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John Brownstein, PhD

John Brownstein PhD
Program:
Computational Health Informatics Program (CHIP)
Department:
Medicine Research
Hospital Title:
Chief Innovation Officer
Academic Title:
Professor, Harvard Medical School
Research Focus Area:
Computational EpidemiologyHealth GeographicsPopulation Health Informatics
Contact Via Email
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About John Browstein, PhD

Brownstein was trained as an epidemiologist at Yale University, where he received his PhD. Dr. Brownstein’s research interests are in the development of methods and data sources in public health informatics which focuses on two major areas: (1) the design, evaluation and implementation of public health surveillance systems and (2) statistical modeling of public health surveillance data to improve prevention and control activities. This research has focused on a variety of infectious disease systems including malaria, HIV, dengue, West Nile virus, Lyme disease, RSV, salmonella, listeria and influenza.

Current research activities focus on predicting patterns of influenza epidemics and pandemics, with specific interests in the efficacy of disease control strategies including vaccination, quarantine and travel restrictions. He has received funding for this research from the National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and Canadian Institutes of Health Research. He is also leading the development several novel disease surveillance systems, including HealthMap.org, an internet-based global infectious disease intelligence system. The system receives grant funding from Google.org and is currently in use by the CDC, WHO, DHS, DOD, HHS, EU among others. As reported in the New England Journal of Medicine, HealthMap data provided one of the earliest indications of the novel H1N1 virus in 2009. He also published extensively on issues of patient privacy (including a recent piece in the New England Journal). His research also includes the development novel surveillance methods and informatics approaches for the post-marketing surveillance of therapeutics.

Dr. Brownstein has advised the World Health Organization, Institute of Medicine, the US Departments of Health and Human Services and Homeland Security, and the White House on real-time public health surveillance data. He has used this experience in his role as Vice President of the International Society for Disease Surveillance. He has authored over one hundred articles in the area of disease surveillance. This work has been reported on widely including pieces in the New England Journal of Medicine, Science, Nature, New York Times, The Wall Street Journal, CNN, National Public Radio and the BBC.

Affiliations

  • Associate Professor, Department of Pediatrics, Harvard Medical School
  • Director, Computational Epidemiology Group, Children’s Hospital Boston
  • Research Scientist, Partners Healthcare
  • Adjunct Professor, McGill University
  • Vice President, International Society for Disease Surveillance

Publications

Publications powered by Harvard Catalyst Profiles
  1. McGinnis DP, Brownstein JS, Patel CJ. Environment-Wide Association Study of Blood Pressure in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999-2012). Sci Rep. 2016; 6:30373.
  2. Herrera JL, Srinivasan R, Brownstein JS, Galvani AP, Meyers LA. Disease Surveillance on Complex Social Networks. PLoS Comput Biol. 2016 Jul; 12(7):e1004928.
  3. Tian H, Huang S, Zhou S, Bi P, Yang Z, Li X, Chen L, Cazelles B, Yang J, Luo L, Jing Q, Yuan W, Pei Y, Sun Z, Yue T, Kwan MP, Liu Q, Wang M, Tong S, Brownstein JS, Xu B. Surface water areas significantly impacted 2014 dengue outbreaks in Guangzhou, China. Environ Res. 2016 Oct; 150:299-305.
  4. Majumder MS, Santillana M, Mekaru SR, McGinnis DP, Khan K, Brownstein JS. Utilizing Nontraditional Data Sources for Near Real-Time Estimation of Transmission Dynamics During the 2015-2016 Colombian Zika Virus Disease Outbreak. JMIR Public Health Surveill. 2016; 2(1):e30.
  5. Nsoesie EO, Kraemer MU, Golding N, Pigott DM, Brady OJ, Moyes CL, Johansson MA, Gething PW, Velayudhan R, Khan K, Hay SI, Brownstein JS. Global distribution and environmental suitability for chikungunya virus, 1952 to 2015. Euro Surveill. 2016 May 19; 21(20).
  6. Wilder-Smith A, Cohn E, Lloyd DC, Tozan Y, Brownstein JS. Internet-based media coverage on dengue in Sri Lanka between 2007 and 2015. Glob Health Action. 2016; 9:31620.
  7. Santillana M, Nguyen AT, Louie T, Zink A, Gray J, Sung I, Brownstein JS. Cloud-based Electronic Health Records for Real-time, Region-specific Influenza Surveillance. Sci Rep. 2016; 6:25732.
  8. Powell GE, Seifert HA, Reblin T, Burstein PJ, Blowers J, Menius JA, Painter JL, Thomas M, Pierce CE, Rodriguez HW, Brownstein JS, Freifeld CC, Bell HG, Dasgupta N. Social Media Listening for Routine Post-Marketing Safety Surveillance. Drug Saf. 2016 May; 39(5):443-54.
  9. Messina JP, Kraemer MU, Brady OJ, Pigott DM, Shearer FM, Weiss DJ, Golding N, Ruktanonchai CW, Gething PW, Cohn E, Brownstein JS, Khan K, Tatem AJ, Jaenisch T, Murray CJ, Marinho F, Scott TW, Hay SI. Mapping global environmental suitability for Zika virus. Elife. 2016; 5.
  10. Ndeffo-Mbah ML, Durham DP, Skrip LA, Nsoesie EO, Brownstein JS, Fish D, Galvani AP. Evaluating the effectiveness of localized control strategies to curtail chikungunya. Sci Rep. 2016; 6:23997.
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  12. Bahk CY, Cumming M, Paushter L, Madoff LC, Thomson A, Brownstein JS. Publicly Available Online Tool Facilitates Real-Time Monitoring Of Vaccine Conversations And Sentiments. Health Aff (Millwood). 2016 Feb; 35(2):341-7.
  13. Bogoch II, Brady OJ, Kraemer MU, German M, Creatore MI, Kulkarni MA, Brownstein JS, Mekaru SR, Hay SI, Groot E, Watts A, Khan K. Anticipating the international spread of Zika virus from Brazil. Lancet. 2016 Jan 23; 387(10016):335-6.
  14. Paul MJ, Sarker A, Brownstein JS, Nikfarjam A, Scotch M, Smith KL, Gonzalez G. SOCIAL MEDIA MINING FOR PUBLIC HEALTH MONITORING AND SURVEILLANCE. Pac Symp Biocomput. 2016; 21:468-79.
  15. Dart RC, Surratt HL, Le Lait MC, Stivers Y, Bebarta VS, Freifeld CC, Brownstein JS, Burke JJ, Kurtz SP, Dasgupta N. Diversion and Illicit Sale of Extended Release Tapentadol in the United States. Pain Med. 2016 Aug; 17(8):1490-6.
  16. Brownstein JS, Huston JE, Steingold L, Joyce MV. On-demand delivery of influenza vaccination. Ann Intern Med. 2015 Nov 17; 163(10):806-7.
  17. Majumder MS, Kluberg SA, Mekaru SR, Brownstein JS. Mortality Risk Factors for Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Outbreak, South Korea, 2015. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015 Nov; 21(11):2088-90.
  18. Santillana M, Nguyen AT, Dredze M, Paul MJ, Nsoesie EO, Brownstein JS. Combining Search, Social Media, and Traditional Data Sources to Improve Influenza Surveillance. PLoS Comput Biol. 2015 Oct; 11(10):e1004513.
  19. Hawkins JB, Brownstein JS, Tuli G, Runels T, Broecker K, Nsoesie EO, McIver DJ, Rozenblum R, Wright A, Bourgeois FT, Greaves F. Measuring patient-perceived quality of care in US hospitals using Twitter. BMJ Qual Saf. 2016 Jun; 25(6):404-13.
  20. McIver DJ, Grizales AM, Brownstein JS, Goldfine AB. Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Is Lower in US Adults Taking Chromium-Containing Supplements. J Nutr. 2015 Dec; 145(12):2675-82.
  21. Zinszer K, Morrison K, Anema A, Majumder MS, Brownstein JS. The velocity of Ebola spread in parts of west Africa. Lancet Infect Dis. 2015 Sep; 15(9):1005-7.
  22. Majumder MS, Huston JE, Brownstein JS. Vaccination Compliance and the US Measles Epidemic--Reply. JAMA Pediatr. 2015 Sep; 169(9):877-8.
  23. Kesselheim AS, Campbell EG, Schneeweiss S, Rausch P, Lappin BM, Zhou EH, Seeger JD, Brownstein JS, Woloshin S, Schwartz LM, Toomey T, Dal Pan GJ, Avorn J. Erratum to: Methodological Approaches to Evaluate the Impact of FDA Drug Safety Communications. Drug Saf. 2015 Sep; 38(9):845.
  24. Nsoesie EO, Ricketts RP, Brown HE, Fish D, Durham DP, Ndeffo Mbah ML, Christian T, Ahmed S, Marcellin C, Shelly E, Owers K, Wenzel N, Galvani AP, Brownstein JS. Spatial and Temporal Clustering of Chikungunya Virus Transmission in Dominica. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2015; 9(8):e0003977.
  25. Smolinski MS, Crawley AW, Baltrusaitis K, Chunara R, Olsen JM, Wójcik O, Santillana M, Nguyen A, Brownstein JS. Flu Near You: Crowdsourced Symptom Reporting Spanning 2 Influenza Seasons. Am J Public Health. 2015 Oct; 105(10):2124-30.
  26. Olson SH, Benedum CM, Mekaru SR, Preston ND, Mazet JA, Joly DO, Brownstein JS. Drivers of Emerging Infectious Disease Events as a Framework for Digital Detection. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015 Aug; 21(8):1285-92.
  27. Hoen AG, Hladish TJ, Eggo RM, Lenczner M, Brownstein JS, Meyers LA. Epidemic Wave Dynamics Attributable to Urban Community Structure: A Theoretical Characterization of Disease Transmission in a Large Network. J Med Internet Res. 2015; 17(7):e169.
  28. Messina JP, Pigott DM, Golding N, Duda KA, Brownstein JS, Weiss DJ, Gibson H, Robinson TP, Gilbert M, William Wint GR, Nuttall PA, Gething PW, Myers MF, George DB, Hay SI. The global distribution of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2015 Aug; 109(8):503-13.
  29. MacFadden DR, Bogoch II, Brownstein JS, Daneman N, Fisman D, German M, Khan K. A passage from India: Association between air traffic and reported cases of New Delhi Metallo-beta-lactamase 1 from 2007 to 2012. Travel Med Infect Dis. 2015 Jul-Aug; 13(4):295-9.
  30. Zinszer K, Kigozi R, Charland K, Dorsey G, Brewer TF, Brownstein JS, Kamya MR, Buckeridge DL. Forecasting malaria in a highly endemic country using environmental and clinical predictors. Malar J. 2015; 14:245.
  31. Patel NG, Rorres C, Joly DO, Brownstein JS, Boston R, Levy MZ, Smith G. Quantitative methods of identifying the key nodes in the illegal wildlife trade network. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015 Jun 30; 112(26):7948-53.
  32. McIver DJ, Hawkins JB, Chunara R, Chatterjee AK, Bhandari A, Fitzgerald TP, Jain SH, Brownstein JS. Characterizing Sleep Issues Using Twitter. J Med Internet Res. 2015; 17(6):e140.
  33. Kesselheim AS, Campbell EG, Schneeweiss S, Rausch P, Lappin BM, Zhou EH, Seeger JD, Brownstein JS, Woloshin S, Schwartz LM, Toomey T, Dal Pan GJ, Avorn J. Methodological approaches to evaluate the impact of FDA drug safety communications. Drug Saf. 2015 Jun; 38(6):565-75.
  34. Goff J, Rowe A, Brownstein JS, Chunara R. Surveillance of Acute Respiratory Infections Using Community-Submitted Symptoms and Specimens for Molecular Diagnostic Testing. PLoS Curr. 2015; 7.
  35. Ahmed SS, Oviedo-Orta E, Mekaru SR, Freifeld CC, Tougas G, Brownstein JS. Surveillance for Neisseria meningitidis Disease Activity and Transmission Using Information Technology. PLoS One. 2015; 10(5):e0127406.
  36. Fast SM, Mekaru S, Brownstein JS, Postlethwaite TA, Markuzon N. The Role of Social Mobilization in Controlling Ebola Virus in Lofa County, Liberia. PLoS Curr. 2015; 7.
  37. Jain SH, Powers BW, Hawkins JB, Brownstein JS. The digital phenotype. Nat Biotechnol. 2015 May; 33(5):462-3.
  38. Majumder MS, Cohn EL, Mekaru SR, Huston JE, Brownstein JS. Substandard vaccination compliance and the 2015 measles outbreak. JAMA Pediatr. 2015 May; 169(5):494-5.
  39. Majumder MS, Kluberg S, Santillana M, Mekaru S, Brownstein JS. 2014 ebola outbreak: media events track changes in observed reproductive number. PLoS Curr. 2015; 7.
  40. Huston JE, Mekaru SR, Kluberg S, Brownstein JS. Searching the Web for Influenza Vaccines: HealthMap Vaccine Finder. Am J Public Health. 2015 Aug; 105(8):e134-9.
  41. Messina JP, Pigott DM, Duda KA, Brownstein JS, Myers MF, George DB, Hay SI. A global compendium of human Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus occurrence. Sci Data. 2015; 2:150016.
  42. Chunara R, Goldstein E, Patterson-Lomba O, Brownstein JS. Estimating influenza attack rates in the United States using a participatory cohort. Sci Rep. 2015; 5:9540.
  43. Bahk CY, Scales DA, Mekaru SR, Brownstein JS, Freifeld CC. Comparing timeliness, content, and disease severity of formal and informal source outbreak reporting. BMC Infect Dis. 2015; 15:135.
  44. Nsoesie EO, Butler P, Ramakrishnan N, Mekaru SR, Brownstein JS. Monitoring disease trends using hospital traffic data from high resolution satellite imagery: a feasibility study. Sci Rep. 2015; 5:9112.
  45. Feldstein LR, Brownstein JS, Brady OJ, Hay SI, Johansson MA. Dengue on islands: a Bayesian approach to understanding the global ecology of dengue viruses. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2015 May; 109(5):303-12.
  46. Nsoesie EO, Brownstein JS. Computational approaches to influenza surveillance: beyond timeliness. Cell Host Microbe. 2015 Mar 11; 17(3):275-8.
  47. Vayena E, Salathé M, Madoff LC, Brownstein JS. Ethical challenges of big data in public health. PLoS Comput Biol. 2015 Feb; 11(2):e1003904.
  48. Nsoesie EO, Kluberg SA, Mekaru SR, Majumder MS, Khan K, Hay SI, Brownstein JS. New digital technologies for the surveillance of infectious diseases at mass gathering events. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2015 Feb; 21(2):134-40.
  49. Milinovich GJ, Avril SM, Clements AC, Brownstein JS, Tong S, Hu W. Using internet search queries for infectious disease surveillance: screening diseases for suitability. BMC Infect Dis. 2014; 14:690.
  50. McAlarnen L, Smith K, Brownstein JS, Jerde C. Internet and free press are associated with reduced lags in global outbreak reporting. PLoS Curr. 2014; 6.
  51. Bogoch II, Creatore MI, Cetron MS, Brownstein JS, Pesik N, Miniota J, Tam T, Hu W, Nicolucci A, Ahmed S, Yoon JW, Berry I, Hay SI, Anema A, Tatem AJ, MacFadden D, German M, Khan K. Assessment of the potential for international dissemination of Ebola virus via commercial air travel during the 2014 west African outbreak. Lancet. 2015 Jan 3; 385(9962):29-35.
  52. Nagar R, Yuan Q, Freifeld CC, Santillana M, Nojima A, Chunara R, Brownstein JS. A case study of the New York City 2012-2013 influenza season with daily geocoded Twitter data from temporal and spatiotemporal perspectives. J Med Internet Res. 2014; 16(10):e236.
  53. Anema A, Kluberg S, Wilson K, Hogg RS, Khan K, Hay SI, Tatem AJ, Brownstein JS. Digital surveillance for enhanced detection and response to outbreaks. Lancet Infect Dis. 2014 Nov; 14(11):1035-7.
  54. Schwind JS, Wolking DJ, Brownstein JS, Mazet JA, Smith WA. Evaluation of local media surveillance for improved disease recognition and monitoring in global hotspot regions. PLoS One. 2014; 9(10):e110236.
  55. Pigott DM, Golding N, Messina JP, Battle KE, Duda KA, Balard Y, Bastien P, Pratlong F, Brownstein JS, Freifeld CC, Mekaru SR, Madoff LC, George DB, Myers MF, Hay SI. Global database of leishmaniasis occurrence locations, 1960-2012. Sci Data. 2014; 1:140036.
  56. Pigott DM, Golding N, Mylne A, Huang Z, Henry AJ, Weiss DJ, Brady OJ, Kraemer MU, Smith DL, Moyes CL, Bhatt S, Gething PW, Horby PW, Bogoch II, Brownstein JS, Mekaru SR, Tatem AJ, Khan K, Hay SI. Mapping the zoonotic niche of Ebola virus disease in Africa. Elife. 2014; 3:e04395.
  57. Santillana M, Nsoesie EO, Mekaru SR, Scales D, Brownstein JS. Using clinicians' search query data to monitor influenza epidemics. Clin Infect Dis. 2014 Nov 15; 59(10):1446-50.
  58. Nsoesie EO, Kluberg SA, Brownstein JS. Online reports of foodborne illness capture foods implicated in official foodborne outbreak reports. Prev Med. 2014 Oct; 67:264-9.
  59. Mekaru SR, Brownstein JS. One Health in social networks and social media. Rev Sci Tech. 2014 Aug; 33(2):629-37.
  60. Freifeld CC, Brownstein JS, Menone CM, Bao W, Filice R, Kass-Hout T, Dasgupta N. Erratum to: Digital Drug Safety Surveillance: Monitoring Pharmaceutical Products in Twitter. Drug Saf. 2014 Jul; 37(7):555.
  61. Pigott DM, Bhatt S, Golding N, Duda KA, Battle KE, Brady OJ, Messina JP, Balard Y, Bastien P, Pratlong F, Brownstein JS, Freifeld CC, Mekaru SR, Gething PW, George DB, Myers MF, Reithinger R, Hay SI. Global distribution maps of the leishmaniases. Elife. 2014; 3.
  62. Wójcik OP, Brownstein JS, Chunara R, Johansson MA. Public health for the people: participatory infectious disease surveillance in the digital age. Emerg Themes Epidemiol. 2014; 11:7.
  63. Khan K, Bogoch I, Brownstein JS, Miniota J, Nicolucci A, Hu W, Nsoesie EO, Cetron M, Creatore MI, German M, Wilder-Smith A. Assessing the origin of and potential for international spread of chikungunya virus from the Caribbean. PLoS Curr. 2014; 6.
  64. Lau EH, Zheng J, Tsang TK, Liao Q, Lewis B, Brownstein JS, Sanders S, Wong JY, Mekaru SR, Rivers C, Wu P, Jiang H, Li Y, Yu J, Zhang Q, Chang Z, Liu F, Peng Z, Leung GM, Feng L, Cowling BJ, Yu H. Accuracy of epidemiological inferences based on publicly available information: retrospective comparative analysis of line lists of human cases infected with influenza A(H7N9) in China. BMC Med. 2014; 12:88.
  65. Messina JP, Brady OJ, Pigott DM, Brownstein JS, Hoen AG, Hay SI. A global compendium of human dengue virus occurrence. Sci Data. 2014; 1:140004.
  66. Freifeld CC, Brownstein JS, Menone CM, Bao W, Filice R, Kass-Hout T, Dasgupta N. Digital drug safety surveillance: monitoring pharmaceutical products in twitter. Drug Saf. 2014 May; 37(5):343-50.
  67. Scales D, Brownstein JS, Khan K, Cetron MS. Toward a county-level map of tuberculosis rates in the U.S. Am J Prev Med. 2014 May; 46(5):e49-51.
  68. Nsoesie EO, Mekaru SR, Ramakrishnan N, Marathe MV, Brownstein JS. Modeling to predict cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in Chile. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2014 Apr; 8(4):e2779.
  69. McIver DJ, Brownstein JS. Wikipedia usage estimates prevalence of influenza-like illness in the United States in near real-time. PLoS Comput Biol. 2014 Apr; 10(4):e1003581.
  70. Barboza P, Vaillant L, Le Strat Y, Hartley DM, Nelson NP, Mawudeku A, Madoff LC, Linge JP, Collier N, Brownstein JS, Astagneau P. Factors influencing performance of internet-based biosurveillance systems used in epidemic intelligence for early detection of infectious diseases outbreaks. PLoS One. 2014; 9(3):e90536.
  71. Gluskin RT, Johansson MA, Santillana M, Brownstein JS. Evaluation of Internet-based dengue query data: Google Dengue Trends. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2014 Feb; 8(2):e2713.
  72. Nsoesie EO, Buckeridge DL, Brownstein JS. Guess who's not coming to dinner? Evaluating online restaurant reservations for disease surveillance. J Med Internet Res. 2014; 16(1):e22.
  73. Charland KM, de Montigny L, Brownstein JS, Buckeridge DL. Clinic accessibility and clinic-level predictors of the geographic variation in 2009 pandemic influenza vaccine coverage in Montreal, Canada. Influenza Other Respir Viruses. 2014 May; 8(3):317-28.
  74. Nsoesie EO, Brownstein JS, Ramakrishnan N, Marathe MV. A systematic review of studies on forecasting the dynamics of influenza outbreaks. Influenza Other Respir Viruses. 2014 May; 8(3):309-16.
  75. Bennett KJ, Olsen JM, Harris S, Mekaru S, Livinski AA, Brownstein JS. The perfect storm of information: combining traditional and non-traditional data sources for public health situational awareness during hurricane response. PLoS Curr. 2013; 5.
  76. Scales D, Zelenev A, Brownstein JS. Quantifying the effect of media limitations on outbreak data in a global online web-crawling epidemic intelligence system, 2008-2011. Emerg Health Threats J. 2013; 6:21621.
  77. Ocampo AJ, Chunara R, Brownstein JS. Using search queries for malaria surveillance, Thailand. Malar J. 2013; 12:390.
  78. de Montigny L, Charland K, Verma A, Brownstein JS, Le Guerrier P, Buckeridge DL. Predictors of the timing of vaccination uptake: The 2009 influenza pandemic (H1N1) in Montreal. Am J Prev Med. 2013 Nov; 45(5):622-8.
  79. Dasgupta N, Freifeld C, Brownstein JS, Menone CM, Surratt HL, Poppish L, Green JL, Lavonas EJ, Dart RC. Crowdsourcing black market prices for prescription opioids. J Med Internet Res. 2013; 15(8):e178.
  80. Chunara R, Smolinski MS, Brownstein JS. Why we need crowdsourced data in infectious disease surveillance. Curr Infect Dis Rep. 2013 Aug; 15(4):316-9.
  81. Khan K, Sears J, Hu VW, Brownstein JS, Hay S, Kossowsky D, Eckhardt R, Chim T, Berry I, Bogoch I, Cetron M. Potential for the international spread of middle East respiratory syndrome in association with mass gatherings in saudi arabia. PLoS Curr. 2013; 5.
  82. Salathé M, Freifeld CC, Mekaru SR, Tomasulo AF, Brownstein JS. Influenza A (H7N9) and the importance of digital epidemiology. N Engl J Med. 2013 Aug 1; 369(5):401-4.
  83. Cassa CA, Chunara R, Mandl K, Brownstein JS. Twitter as a sentinel in emergency situations: lessons from the Boston marathon explosions. PLoS Curr. 2013; 5.
  84. Leder K, Torresi J, Brownstein JS, Wilson ME, Keystone JS, Barnett E, Schwartz E, Schlagenhauf P, Wilder-Smith A, Castelli F, von Sonnenburg F, Freedman DO, Cheng AC. Travel-associated illness trends and clusters, 2000-2010. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013 Jul; 19(7):1049-73.
  85. Nsoesie E, Mararthe M, Brownstein J. Forecasting peaks of seasonal influenza epidemics. PLoS Curr. 2013; 5.
  86. Hartley DM, Nelson NP, Arthur RR, Barboza P, Collier N, Lightfoot N, Linge JP, van der Goot E, Mawudeku A, Madoff LC, Vaillant L, Walters R, Yangarber R, Mantero J, Corley CD, Brownstein JS. An overview of internet biosurveillance. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2013 Nov; 19(11):1006-13.
  87. Burghardt LC, Ayers JW, Brownstein JS, Bronstein AC, Ewald MB, Bourgeois FT. Adult prescription drug use and pediatric medication exposures and poisonings. Pediatrics. 2013 Jul; 132(1):18-27.
  88. Yuan Q, Nsoesie EO, Lv B, Peng G, Chunara R, Brownstein JS. Monitoring influenza epidemics in china with search query from baidu. PLoS One. 2013; 8(5):e64323.
  89. Larson HJ, Smith DM, Paterson P, Cumming M, Eckersberger E, Freifeld CC, Ghinai I, Jarrett C, Paushter L, Brownstein JS, Madoff LC. Measuring vaccine confidence: analysis of data obtained by a media surveillance system used to analyse public concerns about vaccines. Lancet Infect Dis. 2013 Jul; 13(7):606-13.
  90. Chunara R, Bouton L, Ayers JW, Brownstein JS. Assessing the online social environment for surveillance of obesity prevalence. PLoS One. 2013; 8(4):e61373.
  91. Bhatt S, Gething PW, Brady OJ, Messina JP, Farlow AW, Moyes CL, Drake JM, Brownstein JS, Hoen AG, Sankoh O, Myers MF, George DB, Jaenisch T, Wint GR, Simmons CP, Scott TW, Farrar JJ, Hay SI. The global distribution and burden of dengue. Nature. 2013 Apr 25; 496(7446):504-7.
  92. Hay SI, George DB, Moyes CL, Brownstein JS. Big data opportunities for global infectious disease surveillance. PLoS Med. 2013; 10(4):e1001413.
  93. Khan K, Eckhardt R, Brownstein JS, Naqvi R, Hu W, Kossowsky D, Scales D, Arino J, MacDonald M, Wang J, Sears J, Cetron MS. Entry and exit screening of airline travellers during the A(H1N1) 2009 pandemic: a retrospective evaluation. Bull World Health Organ. 2013 May 1; 91(5):368-76.
  94. Leder K, Torresi J, Libman MD, Cramer JP, Castelli F, Schlagenhauf P, Wilder-Smith A, Wilson ME, Keystone JS, Schwartz E, Barnett ED, von Sonnenburg F, Brownstein JS, Cheng AC, Sotir MJ, Esposito DH, Freedman DO. GeoSentinel surveillance of illness in returned travelers, 2007-2011. Ann Intern Med. 2013 Mar 19; 158(6):456-68.
  95. Barboza P, Vaillant L, Mawudeku A, Nelson NP, Hartley DM, Madoff LC, Linge JP, Collier N, Brownstein JS, Yangarber R, Astagneau P. Evaluation of epidemic intelligence systems integrated in the early alerting and reporting project for the detection of A/H5N1 influenza events. PLoS One. 2013; 8(3):e57252.
  96. Bogich TL, Funk S, Malcolm TR, Chhun N, Epstein JH, Chmura AA, Kilpatrick AM, Brownstein JS, Hutchison OC, Doyle-Capitman C, Deaville R, Morse SS, Cunningham AA, Daszak P. Using network theory to identify the causes of disease outbreaks of unknown origin. J R Soc Interface. 2013 Apr 6; 10(81):20120904.
  97. Hay SI, Battle KE, Pigott DM, Smith DL, Moyes CL, Bhatt S, Brownstein JS, Collier N, Myers MF, George DB, Gething PW. Global mapping of infectious disease. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2013 Mar 19; 368(1614):20120250.
  98. Bogich TL, Chunara R, Scales D, Chan E, Pinheiro LC, Chmura AA, Carroll D, Daszak P, Brownstein JS. Preventing pandemics via international development: a systems approach. PLoS Med. 2012; 9(12):e1001354.
  99. Sonricker Hansen AL, Li A, Joly D, Mekaru S, Brownstein JS. Digital surveillance: a novel approach to monitoring the illegal wildlife trade. PLoS One. 2012; 7(12):e51156.
  100. Zinszer K, Verma AD, Charland K, Brewer TF, Brownstein JS, Sun Z, Buckeridge DL. A scoping review of malaria forecasting: past work and future directions. BMJ Open. 2012; 2(6).
  101. Charland KM, Buckeridge DL, Hoen AG, Berry JG, Elixhauser A, Melton F, Brownstein JS. Relationship between community prevalence of obesity and associated behavioral factors and community rates of influenza-related hospitalizations in the United States. Influenza Other Respir Viruses. 2013 Sep; 7(5):718-28.
  102. Chan EH, Scales DA, Brewer TF, Madoff LC, Pollack MP, Hoen AG, Choden T, Brownstein JS. Forecasting high-priority infectious disease surveillance regions: a socioeconomic model. Clin Infect Dis. 2013 Feb; 56(4):517-24.
  103. Brien S, Kwong JC, Charland KM, Verma AD, Brownstein JS, Buckeridge DL. Neighborhood determinants of 2009 pandemic A/H1N1 influenza vaccination in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. Am J Epidemiol. 2012 Nov 15; 176(10):897-908.
  104. Chunara R, Freifeld CC, Brownstein JS. New technologies for reporting real-time emergent infections. Parasitology. 2012 Dec; 139(14):1843-51.
  105. Brady OJ, Gething PW, Bhatt S, Messina JP, Brownstein JS, Hoen AG, Moyes CL, Farlow AW, Scott TW, Hay SI. Refining the global spatial limits of dengue virus transmission by evidence-based consensus. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2012; 6(8):e1760.
  106. Egger JR, Hoen AG, Brownstein JS, Buckeridge DL, Olson DR, Konty KJ. Usefulness of school absenteeism data for predicting influenza outbreaks, United States. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012 Aug; 18(8):1375-7.
  107. Salathé M, Bengtsson L, Bodnar TJ, Brewer DD, Brownstein JS, Buckee C, Campbell EM, Cattuto C, Khandelwal S, Mabry PL, Vespignani A. Digital epidemiology. PLoS Comput Biol. 2012; 8(7):e1002616.
  108. Ayers JW, Althouse BM, Allem JP, Childers MA, Zafar W, Latkin C, Ribisl KM, Brownstein JS. Novel surveillance of psychological distress during the great recession. J Affect Disord. 2012 Dec 15; 142(1-3):323-30.
  109. Turk DC, O'Connor AB, Dworkin RH, Chaudhry A, Katz NP, Adams EH, Brownstein JS, Comer SD, Dart R, Dasgupta N, Denisco RA, Klein M, Leiderman DB, Lubran R, Rappaport BA, Zacny JP, Ahdieh H, Burke LB, Cowan P, Jacobs P, Malamut R, Markman J, Michna E, Palmer P, Peirce-Sandner S, Potter JS, Raja SN, Rauschkolb C, Roland CL, Webster LR, Weiss RD, Wolf K. Research design considerations for clinical studies of abuse-deterrent opioid analgesics: IMMPACT recommendations. Pain. 2012 Oct; 153(10):1997-2008.
  110. Kass-Hout TA, Xu Z, McMurray P, Park S, Buckeridge DL, Brownstein JS, Finelli L, Groseclose SL. Application of change point analysis to daily influenza-like illness emergency department visits. J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2012 Nov-Dec; 19(6):1075-81.
  111. Mondor L, Brownstein JS, Chan E, Madoff LC, Pollack MP, Buckeridge DL, Brewer TF. Timeliness of nongovernmental versus governmental global outbreak communications. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012 Jul; 18(7):1184-7.
  112. Hoen AG, Keller M, Verma AD, Buckeridge DL, Brownstein JS. Electronic event-based surveillance for monitoring dengue, Latin America. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012 Jul; 18(7):1147-50.
  113. Kass-Hout TA, Buckeridge D, Brownstein J, Xu Z, McMurray P, Ishikawa CK, Gunn J, Massoudi BL. Self-reported fever and measured temperature in emergency department records used for syndromic surveillance. J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2012 Sep-Oct; 19(5):775-6.
  114. Reis BY, Olson KL, Tian L, Bohn RL, Brownstein JS, Park PJ, Cziraky MJ, Wilson MD, Mandl KD. A pharmacoepidemiological network model for drug safety surveillance: statins and rhabdomyolysis. Drug Saf. 2012 May 1; 35(5):395-406.
  115. Fisher MC, Henk DA, Briggs CJ, Brownstein JS, Madoff LC, McCraw SL, Gurr SJ. Emerging fungal threats to animal, plant and ecosystem health. Nature. 2012 Apr 12; 484(7393):186-94.
  116. Manne J, Nakagawa J, Yamagata Y, Goehler A, Brownstein JS, Castro MC. Triatomine infestation in Guatemala: spatial assessment after two rounds of vector control. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2012 Mar; 86(3):446-54.
  117. Chunara R, Chhaya V, Bane S, Mekaru SR, Chan EH, Freifeld CC, Brownstein JS. Online reporting for malaria surveillance using micro-monetary incentives, in urban India 2010-2011. Malar J. 2012; 11:43.
  118. Khan K, McNabb SJ, Memish ZA, Eckhardt R, Hu W, Kossowsky D, Sears J, Arino J, Johansson A, Barbeschi M, McCloskey B, Henry B, Cetron M, Brownstein JS. Infectious disease surveillance and modelling across geographic frontiers and scientific specialties. Lancet Infect Dis. 2012 Mar; 12(3):222-30.
  119. Chunara R, Andrews JR, Brownstein JS. Social and news media enable estimation of epidemiological patterns early in the 2010 Haitian cholera outbreak. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2012 Jan; 86(1):39-45.
  120. Hoen AG, Buckeridge DL, Charland KM, Mandl KD, Quach C, Brownstein JS. Effect of expanded US recommendations for seasonal influenza vaccination: comparison of two pediatric emergency departments in the United States and Canada. CMAJ. 2011 Sep 20; 183(13):E1025-32.
  121. Scotch M, Brownstein JS, Vegso S, Galusha D, Rabinowitz P. Human vs. animal outbreaks of the 2009 swine-origin H1N1 influenza A epidemic. Ecohealth. 2011 Sep; 8(3):376-80.
  122. Driscoll T, Gabbard JL, Mao C, Dalay O, Shukla M, Freifeld CC, Hoen AG, Brownstein JS, Sobral BW. Integration and visualization of host-pathogen data related to infectious diseases. Bioinformatics. 2011 Aug 15; 27(16):2279-87.
  123. Chan EH, Sahai V, Conrad C, Brownstein JS. Using web search query data to monitor dengue epidemics: a new model for neglected tropical disease surveillance. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2011 May; 5(5):e1206.
  124. Ayers JW, Ribisl KM, Brownstein JS. Tracking the rise in popularity of electronic nicotine delivery systems (electronic cigarettes) using search query surveillance. Am J Prev Med. 2011 Apr; 40(4):448-53.
  125. Ayers JW, Ribisl K, Brownstein JS. Using search query surveillance to monitor tax avoidance and smoking cessation following the United States' 2009 "SCHIP" cigarette tax increase. PLoS One. 2011; 6(3):e16777.
  126. Charland KM, Brownstein JS, Verma A, Brien S, Buckeridge DL. Socio-economic disparities in the burden of seasonal influenza: the effect of social and material deprivation on rates of influenza infection. PLoS One. 2011; 6(2):e17207.
  127. Charland KM, Brownstein JS, Verma A, Brewer T, Jones S, Hoen AG, Buckeridge DL. Increased influenza-related healthcare utilization by residents of an urban aboriginal community. Epidemiol Infect. 2011 Dec; 139(12):1902-8.
  128. Fine AM, Brownstein JS, Nigrovic LE, Kimia AA, Olson KL, Thompson AD, Mandl KD. Integrating spatial epidemiology into a decision model for evaluation of facial palsy in children. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2011 Jan; 165(1):61-7.
  129. Pearson JF, Brownstein CA, Brownstein JS. Potential for electronic health records and online social networking to redefine medical research. Clin Chem. 2011 Feb; 57(2):196-204.
  130. Lee K, Brownstein JS, Mills RG, Kohane IS. Does collocation inform the impact of collaboration? PLoS One. 2010; 5(12):e14279.
  131. Freifeld CC, Chunara R, Mekaru SR, Chan EH, Kass-Hout T, Ayala Iacucci A, Brownstein JS. Participatory epidemiology: use of mobile phones for community-based health reporting. PLoS Med. 2010; 7(12):e1000376.
  132. Chan EH, Brewer TF, Madoff LC, Pollack MP, Sonricker AL, Keller M, Freifeld CC, Blench M, Mawudeku A, Brownstein JS. Global capacity for emerging infectious disease detection. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010 Dec 14; 107(50):21701-6.
  133. Reis BY, Brownstein JS. Measuring the impact of health policies using Internet search patterns: the case of abortion. BMC Public Health. 2010; 10:514.
  134. Nelson NP, Brownstein JS, Hartley DM. Event-based biosurveillance of respiratory disease in Mexico, 2007-2009: connection to the 2009 influenza A(H1N1) pandemic? Euro Surveill. 2010; 15(30).
  135. Pearson JF, Bachireddy C, Shyamprasad S, Goldfine AB, Brownstein JS. Association between fine particulate matter and diabetes prevalence in the U.S. Diabetes Care. 2010 Oct; 33(10):2196-201.
  136. Wilson K, Brownstein JS, Fidler DP. Strengthening the International Health Regulations: lessons from the H1N1 pandemic. Health Policy Plan. 2010 Nov; 25(6):505-9.
  137. Brownstein JS, Green TC, Cassidy TA, Butler SF. Geographic information systems and pharmacoepidemiology: using spatial cluster detection to monitor local patterns of prescription opioid abuse. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2010 Jun; 19(6):627-37.
  138. Brownstein JS, Freifeld CC, Chan EH, Keller M, Sonricker AL, Mekaru SR, Buckeridge DL. Information technology and global surveillance of cases of 2009 H1N1 influenza. N Engl J Med. 2010 May 6; 362(18):1731-5.
  139. Hoen AG, Buckeridge DL, Chan EH, Freifeld CC, Keller M, Charland K, Donnelly CA, Brownstein JS. Characteristics of US public schools with reported cases of novel influenza A (H1N1). Int J Infect Dis. 2010 Sep; 14 Suppl 3:e6-8.
  140. Khan K, Memish ZA, Chabbra A, Liauw J, Hu W, Janes DA, Sears J, Arino J, Macdonald M, Calderon F, Raposo P, Heidebrecht C, Wang J, Chan A, Brownstein J, Gardam M. Global public health implications of a mass gathering in Mecca, Saudi Arabia during the midst of an influenza pandemic. J Travel Med. 2010 Mar-Apr; 17(2):75-81.
  141. Khan K, Freifeld CC, Wang J, Mekaru SR, Kossowsky D, Sonricker AL, Hu W, Sears J, Chan A, Brownstein JS. Preparing for infectious disease threats at mass gatherings: the case of the Vancouver 2010 Olympic Winter Games. CMAJ. 2010 Apr 6; 182(6):579-83.
  142. Brownstein JS, Murphy SN, Goldfine AB, Grant RW, Sordo M, Gainer V, Colecchi JA, Dubey A, Nathan DM, Glaser JP, Kohane IS. Rapid identification of myocardial infarction risk associated with diabetes medications using electronic medical records. Diabetes Care. 2010 Mar; 33(3):526-31.
  143. Keller M, Freifeld CC, Brownstein JS. Automated vocabulary discovery for geo-parsing online epidemic intelligence. BMC Bioinformatics. 2009; 10:385.
  144. Dasgupta N, Mandl KD, Brownstein JS. Breaking the news or fueling the epidemic? Temporal association between news media report volume and opioid-related mortality. PLoS One. 2009; 4(11):e7758.
  145. Sasaki A, Hoen AG, Ozonoff A, Suzuki H, Tanabe N, Seki N, Saito R, Brownstein JS. Evidence-based tool for triggering school closures during influenza outbreaks, Japan. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009 Nov; 15(11):1841-3.
  146. Anema A, Freifeld CC, Druyts E, Montaner JS, Hogg RS, Brownstein JS. An assessment of global Internet-based HIV/AIDS media coverage: implications for United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS' Global Media HIV/AIDS initiative. Int J STD AIDS. 2010 Jan; 21(1):26-9.
  147. Brownstein CA, Brownstein JS, Williams DS, Wicks P, Heywood JA. The power of social networking in medicine. Nat Biotechnol. 2009 Oct; 27(10):888-90.
  148. Brei B, Brownstein JS, George JE, Pound JM, Miller JA, Daniels TJ, Falco RC, Stafford KC, Schulze TL, Mather TN, Carroll JF, Fish D. Evaluation of the United States Department Of Agriculture Northeast Area-wide Tick Control Project by meta-analysis. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2009 Aug; 9(4):423-30.
  149. Brownstein JS, Freifeld CC, Madoff LC. Digital disease detection--harnessing the Web for public health surveillance. N Engl J Med. 2009 May 21; 360(21):2153-5, 2157.
  150. Brownstein JS, Freifeld CC, Madoff LC. Influenza A (H1N1) virus, 2009--online monitoring. N Engl J Med. 2009 May 21; 360(21):2156.
  151. Keller M, Blench M, Tolentino H, Freifeld CC, Mandl KD, Mawudeku A, Eysenbach G, Brownstein JS. Use of unstructured event-based reports for global infectious disease surveillance. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009 May; 15(5):689-95.
  152. Wilson K, Brownstein JS. Early detection of disease outbreaks using the Internet. CMAJ. 2009 Apr 14; 180(8):829-31.
  153. Charland KM, Buckeridge DL, Sturtevant JL, Melton F, Reis BY, Mandl KD, Brownstein JS. Effect of environmental factors on the spatio-temporal patterns of influenza spread. Epidemiol Infect. 2009 Oct; 137(10):1377-87.
  154. Butler SF, Budman SH, Licari A, Cassidy TA, Lioy K, Dickinson J, Brownstein JS, Benneyan JC, Green TC, Katz N. National addictions vigilance intervention and prevention program (NAVIPPRO): a real-time, product-specific, public health surveillance system for monitoring prescription drug abuse. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2008 Dec; 17(12):1142-54.
  155. Brownstein JS, Freifeld CC, Reis BY, Mandl KD. Surveillance Sans Frontières: Internet-based emerging infectious disease intelligence and the HealthMap project. PLoS Med. 2008 Jul 8; 5(7):e151.
  156. Brownstein JS, Mandl KD. Pediatric population size is associated with geographic patterns of acute respiratory infections among adults. Ann Emerg Med. 2008 Jul; 52(1):63-8.
  157. Bourgeois FT, Simons WW, Olson K, Brownstein JS, Mandl KD. Evaluation of influenza prevention in the workplace using a personally controlled health record: randomized controlled trial. J Med Internet Res. 2008; 10(1):e5.
  158. Brownstein CA, Brownstein JS. Estimating excess mortality in post-invasion Iraq. N Engl J Med. 2008 Jan 31; 358(5):445-7.
  159. Anema A, Mills E, Montaner J, Brownstein JS, Cooper C. Efficacy of influenza vaccination in HIV-positive patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis. HIV Med. 2008 Jan; 9(1):57-61.
  160. Sebastian R, Skowronski DM, Chong M, Dhaliwal J, Brownstein JS. Age-related trends in the timeliness and prediction of medical visits, hospitalizations and deaths due to pneumonia and influenza, British Columbia, Canada, 1998-2004. Vaccine. 2008 Mar 4; 26(10):1397-403.
  161. Freifeld CC, Mandl KD, Reis BY, Brownstein JS. HealthMap: global infectious disease monitoring through automated classification and visualization of Internet media reports. J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2008 Mar-Apr; 15(2):150-7.
  162. Brownstein JS, Freifeld CC. HealthMap: the development of automated real-time internet surveillance for epidemic intelligence. Euro Surveill. 2007 Nov; 12(11):E071129.5.
  163. Sturtevant JL, Anema A, Brownstein JS. The new International Health Regulations: considerations for global public health surveillance. Disaster Med Public Health Prep. 2007 Nov; 1(2):117-21.
  164. Brownstein JS, Sordo M, Kohane IS, Mandl KD. The tell-tale heart: population-based surveillance reveals an association of rofecoxib and celecoxib with myocardial infarction. PLoS One. 2007; 2(9):e840.
  165. Wieland SC, Brownstein JS, Berger B, Mandl KD. Automated real time constant-specificity surveillance for disease outbreaks. BMC Med Inform Decis Mak. 2007; 7:15.
  166. Wieland SC, Brownstein JS, Berger B, Mandl KD. Density-equalizing Euclidean minimum spanning trees for the detection of all disease cluster shapes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 May 29; 104(22):9404-9.
  167. Brownstein JS, Cassa CA, Kohane IS, Mandl KD. An unsupervised classification method for inferring original case locations from low-resolution disease maps. Int J Health Geogr. 2006; 5:56.
  168. Brownstein JS, Cassa CA, Mandl KD. No place to hide--reverse identification of patients from published maps. N Engl J Med. 2006 Oct 19; 355(16):1741-2.
  169. Brownstein JS, Wolfe CJ, Mandl KD. Empirical evidence for the effect of airline travel on inter-regional influenza spread in the United States. PLoS Med. 2006 Sep; 3(10):e401.
  170. Kimia A, Brownstein JS, Olson KL, Zak V, Bourgeois FT, Mandl KD. Lumbar puncture ordering and results in the pediatric population: a promising data source for surveillance systems. Acad Emerg Med. 2006 Jul; 13(7):767-73.
  171. Diuk-Wasser MA, Gatewood AG, Cortinas MR, Yaremych-Hamer S, Tsao J, Kitron U, Hickling G, Brownstein JS, Walker E, Piesman J, Fish D. Spatiotemporal patterns of host-seeking Ixodes scapularis nymphs (Acari: Ixodidae) in the United States. J Med Entomol. 2006 Mar; 43(2):166-76.
  172. Bourgeois FT, Olson KL, Brownstein JS, McAdam AJ, Mandl KD. Validation of syndromic surveillance for respiratory infections. Ann Emerg Med. 2006 Mar; 47(3):265.e1.
  173. Brownstein JS, Mandl KD. Reengineering real time outbreak detection systems for influenza epidemic monitoring. AMIA Annu Symp Proc. 2006; 866.
  174. Brownstein JS, Skelly DK, Holford TR, Fish D. Forest fragmentation predicts local scale heterogeneity of Lyme disease risk. Oecologia. 2005 Dec; 146(3):469-75.
  175. Reis BY, Brownstein JS, Mandl KD. Running outside the baseline: impact of the 2004 Major League Baseball postseason on emergency department use. Ann Emerg Med. 2005 Oct; 46(4):386-7.
  176. Brownstein JS, Kleinman KP, Mandl KD. Identifying pediatric age groups for influenza vaccination using a real-time regional surveillance system. Am J Epidemiol. 2005 Oct 1; 162(7):686-93.
  177. Brownstein JS, Cassa CA, Kohane IS, Mandl KD. Reverse geocoding: concerns about patient confidentiality in the display of geospatial health data. AMIA Annu Symp Proc. 2005; 905.
  178. Derdáková M, Dudiòák V, Brei B, Brownstein JS, Schwartz I, Fish D. Interaction and transmission of two Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto strains in a tick-rodent maintenance system. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2004 Nov; 70(11):6783-8.
  179. Madhav NK, Brownstein JS, Tsao JI, Fish D. A dispersal model for the range expansion of blacklegged tick (Acari: Ixodidae). J Med Entomol. 2004 Sep; 41(5):842-52.
  180. Brownstein JS, Holford TR, Fish D. Enhancing West Nile virus surveillance, United States. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004 Jun; 10(6):1129-33.
  181. Brownstein JS, Hett E, O'Neill SL. The potential of virulent Wolbachia to modulate disease transmission by insects. J Invertebr Pathol. 2003 Sep; 84(1):24-9.
  182. Brownstein JS, Holford TR, Fish D. A climate-based model predicts the spatial distribution of the Lyme disease vector Ixodes scapularis in the United States. Environ Health Perspect. 2003 Jul; 111(9):1152-7.
  183. Brownstein JS, Rosen H, Purdy D, Miller JR, Merlino M, Mostashari F, Fish D. Spatial analysis of West Nile virus: rapid risk assessment of an introduced vector-borne zoonosis. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2002; 2(3):157-64.
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