Research

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Enju Liu

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Division
Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition Research
Hospital Title:
Senior Biostatistician
Academic Title:
Assistant Professor, Harvard Medical School
Research Focus Area:
MicrobiomeDietary Pattern AnalysisHIV Related NutritionMaternal and Child Nutrition
Contact:
(857) 218-3822

Research Overview

Dr. Liu' research has been focused on nutritional status and its association with health outcomes, with emphasis on child and HIV-infected populations.

1. Randomized controlled trials of micronutrient supplementation (e.g. multivitamins, zinc) and child nutritional status, morbidity, and mortality.

2. Practice of exclusive breastfeeding by HIV-infected mothers and its relationships to infant growth, morbidity, and death.

3. Nutritional status and morbidity and treatment outcomes among HIV-infected patients on anti-retroviral therapy.

About the Researcher

Dr. Liu has a broad background in medicine, biostatistics and epidemiology with specific training and expertise in nutritional epidemiology. Within extensive experience in study design and statistical methods, she has been involved in several large observational cohorts and randomized controlled trials. She performed tremendous data analysis based these studies, with emphasis on dietary and nutritional factors, and their associations with health outcomes in adults and children. Her efforts in the field have resulted in dozens of publications in peer reviewed scientific journals.

Besides research efforts, Dr. Liu is also responsible for training and mentoring of clinical staff, fellows, and junior faculty on statistical methods and data analysis, both through didactic lectures and individualized instruction. She has travelled multiple times to Tanzania to provide educational courses and on-site guidance on study design and data management and analysis to local researchers.

Publications

Publications powered by Harvard Catalyst Profiles
  1. Kakarmath SS, Zack RM, Leyna GH, Fahimi S, Liu E, Fawzi WW, Lukmanji Z, Killewo J, Sacks F, Danaei G. Dietary determinants of serum total cholesterol among middle-aged and older adults: a population-based cross-sectional study in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. BMJ Open. 2017 Jun 06; 7(5):e015028.
  2. Locks LM, Mwiru RS, Mtisi E, Manji KP, McDonald CM, Liu E, Kupka R, Kisenge R, Aboud S, Gosselin K, Gillman M, Gewirtz AT, Fawzi WW, Duggan CP. Infant Nutritional Status and Markers of Environmental Enteric Dysfunction are Associated with Midchildhood Anthropometry and Blood Pressure in Tanzania. J Pediatr. 2017 Aug; 187:225-233.e1.
  3. Kamenju P, Liu E, Hertzmark E, Spiegelman D, Kisenge RR, Kupka R, Aboud S, Manji K, Duggan C, Fawzi WW. Complementary Feeding and Diarrhea and Respiratory Infection Among HIV-Exposed Tanzanian Infants. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2017 Mar 01; 74(3):265-272.
  4. Jamie Dy F, Freiberger D, Liu E, Boyer D, Visner G, Rosen R. Impact of gastroesophageal reflux and delayed gastric emptying on pediatric lung transplant outcomes. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2017 Aug; 36(8):854-861.
  5. McDonald CR, Darling AM, Liu E, Tran V, Cabrera A, Aboud S, Urassa W, Kain KC, Fawzi WW. Angiogenic proteins, placental weight and perinatal outcomes among pregnant women in Tanzania. PLoS One. 2016; 11(12):e0167716.
  6. Zack RM, Irema K, Kazonda P, Leyna GH, Liu E, Spiegelman D, Fawzi W, Njelekela M, Killewo J, Danaei G. Determinants of high blood pressure and barriers to diagnosis and treatment in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. J Hypertens. 2016 Dec; 34(12):2353-2364.
  7. Locks LM, Manji KP, Kupka R, Liu E, Kisenge R, McDonald CM, Aboud S, Wang M, Fawzi WW, Duggan CP. High Burden of Morbidity and Mortality but Not Growth Failure in Infants Exposed to but Uninfected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus in Tanzania. J Pediatr. 2017 Jan; 180:191-199.e2.
  8. Mosha D, Liu E, Hertzmark E, Chan G, Sudfeld C, Masanja H, Fawzi W. Dietary iron and calcium intakes during pregnancy are associated with lower risk of prematurity, stillbirth and neonatal mortality among women in Tanzania. Public Health Nutr. 2017 Mar; 20(4):678-686.
  9. Njelekela M, Muhihi A, Aveika A, Spiegelman D, Hawkins C, Armstrong C, Liu E, Okuma J, Chalamila G, Kaaya S, Mugusi F, Fawzi W. Prevalence of Hypertension and Its Associated Risk Factors among 34,111 HAART Naïve HIV-Infected Adults in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Int J Hypertens. 2016; 2016:5958382.
  10. Kamenju P, Liu E, Hertzmark E, Spiegelman D, Kisenge R, Kupka R, Aboud S, Manji KP, Duggan C, Fawzi WW. Nutritional status and complementary feeding among HIV-exposed infants: a prospective cohort study. Matern Child Nutr. 2017 Jul; 13(3).
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  12. Barnhart D, Hertzmark E, Liu E, Mungure E, Muya AN, Sando D, Chalamilla G, Ulenga N, Bärnighausen T, Fawzi W, Spiegelman D. Intra-Cluster Correlation Estimates for HIV-related Outcomes from Care and Treatment Clinics in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Contemp Clin Trials Commun. 2016 Dec 15; 4:161-169.
  13. Sztam KA, Liu E, Manji KP, Kupka R, Kisenge R, Aboud S, Fawzi WW, Bosch RJ, Duggan CP. Maternal Antiretroviral Therapy Is Associated with Lower Risk of Diarrhea in Early Childhood. J Pediatr. 2016 Aug; 175:54-60.
  14. McDonald CM, Manji KP, Gosselin K, Tran H, Liu E, Kisenge R, Aboud S, Fawzi WW, Gewirtz AT, Duggan CP. Elevations in serum anti-flagellin and anti-LPS Igs are related to growth faltering in young Tanzanian children. Am J Clin Nutr. 2016 Jun; 103(6):1548-54.
  15. Hawkins C, Ulenga N, Liu E, Aboud S, Mugusi F, Chalamilla G, Sando D, Aris E, Carpenter D, Fawzi W. HIV virological failure and drug resistance in a cohort of Tanzanian HIV-infected adults. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2016 Jul; 71(7):1966-74.
  16. Manji KP, Duggan C, Liu E, Bosch R, Kisenge R, Aboud S, Kupka R, Fawzi WW. Exclusive Breast-feeding Protects against Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV-1 through 12 Months of Age in Tanzania. J Trop Pediatr. 2016 Aug; 62(4):301-7.
  17. Olofin IO, Liu E, Manji KP, Danaei G, Duggan C, Aboud S, Spiegelman D, Fawzi WW. Active Tuberculosis in HIV-Exposed Tanzanian Children up to 2 years of Age: Early-Life Nutrition, Multivitamin Supplementation and Other Potential Risk Factors. J Trop Pediatr. 2016 Feb; 62(1):29-37.
  18. Li N, Sando MM, Spiegelman D, Hertzmark E, Liu E, Sando D, Machumi L, Chalamilla G, Fawzi W. Antiretroviral Therapy in Relation to Birth Outcomes among HIV-infected Women: A Cohort Study. J Infect Dis. 2016 Apr 01; 213(7):1057-64.
  19. Liu E, Makubi A, Drain P, Spiegelman D, Sando D, Li N, Chalamilla G, Sudfeld CR, Hertzmark E, Fawzi WW. Tuberculosis incidence rate and risk factors among HIV-infected adults with access to antiretroviral therapy. AIDS. 2015 Jul 17; 29(11):1391-9.
  20. Liu E, McCree R, Mtisi E, Fawzi WW, Aris E, Lema IA, Hertzmark E, Chalamilla G, Li N, Vermund SH, Spiegelman D. Prevalence and risk factors of cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions among HIV-infected women in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Int J STD AIDS. 2016 Mar; 27(3):219-25.
  21. Abioye AI, Isanaka S, Liu E, Mwiru RS, Noor RA, Spiegelman D, Mugusi F, Fawzi W. Gender differences in diet and nutrition among adults initiating antiretroviral therapy in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. AIDS Care. 2015; 27(6):706-15.
  22. Semu H, Zack RM, Liu E, Hertzmark E, Spiegelman D, Sztam K, Hawkins C, Chalamila G, Muya A, Siril H, Mwiru R, Mtasiwa D, Fawzi W. Prevalence and Risk Factors for Overweight and Obesity among HIV-Infected Adults in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. J Int Assoc Provid AIDS Care. 2016 Nov; 15(6):512-521.
  23. Li N, Matchi E, Spiegelman D, Chalamilla G, Hertzmank E, Sando D, Sando MM, Liu E, Muya A, Fawzi W. Maternal mortality among HIV-infected pregnant women in Tanzania. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2014 May; 93(5):463-8.
  24. Darling AM, Liu E, Aboud S, Urassa W, Spiegelman D, Fawzi W. Maternal hyperglycemia and adverse pregnancy outcomes in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2014 Apr; 125(1):22-7.
  25. Liu E, Duggan C, Manji KP, Kupka R, Aboud S, Bosch RJ, Kisenge RR, Okuma J, Fawzi WW. Multivitamin supplementation improves haematologic status in children born to HIV-positive women in Tanzania. J Int AIDS Soc. 2013 Aug 13; 16:18022.
  26. Li N, Manji KP, Spiegelman D, Muya A, Mwiru RS, Liu E, Chalamilla G, Fawzi WW, Duggan C. Incident tuberculosis and risk factors among HIV-infected children in Tanzania. AIDS. 2013 May 15; 27(8):1273-81.
  27. Liu E, Armstrong C, Spiegelman D, Chalamilla G, Njelekela M, Hawkins C, Hertzmark E, Li N, Aris E, Muhihi A, Semu H, Fawzi W. First-line antiretroviral therapy and changes in lipid levels over 3 years among HIV-infected adults in Tanzania. Clin Infect Dis. 2013 Jun; 56(12):1820-8.
  28. Natchu UC, Liu E, Duggan C, Msamanga G, Peterson K, Aboud S, Spiegelman D, Fawzi WW. Exclusive breastfeeding reduces risk of mortality in infants up to 6 mo of age born to HIV-positive Tanzanian women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2012 Nov; 96(5):1071-8.
  29. Liu E, McKeown NM, Pittas AG, Meigs JB, Economos CD, Booth SL, Jacques PF. Predicted 25-hydroxyvitamin D score and change in fasting plasma glucose in the Framingham offspring study. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2012 Jan; 66(1):139-41.
  30. Liu E, Spiegelman D, Semu H, Hawkins C, Chalamilla G, Aveika A, Nyamsangia S, Mehta S, Mtasiwa D, Fawzi W. Nutritional status and mortality among HIV-infected patients receiving antiretroviral therapy in Tanzania. J Infect Dis. 2011 Jul 15; 204(2):282-90.
  31. Andreotti G, Liu E, Gao YT, Safaeian M, Rashid A, Shen MC, Wang BS, Deng J, Han TQ, Zhang BH, Hsing AW. Medical history and the risk of biliary tract cancers in Shanghai, China: implications for a role of inflammation. Cancer Causes Control. 2011 Sep; 22(9):1289-96.
  32. Armstrong C, Liu E, Okuma J, Spiegelman D, Guerino C, Njelekela M, Grinspoon S, Fawzi W, Hawkins C. Dyslipidemia in an HIV-positive antiretroviral treatment-naive population in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2011 Jun 01; 57(2):141-5.
  33. Mwiru RS, Spiegelman D, Duggan C, Peterson K, Liu E, Msamanga G, Aboud S, Fawzi WW. Relationship of exclusive breast-feeding to infections and growth of Tanzanian children born to HIV-infected women. Public Health Nutr. 2011 Jul; 14(7):1251-8.
  34. Liu E, Meigs JB, Pittas AG, Economos CD, McKeown NM, Booth SL, Jacques PF. Predicted 25-hydroxyvitamin D score and incident type 2 diabetes in the Framingham Offspring Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2010 Jun; 91(6):1627-33.
  35. Njelekela MA, Mpembeni R, Muhihi A, Mligiliche NL, Spiegelman D, Hertzmark E, Liu E, Finkelstein JL, Fawzi WW, Willett WC, Mtabaji J. Gender-related differences in the prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors and their correlates in urban Tanzania. BMC Cardiovasc Disord. 2009 Jul 17; 9:30.
  36. Liu E, McKeown NM, Newby PK, Meigs JB, Vasan RS, Quatromoni PA, D'Agostino RB, Jacques PF. Cross-sectional association of dietary patterns with insulin-resistant phenotypes among adults without diabetes in the Framingham Offspring Study. Br J Nutr. 2009 Aug; 102(4):576-83.
  37. Liu E, Meigs JB, Pittas AG, McKeown NM, Economos CD, Booth SL, Jacques PF. Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin d is associated with markers of the insulin resistant phenotype in nondiabetic adults. J Nutr. 2009 Feb; 139(2):329-34.
  38. Zhang XH, Andreotti G, Gao YT, Deng J, Liu E, Rashid A, Wu K, Sun L, Sakoda LC, Cheng JR, Shen MC, Wang BS, Han TQ, Zhang BH, Gridley G, Fraumeni JF, Hsing AW. Tea drinking and the risk of biliary tract cancers and biliary stones: a population-based case-control study in Shanghai, China. Int J Cancer. 2006 Jun 15; 118(12):3089-94.
  39. Liu E, Sakoda LC, Gao YT, Rashid A, Shen MC, Wang BS, Deng J, Han TQ, Zhang BH, Fraumeni JF, Hsing AW. Aspirin use and risk of biliary tract cancer: a population-based study in Shanghai, China. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2005 May; 14(5):1315-8.
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