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Raffael Liegl, MD

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Smith Lab
Ophthalmology Research
Hospital Title:
Research Fellow
Research Focus Area:
AngiogenesisDiabetic RetinopathyAge Related Macular Degeneration
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Research Overview

Dr. Liegl is interested in the interaction of glucose and lipid metabolism in the context of angiogenesis in retinal pathologies such as diabetic retinopathy and age related macular degeneration. His current research projects also include tumor angiogenesis.

About the Researcher

Dr. Liegl obtained an MD from the Ludwig-Maximilians-University (LMU) in Munich, Germany. He has been interested in eye related diseases early on and did research in the cell biological lab in Munich with an emphasis on the prevention of posterior capsule opacification and retinal diseases such as diabetic retinopathy and age related macular degeneration. He started his residency in ophthalmology at the eye hospital of LMU in January 2011. He is particularly interested in neovascular eye diseases both from a basic research standpoint as well as from a clinical perspective.

He started his postdoctoral fellowship with the support of the german research foundation (DFG) in Dr. Lois Smith's lab.


Publications powered by Harvard Catalyst Profiles
  1. Fu Z, Löfqvist CA, Liegl R, Wang Z, Sun Y, Gong Y, Liu CH, Meng SS, Burnim SB, Arellano I, Chouinard MT, Duran R, Poblete A, Cho SS, Akula JD, Kinter M, Ley D, Pupp IH, Talukdar S, Hellström A, Smith LE. Photoreceptor glucose metabolism determines normal retinal vascular growth. EMBO Mol Med. 2018 Jan; 10(1):76-90.
  3. Fu Z, Liegl R, Wang Z, Gong Y, Liu CH, Sun Y, Cakir B, Burnim SB, Meng SS, Löfqvist C, SanGiovanni JP, Hellström A, Smith LEH. Adiponectin Mediates Dietary Omega-3 Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Protection Against Choroidal Neovascularization in Mice. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2017 Aug 01; 58(10):3862-3870.
  4. Gong Y, Fu Z, Liegl R, Chen J, Hellström A, Smith LE. ?-3 and ?-6 long-chain PUFAs and their enzymatic metabolites in neovascular eye diseases. Am J Clin Nutr. 2017 Jul; 106(1):16-26.
  5. Sun Y, Lin Z, Liu CH, Gong Y, Liegl R, Fredrick TW, Meng SS, Burnim SB, Wang Z, Akula JD, Pu WT, Chen J, Smith LEH. Inflammatory signals from photoreceptor modulate pathological retinal angiogenesis via c-Fos. J Exp Med. 2017 Jun 05; 214(6):1753-1767.
  6. Sun Y, Liegl R, Gong Y, Bühler A, Cakir B, Meng SS, Burnim SB, Liu CH, Reuer T, Zhang P, Walz JM, Ludwig F, Lange C, Agostini H, Böhringer D, Schlunck G, Smith LEH, Stahl A. Sema3f Protects Against Subretinal Neovascularization In Vivo. EBioMedicine. 2017 Apr; 18:281-287.
  7. Fu Z, Gong Y, Liegl R, Wang Z, Liu CH, Meng SS, Burnim SB, Saba NJ, Fredrick TW, Morss PC, Hellstrom A, Talukdar S, Smith LE. FGF21 Administration Suppresses Retinal and Choroidal Neovascularization in Mice. Cell Rep. 2017 Feb 14; 18(7):1606-1613.
  8. Siedlecki J, Wertheimer C, Wolf A, Liegl R, Priglinger C, Priglinger S, Eibl-Lindner K. Combined VEGF and PDGF inhibition for neovascular AMD: anti-angiogenic properties of axitinib on human endothelial cells and pericytes in vitro. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2017 May; 255(5):963-972.
  9. Gong Y, Shao Z, Fu Z, Edin ML, Sun Y, Liegl RG, Wang Z, Liu CH, Burnim SB, Meng SS, Lih FB, SanGiovanni JP, Zeldin DC, Hellström A, Smith LEH. Fenofibrate Inhibits Cytochrome P450 Epoxygenase 2C Activity to Suppress Pathological Ocular Angiogenesis. EBioMedicine. 2016 Nov; 13:201-211.
  10. Liegl R, Löfqvist C, Hellström A, Smith LE. IGF-1 in retinopathy of prematurity, a CNS neurovascular disease. Early Hum Dev. 2016 11; 102:13-19.
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  12. Liegl R, Hellström A, Smith LE. Retinopathy of prematurity: the need for prevention. Eye Brain. 2016; 8:91-102.
  13. Liegl R, Langer J, Seidensticker F, Reznicek L, Haritoglou C, Ulbig MW, Neubauer AS, Kampik A, Kernt M. Comparative evaluation of combined navigated laser photocoagulation and intravitreal ranibizumab in the treatment of diabetic macular edema. PLoS One. 2014; 9(12):e113981.
  14. Liegl R, Ulbig MW. Central serous chorioretinopathy. Ophthalmologica. 2014; 232(2):65-76.
  15. Reznicek L, Dabov S, Kayat B, Liegl R, Kampik A, Ulbig M, Kernt M. Scanning laser 'en face' retinal imaging of epiretinal membranes. Saudi J Ophthalmol. 2014 Apr; 28(2):134-8.
  16. Wertheimer C, Liegl R, Kernt M, Docheva D, Kampik A, Eibl-Lindner KH. EGFR-blockade with erlotinib reduces EGF and TGF-ß2 expression and the actin-cytoskeleton which influences different aspects of cellular migration in lens epithelial cells. Curr Eye Res. 2014 Oct; 39(10):1000-12.
  17. Liegl R, Koenig S, Siedlecki J, Haritoglou C, Kampik A, Kernt M. Temsirolimus inhibits proliferation and migration in retinal pigment epithelial and endothelial cells via mTOR inhibition and decreases VEGF and PDGF expression. PLoS One. 2014; 9(2):e88203.
  18. Liegl R, Wertheimer C, Kernt M, Docheva D, Kampik A, Eibl-Lindner KH. Attenuation of human lens epithelial cell spreading, migration and contraction via downregulation of the PI3K/Akt pathway. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2014 Feb; 252(2):285-92.
  19. Liegl R, Liegl K, Ceklic L, Haritoglou C, Kampik A, Ulbig MW, Kernt M, Neubauer AS. Nonmydriatic ultra-wide-field scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (Optomap) versus two-field fundus photography in diabetic retinopathy. Ophthalmologica. 2014; 231(1):31-6.
  20. Eibl-Lindner KH, Liegl R, Wertheimer C, Kampik A. [Intraocular lens as a drug delivery device]. Ophthalmologe. 2013 Oct; 110(10):990-4.
  21. Reznicek L, Cserhati S, Liegl R, Seidensticker F, Haritoglou C, Wolf A, Kampik A, Ulbig MW, Neubauer A, Kernt M. [Ranibizumab in diabetic macular edema. Evaluation of functional and morphological aspects]. Ophthalmologe. 2013 Jul; 110(7):645-53.
  22. Reznicek L, Cserhati S, Seidensticker F, Liegl R, Kampik A, Ulbig M, Neubauer AS, Kernt M. Functional and morphological changes in diabetic macular edema over the course of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor treatment. Acta Ophthalmol. 2013 Nov; 91(7):e529-36.
  23. Thiele S, Liegl RG, König S, Siedlecki J, Langer J, Eibl K, Haritoglou C, Kampik A, Kernt M. [Multikinase inhibitors as a new approach in neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD) treatment: in vitro safety evaluations of axitinib, pazopanib and sorafenib for intraocular use]. Klin Monbl Augenheilkd. 2013 Mar; 230(3):247-54.
  24. Kernt M, Cserhati S, Seidensticker F, Liegl R, Kampik A, Neubauer A, Ulbig MW, Reznicek L. Improvement of diabetic retinopathy with intravitreal Ranibizumab. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2013 Apr; 100(1):e11-3.
  25. Wertheimer C, Liegl R, Kernt M, Mayer W, Docheva D, Kampik A, Eibl-Lindner KH. EGF receptor inhibitor erlotinib as a potential pharmacological prophylaxis for posterior capsule opacification. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2013 Jun; 251(6):1529-40.
  26. Neubauer AS, Langer J, Liegl R, Haritoglou C, Wolf A, Kozak I, Seidensticker F, Ulbig M, Freeman WR, Kampik A, Kernt M. Navigated macular laser decreases retreatment rate for diabetic macular edema: a comparison with conventional macular laser. Clin Ophthalmol. 2013; 7:121-8.
  27. Seidensticker F, Reznicek L, Cserhati S, Liegl RG, Langer J, Wolf A, Kampik A, Ulbig M, Haritoglou C, Kernt M. [Improvement of fixation in diabetic macular oedema patients under intravitreal ranibizumab treatment]. Klin Monbl Augenheilkd. 2013 May; 230(5):524-9.
  28. Kernt M, Cheuteu R, Liegl RG, Seidensticker F, Cserhati S, Hirneiss C, Haritoglou C, Kampik A, Ulbig M, Neubauer AS. [Navigated focal retinal laser therapy using the NAVILAS® system for diabetic macula edema]. Ophthalmologe. 2012 Jul; 109(7):692-8.
  29. Kernt M, Cheuteu RE, Cserhati S, Seidensticker F, Liegl RG, Lang J, Haritoglou C, Kampik A, Ulbig MW, Neubauer AS. Pain and accuracy of focal laser treatment for diabetic macular edema using a retinal navigated laser (Navilas). Clin Ophthalmol. 2012; 6:289-96.
  30. Kernt M, Thiele S, Liegl RG, Kernt B, Eibl K, Haritoglou C, Ulbig MW, Kampik A. Axitinib modulates hypoxia-induced blood-retina barrier permeability and expression of growth factors. Growth Factors. 2012 Feb; 30(1):49-61.
  31. Kernt M, Neubauer AS, Liegl RG, Hirneiss C, Alge CS, Wolf A, Ulbig MW, Kampik A. Sorafenib prevents human retinal pigment epithelium cells from light-induced overexpression of VEGF, PDGF and PlGF. Br J Ophthalmol. 2010 Nov; 94(11):1533-9.
  32. Liegl R, Kernt M, Obholzer K, Wolf A, Schumann R, Haritoglou C, Kampik A, Eibl-Lindner KH. [Alkylphosphocholines inhibit lens epithelial cell proliferation and attachment]. Ophthalmologe. 2010 Oct; 107(10):937-40.
  33. Kernt M, Hirneiss C, Neubauer AS, Liegl RG, Eibl KH, Wolf A, de Kaspar H, Ulbig MW, Kampik A. [Intracameral moxifloxacin: a safe option for endophthalmitis prophylaxis? In vitro safety profile for intraocular application]. Ophthalmologe. 2010 Aug; 107(8):720-7.
  34. Kernt M, Hirneiss C, Wolf A, Liegl R, Rueping J, Neubauer A, Alge C, Ulbig M, Gandorfer A, Kampik A, Haritoglou C. Indocyanine green increases light-induced oxidative stress, senescence, and matrix metalloproteinases 1 and 3 in human RPE cells. Acta Ophthalmol. 2012 Sep; 90(6):571-9.
  35. Kernt M, Liegl RG, Rueping J, Neubauer AS, Haritoglou C, Lackerbauer CA, Eibl KH, Ulbig MW, Kampik A. Sorafenib protects human optic nerve head astrocytes from light-induced overexpression of vascular endothelial growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor, and placenta growth factor. Growth Factors. 2010 Jun; 28(3):211-20.
  36. Haritoglou C, Priglinger S, Liegl R, May CA, Eibl K, Thaler S, Kampik A, Schuettauf F. Experimental evaluation of aniline and methyl blue for intraocular surgery. Retina. 2009 Oct; 29(9):1266-73.
  37. Kernt M, Neubauer AS, Liegl RG, Lackerbauer CA, Eibl KH, Alge CS, Ulbig MW, A AK. Intracameral moxifloxacin: in vitro safety on human ocular cells. Cornea. 2009 Jun; 28(5):553-61.
  38. Eibl KH, Liegl R, Kernt M, Priglinger S, Kampik A. Alkylphosphocholines as a potential pharmacologic prophylaxis for posterior capsule opacification. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2009 May; 35(5):900-5.
  39. Kernt M, Neubauer AS, Liegl R, Eibl KH, Alge CS, Lackerbauer CA, Ulbig MW, Kampik A. Cytoprotective effects of a blue light-filtering intraocular lens on human retinal pigment epithelium by reducing phototoxic effects on vascular endothelial growth factor-alpha, Bax, and Bcl-2 expression. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2009 Feb; 35(2):354-62.
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