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Morris  White, PhD

Morris White
Medicine Research
Endocrinology Research
Hospital Title:
Medical Staff
Academic Title:
Professor of Pediatrics, Harvard Medical School
Research Focus Area:
Molecular biology of diabetes

Research Overview

Morris White investigates the molecular basis of insulin signal transduction to understand the pathophysiology of diabetes and other disorders, including obesity, infertility, and cardiovascular and retinal diseases. His studies of the insulin-signaling network reveal common elements that promote peripheral insulin action, pancreatic beta-cell growth and function, and hypothalamic control of nutrient homeostasis and fertility. His work may reveal new strategies to treat dysregulated nutrient metabolism and type 2 diabetes.

About Morris White

Morris White received his PhD degree from the University of Michigan. He completed a postdoctoral fellowship at Joslin Diabetes Institute. Dr. White in an investigator in the Howard Hughes Medical Institute. He has been a Pew scholar in the biomedical sciences and has received the Boehringer Mannheim/Juvenile Diabetes Foundation International Diabetes Care Research Award and the Outstanding Scientific Achievement Award from the American Diabetes Association.


Publications powered by Harvard Catalyst Profiles
  1. Lavin DP, White MF, Brazil DP. IRS proteins and diabetic complications. Diabetologia. 2016 Nov; 59(11):2280-91.
  2. Metz HE, Kargl J, Busch SE, Kim KH, Kurland BF, Abberbock SR, Randolph-Habecker J, Knoblaugh SE, Kolls JK, White MF, Houghton AM. Insulin receptor substrate-1 deficiency drives a proinflammatory phenotype in KRAS mutant lung adenocarcinoma. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016 Aug 2; 113(31):8795-800.
  3. Copps KD, Hançer NJ, Qiu W, White MF. Serine 302 Phosphorylation of Mouse Insulin Receptor Substrate 1 (IRS1) Is Dispensable for Normal Insulin Signaling and Feedback Regulation by Hepatic S6 Kinase. J Biol Chem. 2016 Apr 15; 291(16):8602-17.
  4. White MF. Longevity: Mapping the path to a longer life. Nature. 2015 Aug 13; 524(7564):170-1.
  5. Riehle C, Wende AR, Zhu Y, Oliveira KJ, Pereira RO, Jaishy BP, Bevins J, Valdez S, Noh J, Kim BJ, Moreira AB, Weatherford ET, Manivel R, Rawlings TA, Rech M, White MF, Abel ED. Insulin receptor substrates are essential for the bioenergetic and hypertrophic response of the heart to exercise training. Mol Cell Biol. 2014 Sep 15; 34(18):3450-60.
  6. Ryu J, Galan AK, Xin X, Dong F, Abdul-Ghani MA, Zhou L, Wang C, Li C, Holmes BM, Sloane LB, Austad SN, Guo S, Musi N, DeFronzo RA, Deng C, White MF, Liu F, Dong LQ. APPL1 potentiates insulin sensitivity by facilitating the binding of IRS1/2 to the insulin receptor. Cell Rep. 2014 May 22; 7(4):1227-38.
  7. Hançer NJ, Qiu W, Cherella C, Li Y, Copps KD, White MF. Insulin and metabolic stress stimulate multisite serine/threonine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate 1 and inhibit tyrosine phosphorylation. J Biol Chem. 2014 May 2; 289(18):12467-84.
  8. Herrema H, Lee J, Zhou Y, Copps KD, White MF, Ozcan U. IRS1Ser³°7 phosphorylation does not mediate mTORC1-induced insulin resistance. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2014 Jan 10; 443(2):689-93.
  9. Qi Y, Xu Z, Zhu Q, Thomas C, Kumar R, Feng H, Dostal DE, White MF, Baker KM, Guo S. Myocardial loss of IRS1 and IRS2 causes heart failure and is controlled by p38a MAPK during insulin resistance. Diabetes. 2013 Nov; 62(11):3887-900.
  10. Riehle C, Wende AR, Sena S, Pires KM, Pereira RO, Zhu Y, Bugger H, Frank D, Bevins J, Chen D, Perry CN, Dong XC, Valdez S, Rech M, Sheng X, Weimer BC, Gottlieb RA, White MF, Abel ED. Insulin receptor substrate signaling suppresses neonatal autophagy in the heart. J Clin Invest. 2013 Dec; 123(12):5319-33.
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  12. Sadagurski M, Dong XC, Myers MG, White MF. Irs2 and Irs4 synergize in non-LepRb neurons to control energy balance and glucose homeostasis. Mol Metab. 2014 Feb; 3(1):55-63.
  13. Tao R, Xiong X, Harris RA, White MF, Dong XC. Genetic inactivation of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinases improves hepatic insulin resistance induced diabetes. PLoS One. 2013; 8(8):e71997.
  14. Ersoy BA, Tarun A, D'Aquino K, Hancer NJ, Ukomadu C, White MF, Michel T, Manning BD, Cohen DE. Phosphatidylcholine transfer protein interacts with thioesterase superfamily member 2 to attenuate insulin signaling. Sci Signal. 2013 Jul 30; 6(286):ra64.
  15. Rhodes CJ, White MF, Leahy JL, Kahn SE. Direct autocrine action of insulin on ß-cells: does it make physiological sense? Diabetes. 2013 Jul; 62(7):2157-63.
  16. Park K, Li Q, Rask-Madsen C, Mima A, Mizutani K, Winnay J, Maeda Y, D'Aquino K, White MF, Feener EP, King GL. Serine phosphorylation sites on IRS2 activated by angiotensin II and protein kinase C to induce selective insulin resistance in endothelial cells. Mol Cell Biol. 2013 Aug; 33(16):3227-41.
  17. Geetha T, Rege SD, Mathews SE, Meakin SO, White MF, Babu JR. Nerve growth factor receptor TrkA, a new receptor in insulin signaling pathway in PC12 cells. J Biol Chem. 2013 Aug 16; 288(33):23807-13.
  18. Hookham MB, O'Donovan HC, Church RH, Mercier-Zuber A, Luzi L, Curran SP, Carew RM, Droguett A, Mezzano S, Schubert M, White MF, Crean JK, Brazil DP. Insulin receptor substrate-2 is expressed in kidney epithelium and up-regulated in diabetic nephropathy. FEBS J. 2013 Jul; 280(14):3232-43.
  19. Jain S, Ruiz de Azua I, Lu H, White MF, Guettier JM, Wess J. Chronic activation of a designer G(q)-coupled receptor improves ß cell function. J Clin Invest. 2013 Apr; 123(4):1750-62.
  20. Sadagurski M, White MF. Integrating metabolism and longevity through insulin and IGF1 signaling. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 2013 Mar; 42(1):127-48.
  21. Behl M, Rao D, Aagaard K, Davidson TL, Levin ED, Slotkin TA, Srinivasan S, Wallinga D, White MF, Walker VR, Thayer KA, Holloway AC. Evaluation of the association between maternal smoking, childhood obesity, and metabolic disorders: a national toxicology program workshop review. Environ Health Perspect. 2013 Feb; 121(2):170-80.
  22. Wang Z, Cheng Z, Cristofaro V, Li J, Xiao X, Gomez P, Ge R, Gong E, Strle K, Sullivan MP, Adam RM, White MF, Olumi AF. Inhibition of TNF-a improves the bladder dysfunction that is associated with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes. 2012 Aug; 61(8):2134-45.
  23. Matveyenko AV, Liuwantara D, Gurlo T, Kirakossian D, Dalla Man C, Cobelli C, White MF, Copps KD, Volpi E, Fujita S, Butler PC. Pulsatile portal vein insulin delivery enhances hepatic insulin action and signaling. Diabetes. 2012 Sep; 61(9):2269-79.
  24. Sadagurski M, Leshan RL, Patterson C, Rozzo A, Kuznetsova A, Skorupski J, Jones JC, Depinho RA, Myers MG, White MF. IRS2 signaling in LepR-b neurons suppresses FoxO1 to control energy balance independently of leptin action. Cell Metab. 2012 May 2; 15(5):703-12.
  25. Cheng Z, White MF. kNOXing on the door of selective insulin resistance. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2012 May; 32(5):1063-5.
  26. Cheng Z, White MF. The AKTion in non-canonical insulin signaling. Nat Med. 2012 Mar; 18(3):351-3.
  27. Maeno Y, Li Q, Park K, Rask-Madsen C, Gao B, Matsumoto M, Liu Y, Wu IH, White MF, Feener EP, King GL. Inhibition of insulin signaling in endothelial cells by protein kinase C-induced phosphorylation of p85 subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K). J Biol Chem. 2012 Feb 10; 287(7):4518-30.
  28. Martín ED, Sánchez-Perez A, Trejo JL, Martin-Aldana JA, Cano Jaimez M, Pons S, Acosta Umanzor C, Menes L, White MF, Burks DJ. IRS-2 Deficiency impairs NMDA receptor-dependent long-term potentiation. Cereb Cortex. 2012 Aug; 22(8):1717-27.
  29. Sadagurski M, Cheng Z, Rozzo A, Palazzolo I, Kelley GR, Dong X, Krainc D, White MF. IRS2 increases mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress in a mouse model of Huntington disease. J Clin Invest. 2011 Oct; 121(10):4070-81.
  30. Zhou Y, Lee J, Reno CM, Sun C, Park SW, Chung J, Lee J, Fisher SJ, White MF, Biddinger SB, Ozcan U. Regulation of glucose homeostasis through a XBP-1-FoxO1 interaction. Nat Med. 2011 Mar; 17(3):356-65.
  31. Long YC, Cheng Z, Copps KD, White MF. Insulin receptor substrates Irs1 and Irs2 coordinate skeletal muscle growth and metabolism via the Akt and AMPK pathways. Mol Cell Biol. 2011 Feb; 31(3):430-41.
  32. Wei D, Tao R, Zhang Y, White MF, Dong XC. Feedback regulation of hepatic gluconeogenesis through modulation of SHP/Nr0b2 gene expression by Sirt1 and FoxO1. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2011 Feb; 300(2):E312-20.
  33. Cheng Z, White MF. Targeting Forkhead box O1 from the concept to metabolic diseases: lessons from mouse models. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2011 Feb 15; 14(4):649-61.
  34. Cheng Z, Tseng Y, White MF. Insulin signaling meets mitochondria in metabolism. Trends Endocrinol Metab. 2010 Oct; 21(10):589-98.
  35. Carew RM, Sadagurski M, Goldschmeding R, Martin F, White MF, Brazil DP. Deletion of Irs2 causes reduced kidney size in mice: role for inhibition of GSK3beta? BMC Dev Biol. 2010; 10:73.
  36. Zaret KS, White MF. Diabetes forum: Extreme makeover of pancreatic alpha-cells. Nature. 2010 Apr 22; 464(7292):1132-3.
  37. Cheng Z, White MF. Foxo1 in hepatic lipid metabolism. Cell Cycle. 2010 Jan 15; 9(2):219-20.
  38. Copps KD, Hancer NJ, Opare-Ado L, Qiu W, Walsh C, White MF. Irs1 serine 307 promotes insulin sensitivity in mice. Cell Metab. 2010 Jan; 11(1):84-92.
  39. Liang L, Guo WH, Esquiliano DR, Asai M, Rodriguez S, Giraud J, Kushner JA, White MF, Lopez MF. Insulin-like growth factor 2 and the insulin receptor, but not insulin, regulate fetal hepatic glycogen synthesis. Endocrinology. 2010 Feb; 151(2):741-7.
  40. Barbieri M, Rizzo MR, Papa M, Boccardi V, Esposito A, White MF, Paolisso G. The IRS2 Gly1057Asp variant is associated with human longevity. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2010 Mar; 65(3):282-6.
  41. Cheng Z, Guo S, Copps K, Dong X, Kollipara R, Rodgers JT, Depinho RA, Puigserver P, White MF. Foxo1 integrates insulin signaling with mitochondrial function in the liver. Nat Med. 2009 Nov; 15(11):1307-11.
  42. Guo S, Copps KD, Dong X, Park S, Cheng Z, Pocai A, Rossetti L, Sajan M, Farese RV, White MF. The Irs1 branch of the insulin signaling cascade plays a dominant role in hepatic nutrient homeostasis. Mol Cell Biol. 2009 Sep; 29(18):5070-83.
  43. Norquay LD, D'Aquino KE, Opare-Addo LM, Kuznetsova A, Haas M, Bluestone JA, White MF. Insulin receptor substrate-2 in beta-cells decreases diabetes in nonobese diabetic mice. Endocrinology. 2009 Oct; 150(10):4531-40.
  44. White MF. Metformin and insulin meet in a most atypical way. Cell Metab. 2009 Jun; 9(6):485-7.
  45. Lee DH, Shi J, Jeoung NH, Kim MS, Zabolotny JM, Lee SW, White MF, Wei L, Kim YB. Targeted disruption of ROCK1 causes insulin resistance in vivo. J Biol Chem. 2009 May 1; 284(18):11776-80.
  46. Copps KD, White MF. Breathing room: the (un)natural history of adipose microhypoxia and insulin resistance. Diabetes. 2009 Jan; 58(1):26-7.
  47. Szabolcs M, Keniry M, Simpson L, Reid LJ, Koujak S, Schiff SC, Davidian G, Licata S, Gruvberger-Saal S, Murty VV, Nandula S, Efstratiadis A, Kushner JA, White MF, Parsons R. Irs2 inactivation suppresses tumor progression in Pten+/- mice. Am J Pathol. 2009 Jan; 174(1):276-86.
  48. Morino K, Neschen S, Bilz S, Sono S, Tsirigotis D, Reznick RM, Moore I, Nagai Y, Samuel V, Sebastian D, White M, Philbrick W, Shulman GI. Muscle-specific IRS-1 Ser-&gtAla transgenic mice are protected from fat-induced insulin resistance in skeletal muscle. Diabetes. 2008 Oct; 57(10):2644-51.
  49. Dong XC, Copps KD, Guo S, Li Y, Kollipara R, DePinho RA, White MF. Inactivation of hepatic Foxo1 by insulin signaling is required for adaptive nutrient homeostasis and endocrine growth regulation. Cell Metab. 2008 Jul; 8(1):65-76.
  50. Wu J, Tseng YD, Xu CF, Neubert TA, White MF, Hubbard SR. Structural and biochemical characterization of the KRLB region in insulin receptor substrate-2. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2008 Mar; 15(3):251-8.
  51. Tanabe K, Liu Z, Patel S, Doble BW, Li L, Cras-Méneur C, Martinez SC, Welling CM, White MF, Bernal-Mizrachi E, Woodgett JR, Permutt MA. Genetic deficiency of glycogen synthase kinase-3beta corrects diabetes in mouse models of insulin resistance. PLoS Biol. 2008 Feb; 6(2):e37.
  52. Taguchi A, White MF. Insulin-like signaling, nutrient homeostasis, and life span. Annu Rev Physiol. 2008; 70:191-212.
  53. Li D, Yin X, Zmuda EJ, Wolford CC, Dong X, White MF, Hai T. The repression of IRS2 gene by ATF3, a stress-inducible gene, contributes to pancreatic beta-cell apoptosis. Diabetes. 2008 Mar; 57(3):635-44.
  54. Sadagurski M, Nofech-Mozes S, Weingarten G, White MF, Kadowaki T, Wertheimer E. Insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) plays a unique role in normal epidermal physiology. J Cell Physiol. 2007 Nov; 213(2):519-27.
  55. Taguchi A, Wartschow LM, White MF. Brain IRS2 signaling coordinates life span and nutrient homeostasis. Science. 2007 Jul 20; 317(5836):369-72.
  56. Giraud J, Haas M, Feener EP, Copps KD, Dong X, Dunn SL, White MF. Phosphorylation of Irs1 at SER-522 inhibits insulin signaling. Mol Endocrinol. 2007 Sep; 21(9):2294-302.
  57. Kim JJ, Kido Y, Scherer PE, White MF, Accili D. Analysis of compensatory beta-cell response in mice with combined mutations of Insr and Irs2. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2007 Jun; 292(6):E1694-701.
  58. Gonzalez-Navarro H, Vila-Caballer M, Pastor MF, Vinue A, White MF, Burks D, Andres V. Plasma insulin levels predict the development of atherosclerosis when IRS2 deficiency is combined with severe hypercholesterolemia in apolipoprotein E-null mice. Front Biosci. 2007; 12:2291-8.
  59. Ma Z, Gibson SL, Byrne MA, Zhang J, White MF, Shaw LM. Suppression of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) promotes mammary tumor metastasis. Mol Cell Biol. 2006 Dec; 26(24):9338-51.
  60. Guo S, Dunn SL, White MF. The reciprocal stability of FOXO1 and IRS2 creates a regulatory circuit that controls insulin signaling. Mol Endocrinol. 2006 Dec; 20(12):3389-99.
  61. White MF. Regulating insulin signaling and beta-cell function through IRS proteins. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2006 Jul; 84(7):725-37.
  62. Dong X, Park S, Lin X, Copps K, Yi X, White MF. Irs1 and Irs2 signaling is essential for hepatic glucose homeostasis and systemic growth. J Clin Invest. 2006 Jan; 116(1):101-14.
  63. Lee JY, Ristow M, Lin X, White MF, Magnuson MA, Hennighausen L. RIP-Cre revisited, evidence for impairments of pancreatic beta-cell function. J Biol Chem. 2006 Feb 3; 281(5):2649-53.
  64. Morino K, Petersen KF, Dufour S, Befroy D, Frattini J, Shatzkes N, Neschen S, White MF, Bilz S, Sono S, Pypaert M, Shulman GI. Reduced mitochondrial density and increased IRS-1 serine phosphorylation in muscle of insulin-resistant offspring of type 2 diabetic parents. J Clin Invest. 2005 Dec; 115(12):3587-93.
  65. Park S, Dong X, Fisher TL, Dunn S, Omer AK, Weir G, White MF. Exendin-4 uses Irs2 signaling to mediate pancreatic beta cell growth and function. J Biol Chem. 2006 Jan 13; 281(2):1159-68.
  66. Kushner JA, Simpson L, Wartschow LM, Guo S, Rankin MM, Parsons R, White MF. Phosphatase and tensin homolog regulation of islet growth and glucose homeostasis. J Biol Chem. 2005 Nov 25; 280(47):39388-93.
  67. Zhang Q, Carter EA, Ma BY, White M, Fischman AJ, Tompkins RG. Molecular mechanism(s) of burn-induced insulin resistance in murine skeletal muscle: role of IRS phosphorylation. Life Sci. 2005 Oct 28; 77(24):3068-77.
  68. Clough MH, Schneider DJ, Sobel BE, White MF, Wadsworth MP, Taatjes DJ. Attenuation of accumulation of neointimal lipid by pioglitazone in mice genetically deficient in insulin receptor substrate-2 and apolipoprotein E. J Histochem Cytochem. 2005 May; 53(5):603-10.
  69. Kushner JA, Ciemerych MA, Sicinska E, Wartschow LM, Teta M, Long SY, Sicinski P, White MF. Cyclins D2 and D1 are essential for postnatal pancreatic beta-cell growth. Mol Cell Biol. 2005 May; 25(9):3752-62.
  70. Hennige AM, Ozcan U, Okada T, Jhala US, Schubert M, White MF, Kulkarni RN. Alterations in growth and apoptosis of insulin receptor substrate-1-deficient beta-cells. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2005 Aug; 289(2):E337-46.
  71. Sadagurski M, Weingarten G, Rhodes CJ, White MF, Wertheimer E. Insulin receptor substrate 2 plays diverse cell-specific roles in the regulation of glucose transport. J Biol Chem. 2005 Apr 15; 280(15):14536-44.
  72. Yi X, Schubert M, Peachey NS, Suzuma K, Burks DJ, Kushner JA, Suzuma I, Cahill C, Flint CL, Dow MA, Leshan RL, King GL, White MF. Insulin receptor substrate 2 is essential for maturation and survival of photoreceptor cells. J Neurosci. 2005 Feb 2; 25(5):1240-8.
  73. Uchida T, Nakamura T, Hashimoto N, Matsuda T, Kotani K, Sakaue H, Kido Y, Hayashi Y, Nakayama KI, White MF, Kasuga M. Deletion of Cdkn1b ameliorates hyperglycemia by maintaining compensatory hyperinsulinemia in diabetic mice. Nat Med. 2005 Feb; 11(2):175-82.
  74. Fisher TL, White MF. Signaling pathways: the benefits of good communication. Curr Biol. 2004 Dec 14; 14(23):R1005-7.
  75. Valverde AM, Fabregat I, Burks DJ, White MF, Benito M. IRS-2 mediates the antiapoptotic effect of insulin in neonatal hepatocytes. Hepatology. 2004 Dec; 40(6):1285-94.
  76. Nagle JA, Ma Z, Byrne MA, White MF, Shaw LM. Involvement of insulin receptor substrate 2 in mammary tumor metastasis. Mol Cell Biol. 2004 Nov; 24(22):9726-35.
  77. Lin X, Taguchi A, Park S, Kushner JA, Li F, Li Y, White MF. Dysregulation of insulin receptor substrate 2 in beta cells and brain causes obesity and diabetes. J Clin Invest. 2004 Oct; 114(7):908-16.
  78. Carter EA, Burks D, Fischman AJ, White M, Tompkins RG. Insulin resistance in thermally-injured rats is associated with post-receptor alterations in skeletal muscle, liver and adipose tissue. Int J Mol Med. 2004 Oct; 14(4):653-8.
  79. Duan C, Yang H, White MF, Rui L. Disruption of the SH2-B gene causes age-dependent insulin resistance and glucose intolerance. Mol Cell Biol. 2004 Sep; 24(17):7435-43.
  80. Carlson CJ, White MF, Rondinone CM. Mammalian target of rapamycin regulates IRS-1 serine 307 phosphorylation. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004 Apr 2; 316(2):533-9.
  81. Lee YH, White MF. Insulin receptor substrate proteins and diabetes. Arch Pharm Res. 2004 Apr; 27(4):361-70.
  82. Fujii N, Boppart MD, Dufresne SD, Crowley PF, Jozsi AC, Sakamoto K, Yu H, Aschenbach WG, Kim S, Miyazaki H, Rui L, White MF, Hirshman MF, Goodyear LJ. Overexpression or ablation of JNK in skeletal muscle has no effect on glycogen synthase activity. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2004 Jul; 287(1):C200-8.
  83. Kushner JA, Haj FG, Klaman LD, Dow MA, Kahn BB, Neel BG, White MF. Islet-sparing effects of protein tyrosine phosphatase-1b deficiency delays onset of diabetes in IRS2 knockout mice. Diabetes. 2004 Jan; 53(1):61-6.
  84. White MF. Insulin signaling in health and disease. Science. 2003 Dec 5; 302(5651):1710-1.
  85. Giraud J, Leshan R, Lee YH, White MF. Nutrient-dependent and insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1 on serine 302 correlates with increased insulin signaling. J Biol Chem. 2004 Jan 30; 279(5):3447-54.
  86. Neid M, Datta K, Stephan S, Khanna I, Pal S, Shaw L, White M, Mukhopadhyay D. Role of insulin receptor substrates and protein kinase C-zeta in vascular permeability factor/vascular endothelial growth factor expression in pancreatic cancer cells. J Biol Chem. 2004 Feb 6; 279(6):3941-8.
  87. Hennige AM, Burks DJ, Ozcan U, Kulkarni RN, Ye J, Park S, Schubert M, Fisher TL, Dow MA, Leshan R, Zakaria M, Mossa-Basha M, White MF. Upregulation of insulin receptor substrate-2 in pancreatic beta cells prevents diabetes. J Clin Invest. 2003 Nov; 112(10):1521-32.
  88. Valverde AM, Burks DJ, Fabregat I, Fisher TL, Carretero J, White MF, Benito M. Molecular mechanisms of insulin resistance in IRS-2-deficient hepatocytes. Diabetes. 2003 Sep; 52(9):2239-48.
  89. Schubert M, Brazil DP, Burks DJ, Kushner JA, Ye J, Flint CL, Farhang-Fallah J, Dikkes P, Warot XM, Rio C, Corfas G, White MF. Insulin receptor substrate-2 deficiency impairs brain growth and promotes tau phosphorylation. J Neurosci. 2003 Aug 6; 23(18):7084-92.
  90. Jhala US, Canettieri G, Screaton RA, Kulkarni RN, Krajewski S, Reed J, Walker J, Lin X, White M, Montminy M. cAMP promotes pancreatic beta-cell survival via CREB-mediated induction of IRS2. Genes Dev. 2003 Jul 1; 17(13):1575-80.
  91. Arribas M, Valverde AM, Burks D, Klein J, Farese RV, White MF, Benito M. Essential role of protein kinase C zeta in the impairment of insulin-induced glucose transport in IRS-2-deficient brown adipocytes. FEBS Lett. 2003 Feb 11; 536(1-3):161-6.
  92. Kitamura T, Nakae J, Kitamura Y, Kido Y, Biggs WH, Wright CV, White MF, Arden KC, Accili D. The forkhead transcription factor Foxo1 links insulin signaling to Pdx1 regulation of pancreatic beta cell growth. J Clin Invest. 2002 Dec; 110(12):1839-47.
  93. Yu C, Chen Y, Cline GW, Zhang D, Zong H, Wang Y, Bergeron R, Kim JK, Cushman SW, Cooney GJ, Atcheson B, White MF, Kraegen EW, Shulman GI. Mechanism by which fatty acids inhibit insulin activation of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1)-associated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity in muscle. J Biol Chem. 2002 Dec 27; 277(52):50230-6.
  94. Chang Q, Li Y, White MF, Fletcher JA, Xiao S. Constitutive activation of insulin receptor substrate 1 is a frequent event in human tumors: therapeutic implications. Cancer Res. 2002 Nov 1; 62(21):6035-8.
  95. Lee YH, Giraud J, Davis RJ, White MF. c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) mediates feedback inhibition of the insulin signaling cascade. J Biol Chem. 2003 Jan 31; 278(5):2896-902.
  96. Xuan S, Kitamura T, Nakae J, Politi K, Kido Y, Fisher PE, Morroni M, Cinti S, White MF, Herrera PL, Accili D, Efstratiadis A. Defective insulin secretion in pancreatic beta cells lacking type 1 IGF receptor. J Clin Invest. 2002 Oct; 110(7):1011-9.
  97. Rui L, Yuan M, Frantz D, Shoelson S, White MF. SOCS-1 and SOCS-3 block insulin signaling by ubiquitin-mediated degradation of IRS1 and IRS2. J Biol Chem. 2002 Nov 1; 277(44):42394-8.
  98. White MF. IRS proteins and the common path to diabetes. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2002 Sep; 283(3):E413-22.
  99. Wurster AL, Rodgers VL, White MF, Rothstein TL, Grusby MJ. Interleukin-4-mediated protection of primary B cells from apoptosis through Stat6-dependent up-regulation of Bcl-xL. J Biol Chem. 2002 Jul 26; 277(30):27169-75.
  100. Kushner JA, Ye J, Schubert M, Burks DJ, Dow MA, Flint CL, Dutta S, Wright CV, Montminy MR, White MF. Pdx1 restores beta cell function in Irs2 knockout mice. J Clin Invest. 2002 May; 109(9):1193-201.
  101. Howlett KF, Sakamoto K, Hirshman MF, Aschenbach WG, Dow M, White MF, Goodyear LJ. Insulin signaling after exercise in insulin receptor substrate-2-deficient mice. Diabetes. 2002 Feb; 51(2):479-83.
  102. Xiao H, Yin T, Wang XY, Uchida T, Chung J, White MF, Yang YC. Specificity of interleukin-2 receptor gamma chain superfamily cytokines is mediated by insulin receptor substrate-dependent pathway. J Biol Chem. 2002 Mar 8; 277(10):8091-8.
  103. Wurster AL, Withers DJ, Uchida T, White MF, Grusby MJ. Stat6 and IRS-2 cooperate in interleukin 4 (IL-4)-induced proliferation and differentiation but are dispensable for IL-4-dependent rescue from apoptosis. Mol Cell Biol. 2002 Jan; 22(1):117-26.
  104. Aguirre V, Werner ED, Giraud J, Lee YH, Shoelson SE, White MF. Phosphorylation of Ser307 in insulin receptor substrate-1 blocks interactions with the insulin receptor and inhibits insulin action. J Biol Chem. 2002 Jan 11; 277(2):1531-7.
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