):508-11.
  169. Rosenbaum GE, Burns J, Johnson J, Mitchell C, Robinson M, Truog RD. Autopsy consent practice at US teaching hospitals: results of a national survey. Arch Intern Med. 2000 Feb 14; 160(3):374-80.
  170. Truog RD. Futility in pediatrics: from case to policy. J Clin Ethics. 2000; 11(2):136-41.
  171. Mitchell C, Truog RD. From the files of a pediatric ethics committee. J Clin Ethics. 2000; 11(2):112-20.
  172. Krakauer EL, Penson RT, Truog RD, King LA, Chabner BA, Lynch TJ. Sedation for intractable distress of a dying patient: acute palliative care and the principle of double effect. Oncologist. 2000; 5(1):53-62.
  173. Liang B, Robinson W, Truog RD. Bragdon v. Abbott. J Clin Anesth. 1999 Sep; 11(6):494-8.
  174. Truog RD, Robinson W. Informed consent for research: the achievements of the past and the challenges of the future. Anesthesiology. 1999 Jun; 90(6):1499-501.
  175. Truog RD, Robinson W, Randolph A, Morris A. Is informed consent always necessary for randomized, controlled trials? . N Engl J Med. 1999 Mar 11; 340(10):804-7.
  176. Truog RD, Waisel DB, Burns JP. DNR in the OR: a goal-directed approach. Anesthesiology. 1999 Jan; 90(1):289-95.
  177. Truog RD. Death: merely biological? Hastings Cent Rep. 1999 Jan-Feb; 29(1):4; author reply 5.
  178. Truog RD. "Doctor, if this were your child, what would you do"? Pediatrics. 1999 Jan; 103(1):153-4.
  179. Truog RD. Informed consent and research design in critical care medicine. Crit Care. 1999; 3(3):R29-R33.
  180. Waisel DB, Truog RD. How an anesthesiologist can use the ethics consultation service. Anesthesiology. 1997 Nov; 87(5):1231-8.
  181. Waisel DB, Truog RD. Informed consent. Anesthesiology. 1997 Oct; 87(4):968-78.
  182. Waisel DB, Truog RD. The end-of-life sequence. Anesthesiology. 1997 Sep; 87(3):676-86.
  183. Waisel DB, Truog RD. An introduction to ethics. Anesthesiology. 1997 Aug; 87(2):411-7.
  184. Krakauer EL, Truog RD. Mistrust, racism, and end-of-life treatment. Hastings Cent Rep. 1997 May-Jun; 27(3):23; discussion 23-5.
  185. Burns JP, Truog RD. Ethical controversies in pediatric critical care. New Horiz. 1997 Feb; 5(1):72-84.
  186. Klepper H, Truog RD. Treating the patient to benefit others. Camb Q Healthc Ethics. 1997; 6(3):306-13.
  187. Truog RD. Is it time to abandon brain death? Hastings Cent Rep. 1997 Jan-Feb; 27(1):29-37.
  188. Liang BA, Truog RD, Waisel DB. What needs to be said? Informed consent in the context of spinal anesthesia. J Clin Anesth. 1996 Sep; 8(6):525-7.
  189. Truog RD. Is "informed right of refusal" the same as "informed consent"? J Clin Ethics. 1996; 7(1):87-9.
  190. Stein RS, Brody H, Tomlinson T, Shaner DM, Shorr AF, Mahmoud RA, Pearlman RA, Jecker NS, Schneiderman LJ, Katz JP, Waisel DB, Truog RD. CPR-not-indicated and futility. Ann Intern Med. 1996 Jan 01; 124(1):75-7.
  191. Truog RD. Randomized controlled trials of innovative therapies: are they ethical? J Nephrol. 1995 Nov-Dec; 8(6):285-6.
  192. Brett AS, Truog RD. Beyond futility to an ethic of care. Am J Med. 1995 Oct; 99(4):443-4.
  193. Waisel DB, Truog RD. The benefits of the explanation of the risks of anesthesia in the day surgery patient. J Clin Anesth. 1995 May; 7(3):200-4.
  194. Waisel DB, Truog RD. The cardiopulmonary resuscitation-not-indicated order: futility revisited. Ann Intern Med. 1995 Feb 15; 122(4):304-8.
  195. Nelson LJ, Rushton CH, Cranford RE, Nelson RM, Glover JJ, Truog RD. Forgoing medically provided nutrition and hydration in pediatric patients. J Law Med Ethics. 1995; 23(1):33-46.
  196. Truog RD. Progress in the futility debate. J Clin Ethics. 1995; 6(2):128-32.
  197. Burns JP, Reardon FE, Truog RD. Using newly deceased patients to teach resuscitation procedures. N Engl J Med. 1994 Dec 15; 331(24):1652-5.
  198. Coyle N, Truog RD. HealthCare Ethics Forum '94: pain management and sedation in the terminally ill. AACN Clin Issues Crit Care Nurs. 1994 Aug; 5(3):360-5.
  199. Truog RD, Burns JP. To breathe or not to breathe. J Clin Ethics. 1994; 5(1):39-41.
  200. Truog RD, Waisel D. Amnesia instead of anesthesia: not always a question of consent. J Clin Ethics. 1994; 5(2):153-5.
  201. Truog RD, Brennan TA. Participation of physicians in capital punishment. N Engl J Med. 1993 Oct 28; 329(18):1346-50.
  202. Truog RD. Randomized controlled trials of potentially life-saving therapies: are they ethical? Coron Artery Dis. 1993 Sep; 4(9):835-6.
  203. Fackler JC, Truog RD. Life, death, and solid organ transplantation without brain death. Crit Care Med. 1993 Sep; 21(9 Suppl):S356-7.
  204. Truog RD, Fackler JC. Withdrawing mechanical ventilation. Crit Care Med. 1993 Sep; 21(9 Suppl):S396-7.
  205. Arnold JH, Truog RD, Molengraft JA. Tolerance to isoflurane during prolonged administration. Anesthesiology. 1993 May; 78(5):985-8.
  206. Arnold JH, Truog RD, Rice SA. Prolonged administration of isoflurane to pediatric patients during mechanical ventilation. Anesth Analg. 1993 Mar; 76(3):520-6.
  207. Truog RD, Berde CB. Pain, euthanasia, and anesthesiologists. Anesthesiology. 1993 Feb; 78(2):353-60.
  208. Arnold JH, Truog RD, Thompson JE, Fackler JC. High-frequency oscillatory ventilation in pediatric respiratory failure. Crit Care Med. 1993 Feb; 21(2):272-8.
  209. Truog RD. What does "resuscitate" mean in a do-not-resuscitate (DNR) order? Anesth Analg. 1993 Jan; 76(1):206-7.
  210. Truog RD, Berde CB, Mitchell C, Grier HE. Barbiturates in the care of the terminally ill. N Engl J Med. 1992 Dec 03; 327(23):1678-82.
  211. Truog RD, Fackler JC. Rethinking brain death. Crit Care Med. 1992 Dec; 20(12):1705-13.
  212. Truog RD. Randomized controlled trials: lessons from ECMO. Clin Res. 1992 Oct; 40(3):519-27.
  213. Truog RD, Fackler JC. Anesthesia in neonatal cardiac surgery. N Engl J Med. 1992 Jul 09; 327(2):125; author reply 127.
  214. Truog RD, Brett AS, Frader J. The problem with futility. N Engl J Med. 1992 Jun 04; 326(23):1560-4.
  215. Truog RD, Rockoff MA. DNR in the OR: further questions. J Clin Anesth. 1992 May-Jun; 4(3):177-80.
  216. Truog RD. Triage in the ICU. Hastings Cent Rep. 1992 May-Jun; 22(3):13-7.
  217. Truog RD, Rockoff MA, Brustowicz RM. DNR in the OR. JAMA. 1992 Mar 18; 267(11):1466-7.
  218. Truog RD, Arnold JH. The "ethics of evidence" and randomized controlled trials. J Clin Ethics. 1992; 3(1):65-7.
  219. Truog RD. Can empirical data establish futility? J Clin Ethics. 1992; 3(4):315-6.
  220. Truog RD. Locked-in syndrome and ethics committee deliberation. J Clin Ethics. 1992; 3(3):209-10.
  221. Truog RD. Beyond futility: commentary. J Clin Ethics. 1992; 3(2):143-5.
  222. Freer JP, Truog RD, Fackler JC, Bartholme WG, Morgan H. Brain death and the termination of life support: case and analysis. J Clin Ethics. 1992; 3(1):78-82.
  223. Arnold JH, Truog RD, Scavone JM, Fenton T. Changes in the pharmacodynamic response to fentanyl in neonates during continuous infusion. J Pediatr. 1991 Oct; 119(4):639-43.
  224. Shneider B, Cronin J, Van Marter L, Maller E, Truog R, Jacobson M, Kevy S. A prospective analysis of cholestasis in infants supported with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 1991 Oct; 13(3):285-9.
  225. Truog RD, Rockoff MA. Ethical issues in pediatric anesthesia. Semin Anesth. 1991 Sep; 10(3):187-94.
  226. Truog RD. "Do-not-resuscitate" orders during anesthesia and surgery. Anesthesiology. 1991 Mar; 74(3):606-8.
  227. Truog RD, Arnold JH, Rockoff MA. Sedation before ventilator withdrawal: medical and ethical considerations. J Clin Ethics. 1991; 2(2):127-9.
  228. Truog RD, Hickey PR. Should newborns receive analgesics for pain? J Clin Ethics. 1991; 2(2):115-7.
  229. Arnold JH, Truog RD, Orav EJ, Scavone JM, Hershenson MB. Tolerance and dependence in neonates sedated with fentanyl during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Anesthesiology. 1990 Dec; 73(6):1136-40.
  230. Truog RD, Fletcher JC. Brain death and the anencephalic newborn. Bioethics. 1990 Jul; 4(3):199-215.
  231. Truog RD. Allowing to die. Crit Care Med. 1990 Jul; 18(7):790-1.
  232. Truog RD, Schena JA, Hershenson MB, Koka BV, Lillehei CW. Repair of congenital diaphragmatic hernia during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Anesthesiology. 1990 Apr; 72(4):750-3.
  233. Truog RD, Accurso FJ, Wilkening RB. Fetal pulmonary vasodilation by histamine: response to H1 and H2 stimulation. Dev Pharmacol Ther. 1990; 14(3):180-6.
  234. Truog RD, Rice SA. Inorganic fluoride and prolonged isoflurane anesthesia in the intensive care unit. Anesth Analg. 1989 Dec; 69(6):843-5.
  235. Truog RD, Fletcher JC. Anencephalic newborns. Can organs be transplanted before brain death? N Engl J Med. 1989 Aug 10; 321(6):388-91.
  236. Shneider B, Schena J, Truog R, Jacobson M, Kevy S. Exposure to di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate in infants receiving extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. N Engl J Med. 1989 Jun 08; 320(23):1563.
  237. Truog R, Anand KJ. Management of pain in the postoperative neonate. Clin Perinatol. 1989 Mar; 16(1):61-78.
  238. Howard BD, Truog R. Relationship between the neurotoxicity and phospholipase A activity of beta-bungarotoxin. Biochemistry. 1977 Jan 11; 16(1):122-5.
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