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Craig  Gerard, MD, PhD

Craig Gerard, MD, MPH
Medicine Research
Respiratory Diseases Research
Hospital Title:
Chief, Division of Respiratory Diseases
Academic Title:
Leila and Irving Perlmutter Professorin Pediatrics, Harvard Medical School
Research Focus Area:
Chemokine Receptors
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Research Overview

Research in the Perlmutter Laboratory (Drs. Norma and Craig Gerard) has focused extensively on G protein coupled receptors that play an essential role in activating white blood cells. Many of these receptors and ligands – the molecules that bind to them- have come to be appreciated as a bridge between innate and acquired immunity, as well as being vital to the acute inflammatory response. The bulk of the group’s focus over the last decade has been on elucidating the mechanistic actions of the receptors for the complement anaphylatoxins, C5a and C3a – molecules that mediate inflammatory responses – as well as those for the chemokine superfamily – chemical messengers of the immune system. Their work has moved from cloning the receptors to disrupting receptor genes in order to probe the role of these receptors in disease models in vivo. The lab was the first to show how one pathogen, invasive pneumococcus, exploits the receptor for platelet activating factor to gain access to cells. That discovery was followed by collaborative work defining the chemokine receptors involved as HIV-1 co-receptors.

Current projects of specific interest to Craig Gerard relate to cystic fibrosis aimed at understanding the mechanism s behind extreme phenotypes; patients who are all homozygous for the DeltaF508 mutation but who have dramatically different outcomes. Whilst the majority of CF patients have a relatively consistent rate of loss of lung function at ~2.5%/year, there are patients who progress at >5%/year (rapid progress ors) or maintain level FEV1 over decades (long term non-progrerssors).  The lab is studying these rare patients at the exome and transcriptome levels, as well as their immune systems.

About Craig Gerard

Craig Gerard received his MD from Wake Forest University and his PhD from the University of California at San Diego. He completed an internship and residency in Internal Medicine at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and a fellowship at Scripps Research Institute.


Publications powered by Harvard Catalyst Profiles
  1. Agrawal PB, Wang R, Li HL, Schmitz-Abe K, Simone-Roach C, Chen J, Shi J, Louie T, Sheng S, Towne MC, Brainson CF, Matthay MA, Kim CF, Bamshad M, Emond MJ, Gerard NP, Kleyman TR, Gerard C. Epithelial Sodium Channel ENaC is a Modifier of the Long Term Non-progressive Phenotype Associated with F508del CFTR Mutations. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2017 Jul 14.
  2. Roux D, Weatherholt M, Clark B, Gadjeva M, Renaud D, Scott D, Skurnik D, Priebe GP, Pier G, Gerard C, Yoder-Himes DR. Immune Recognition of the Epidemic Cystic Fibrosis Pathogen Burkholderia dolosa. Infect Immun. 2017 Jun; 85(6).
  3. Schütte-Nütgen K, Boenisch O, Harrach H, Casey A, Guleria I, Najafian N, Sayegh MH, Gerard CJ, Subramaniam M. Divergent Function of Programmed Death-Ligand 1 in Donor Tissue versus Recipient Immune System in a Murine Model of Bronchiolitis Obliterans. Am J Pathol. 2017 Jun; 187(6):1368-1379.
  4. Wang R, Lu B, Gerard C, Gerard NP. C5L2, the Second C5a Anaphylatoxin Receptor, Suppresses LPS-Induced Acute Lung Injury. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2016 Nov; 55(5):657-666.
  5. Yorek MS, Obrosov A, Lu B, Gerard C, Kardon RH, Yorek MA. Effect of Inhibition or Deletion of Neutral Endopeptidase on Neuropathic Endpoints in High Fat Fed/Low Dose Streptozotocin-Treated Mice. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2016 Sep 15.
  6. Gerard NP, Gerard C. Cloning of the Human C5a Anaphylatoxin Receptor, and More. Front Immunol. 2015; 6:445.
  7. Spaan AN, Schiepers A, de Haas CJ, van Hooijdonk DD, Badiou C, Contamin H, Vandenesch F, Lina G, Gerard NP, Gerard C, van Kessel KP, Henry T, van Strijp JA. Differential Interaction of the Staphylococcal Toxins Panton-Valentine Leukocidin and ?-Hemolysin CB with Human C5a Receptors. J Immunol. 2015 Aug 01; 195(3):1034-43.
  8. Han X, Feng Y, Chen X, Gerard C, Boisvert WA. Characterization of G protein coupling mediated by the conserved D134(3.49) of DRY motif, M241(6.34), and F251(6.44) residues on human CXCR1. FEBS Open Bio. 2015; 5:182-90.
  9. Casey A, Dirks F, Liang OD, Harrach H, Schuette-Nuetgen K, Leeman K, Kim CF, Gerard C, Subramaniam M. Bone marrow-derived multipotent stromal cells attenuate inflammation in obliterative airway disease in mouse tracheal allografts. Stem Cells Int. 2014; 2014:468927.
  10. Saxena A, Bujak M, Frunza O, Dobaczewski M, Gonzalez-Quesada C, Lu B, Gerard C, Frangogiannis NG. CXCR3-independent actions of the CXC chemokine CXCL10 in the infarcted myocardium and in isolated cardiac fibroblasts are mediated through proteoglycans. Cardiovasc Res. 2014 Jul 15; 103(2):217-27.
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  12. Kim H, Erdman LK, Lu Z, Serghides L, Zhong K, Dhabangi A, Musoke C, Gerard C, Cserti-Gazdewich C, Liles WC, Kain KC. Functional roles for C5a and C5aR but not C5L2 in the pathogenesis of human and experimental cerebral malaria. Infect Immun. 2014 Jan; 82(1):371-9.
  13. Xiao H, Dairaghi DJ, Powers JP, Ertl LS, Baumgart T, Wang Y, Seitz LC, Penfold ME, Gan L, Hu P, Lu B, Gerard NP, Gerard C, Schall TJ, Jaen JC, Falk RJ, Jennette JC. C5a receptor (CD88) blockade protects against MPO-ANCA GN. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2014 Feb; 25(2):225-31.
  14. Rajagopal S, Bassoni DL, Campbell JJ, Gerard NP, Gerard C, Wehrman TS. Biased agonism as a mechanism for differential signaling by chemokine receptors. J Biol Chem. 2013 Dec 06; 288(49):35039-48.
  15. Wang R, Lu B, Gerard C, Gerard NP. Disruption of the complement anaphylatoxin receptor C5L2 exacerbates inflammation in allergic contact dermatitis. J Immunol. 2013 Oct 15; 191(8):4001-9.
  16. Kumar L, Lu B, Gerard C, Geha RS. C3a receptor promotes viral containment in mice inoculated with vaccinia virus at sites of allergic skin inflammation. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2013 Sep; 132(3):746-748.e3.
  17. Roy C, Gupta A, Fisette A, Lapointe M, Poursharifi P, Richard D, Lu H, Lu B, Gerard N, Gerard C, Cianflone K. C5a receptor deficiency alters energy utilization and fat storage. PLoS One. 2013; 8(5):e62531.
  18. Agnello D, Denimal D, Lavaux A, Blondeau-Germe L, Lu B, Gerard NP, Gerard C, Pothier P. Intrarectal immunization and IgA antibody-secreting cell homing to the small intestine. J Immunol. 2013 May 01; 190(9):4836-47.
  19. Uluer AZ, Waltz DA, Kalish LA, Adams S, Gerard C, Ericson DA. Inhaled amiloride and tobramycin solutions fail to eradicate Burkholderia dolosa in patients with cystic fibrosis. J Cyst Fibros. 2013 Jan; 12(1):54-9.
  20. Coppey L, Lu B, Gerard C, Yorek MA. Effect of Inhibition of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme and/or Neutral Endopeptidase on Neuropathy in High-Fat-Fed C57Bl/6J Mice. J Obes. 2012; 2012:326806.
  21. Schäfer B, Piliponsky AM, Oka T, Song CH, Gerard NP, Gerard C, Tsai M, Kalesnikoff J, Galli SJ. Mast cell anaphylatoxin receptor expression can enhance IgE-dependent skin inflammation in mice. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2013 Feb; 131(2):541-8.e1-9.
  22. Bera MM, Lu B, Martin TR, Cui S, Rhein LM, Gerard C, Gerard NP. Th17 cytokines are critical for respiratory syncytial virus-associated airway hyperreponsiveness through regulation by complement C3a and tachykinins. J Immunol. 2011 Oct 15; 187(8):4245-55.
  23. Wong SS, Sun NN, Fastje CD, Witten ML, Lantz RC, Lu B, Sherrill DL, Gerard CJ, Burgess JL. Role of neprilysin in airway inflammation induced by diesel exhaust emissions. Res Rep Health Eff Inst. 2011 Jun; (159):3-40.
  24. Grumelli S, Lu B, Peterson L, Maeno T, Gerard C. CD46 protects against chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. PLoS One. 2011 May 06; 6(5):e18785.
  25. Dimond P, Carlson K, Bouvier M, Gerard C, Xu L, Covic L, Agarwal A, Ernst OP, Janz JM, Schwartz TW, Gardella TJ, Milligan G, Kuliopulos A, Sakmar TP, Hunt SW. G protein-coupled receptor modulation with pepducins: moving closer to the clinic. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2011 May; 1226:34-49.
  26. Oberbarnscheidt MH, Walch JM, Li Q, Williams AL, Walters JT, Hoffman RA, Demetris AJ, Gerard C, Camirand G, Lakkis FG. Memory T cells migrate to and reject vascularized cardiac allografts independent of the chemokine receptor CXCR3. Transplantation. 2011 Apr 27; 91(8):827-32.
  27. Liu C, Luo D, Reynolds BA, Meher G, Katritzky AR, Lu B, Gerard CJ, Bhadha CP, Harrison JK. Chemokine receptor CXCR3 promotes growth of glioma. Carcinogenesis. 2011 Feb; 32(2):129-37.
  28. Nigrovic PA, Malbec O, Lu B, Markiewski MM, Kepley C, Gerard N, Gerard C, Daëron M, Lee DM. C5a receptor enables participation of mast cells in immune complex arthritis independently of Fc? receptor modulation. Arthritis Rheum. 2010 Nov; 62(11):3322-33.
  29. Struyf S, Salogni L, Burdick MD, Vandercappellen J, Gouwy M, Noppen S, Proost P, Opdenakker G, Parmentier M, Gerard C, Sozzani S, Strieter RM, Van Damme J. Angiostatic and chemotactic activities of the CXC chemokine CXCL4L1 (platelet factor-4 variant) are mediated by CXCR3. Blood. 2011 Jan 13; 117(2):480-8.
  30. Zhang X, Schmudde I, Laumonnier Y, Pandey MK, Clark JR, König P, Gerard NP, Gerard C, Wills-Karp M, Köhl J. A critical role for C5L2 in the pathogenesis of experimental allergic asthma. J Immunol. 2010 Dec 01; 185(11):6741-52.
  31. Coppey L, Davidson E, Lu B, Gerard C, Yorek M. Vasopeptidase inhibitor ilepatril (AVE7688) prevents obesity- and diabetes-induced neuropathy in C57Bl/6J mice. Neuropharmacology. 2011 Feb-Mar; 60(2-3):259-66.
  32. Jacobs JP, Ortiz-Lopez A, Campbell JJ, Gerard CJ, Mathis D, Benoist C. Deficiency of CXCR2, but not other chemokine receptors, attenuates autoantibody-mediated arthritis in a murine model. Arthritis Rheum. 2010 Jul; 62(7):1921-32.
  33. Weaver DJ, Reis ES, Pandey MK, Köhl G, Harris N, Gerard C, Köhl J. C5a receptor-deficient dendritic cells promote induction of Treg and Th17 cells. Eur J Immunol. 2010 Mar; 40(3):710-21.
  34. Davidson E, Coppey L, Lu B, Arballo V, Calcutt NA, Gerard C, Yorek M. The roles of streptozotocin neurotoxicity and neutral endopeptidase in murine experimental diabetic neuropathy. Exp Diabetes Res. 2009; 2009:431980.
  35. Mukagatare I, Monfort M, de Marchin J, Gerard C. [The effect of leukocyte-reduction on the transfusion reactions to red blood cells concentrates]. Transfus Clin Biol. 2010 Feb; 17(1):14-9.
  36. Bamberg CE, Mackay CR, Lee H, Zahra D, Jackson J, Lim YS, Whitfeld PL, Craig S, Corsini E, Lu B, Gerard C, Gerard NP. The C5a receptor (C5aR) C5L2 is a modulator of C5aR-mediated signal transduction. J Biol Chem. 2010 Mar 05; 285(10):7633-44.
  37. Rajagopal S, Kim J, Ahn S, Craig S, Lam CM, Gerard NP, Gerard C, Lefkowitz RJ. Beta-arrestin- but not G protein-mediated signaling by the "decoy" receptor CXCR7. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010 Jan 12; 107(2):628-32.
  38. Jorge LL, Gerard C, Revel M. Evidences of memory dysfunction and maladaptive coping in chronic low back pain and rheumatoid arthritis patients: challenges for rehabilitation. Eur J Phys Rehabil Med. 2009 Dec; 45(4):469-77.
  39. Nakanishi Y, Lu B, Gerard C, Iwasaki A. CD8(+) T lymphocyte mobilization to virus-infected tissue requires CD4(+) T-cell help. Nature. 2009 Nov 26; 462(7272):510-3.
  40. Gutiérrez I, Litzroth A, Hammadi S, Van Oyen H, Gerard C, Robesyn E, Bots J, Faidherbe MT, Wuillaume F. Community transmission of influenza A (H1N1)v virus at a rock festival in Belgium, 2-5 July 2009. Euro Surveill. 2009 Aug 06; 14(31).
  41. Dib M, Zsengeller Z, Mitsialis A, Lu B, Craig S, Gerard C, Gerard NP. A paradoxical protective role for the proinflammatory peptide substance P receptor (NK1R) in acute hyperoxic lung injury. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2009 Oct; 297(4):L687-97.
  42. Takeda A, Baffi JZ, Kleinman ME, Cho WG, Nozaki M, Yamada K, Kaneko H, Albuquerque RJ, Dridi S, Saito K, Raisler BJ, Budd SJ, Geisen P, Munitz A, Ambati BK, Green MG, Ishibashi T, Wright JD, Humbles AA, Gerard CJ, Ogura Y, Pan Y, Smith JR, Grisanti S, Hartnett ME, Rothenberg ME, Ambati J. CCR3 is a target for age-related macular degeneration diagnosis and therapy. Nature. 2009 Jul 09; 460(7252):225-30.
  43. Ye RD, Boulay F, Wang JM, Dahlgren C, Gerard C, Parmentier M, Serhan CN, Murphy PM. International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. LXXIII. Nomenclature for the formyl peptide receptor (FPR) family. Pharmacol Rev. 2009 Jun; 61(2):119-61.
  44. Levy H, Murphy A, Zou F, Gerard C, Klanderman B, Schuemann B, Lazarus R, García KC, Celedón JC, Drumm M, Dahmer M, Quasney M, Schneck K, Reske M, Knowles MR, Pier GB, Lange C, Weiss ST. IL1B polymorphisms modulate cystic fibrosis lung disease. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2009 Jun; 44(6):580-93.
  45. Markiewski MM, DeAngelis RA, Strey CW, Foukas PG, Gerard C, Gerard N, Wetsel RA, Lambris JD. The regulation of liver cell survival by complement. J Immunol. 2009 May 01; 182(9):5412-8.
  46. Dempsey EC, Wick MJ, Karoor V, Barr EJ, Tallman DW, Wehling CA, Walchak SJ, Laudi S, Le M, Oka M, Majka S, Cool CD, Fagan KA, Klemm DJ, Hersh LB, Gerard NP, Gerard C, Miller YE. Neprilysin null mice develop exaggerated pulmonary vascular remodeling in response to chronic hypoxia. Am J Pathol. 2009 Mar; 174(3):782-96.
  47. Hsu HH, Duning K, Meyer HH, Stölting M, Weide T, Kreusser S, van Le T, Gerard C, Telgmann R, Brand-Herrmann SM, Pavenstädt H, Bek MJ. Hypertension in mice lacking the CXCR3 chemokine receptor. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2009 Apr; 296(4):F780-9.
  48. Morteau O, Gerard C, Lu B, Ghiran S, Rits M, Fujiwara Y, Law Y, Distelhorst K, Nielsen EM, Hill ED, Kwan R, Lazarus NH, Butcher EC, Wilson E. An indispensable role for the chemokine receptor CCR10 in IgA antibody-secreting cell accumulation. J Immunol. 2008 Nov 01; 181(9):6309-15.
  49. Riemer C, Schultz J, Burwinkel M, Schwarz A, Mok SW, Gültner S, Bamme T, Norley S, van Landeghem F, Lu B, Gerard C, Baier M. Accelerated prion replication in, but prolonged survival times of, prion-infected CXCR3-/- mice. J Virol. 2008 Dec; 82(24):12464-71.
  50. Markiewski MM, DeAngelis RA, Benencia F, Ricklin-Lichtsteiner SK, Koutoulaki A, Gerard C, Coukos G, Lambris JD. Modulation of the antitumor immune response by complement. Nat Immunol. 2008 Nov; 9(11):1225-35.
  51. Kohlmeier JE, Miller SC, Smith J, Lu B, Gerard C, Cookenham T, Roberts AD, Woodland DL. The chemokine receptor CCR5 plays a key role in the early memory CD8+ T cell response to respiratory virus infections. Immunity. 2008 Jul 18; 29(1):101-13.
  52. Uppaluri R, Sheehan KC, Wang L, Bui JD, Brotman JJ, Lu B, Gerard C, Hancock WW, Schreiber RD. Prolongation of cardiac and islet allograft survival by a blocking hamster anti-mouse CXCR3 monoclonal antibody. Transplantation. 2008 Jul 15; 86(1):137-47.
  53. Rittirsch D, Flierl MA, Nadeau BA, Day DE, Huber-Lang M, Mackay CR, Zetoune FS, Gerard NP, Cianflone K, Köhl J, Gerard C, Sarma JV, Ward PA. Functional roles for C5a receptors in sepsis. Nat Med. 2008 May; 14(5):551-7.
  54. Levy H, Kalish LA, Cannon CL, García KC, Gerard C, Goldmann D, Pier GB, Weiss ST, Colin AA. Predictors of mucoid Pseudomonas colonization in cystic fibrosis patients. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2008 May; 43(5):463-71.
  55. Lammers KM, Lu R, Brownley J, Lu B, Gerard C, Thomas K, Rallabhandi P, Shea-Donohue T, Tamiz A, Alkan S, Netzel-Arnett S, Antalis T, Vogel SN, Fasano A. Gliadin induces an increase in intestinal permeability and zonulin release by binding to the chemokine receptor CXCR3. Gastroenterology. 2008 Jul; 135(1):194-204.e3.
  56. Rhein LM, Perkins M, Gerard NP, Gerard C. FcgammaRIII is protective against Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2008 Apr; 38(4):401-6.
  57. Müller M, Carter SL, Hofer MJ, Manders P, Getts DR, Getts MT, Dreykluft A, Lu B, Gerard C, King NJ, Campbell IL. CXCR3 signaling reduces the severity of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by controlling the parenchymal distribution of effector and regulatory T cells in the central nervous system. J Immunol. 2007 Sep 01; 179(5):2774-86.
  58. Nakaya I, Wada T, Furuichi K, Sakai N, Kitagawa K, Yokoyama H, Ishida Y, Kondo T, Sugaya T, Kawachi H, Shimizu F, Narumi S, Haino M, Gerard C, Matsushima K, Kaneko S. Blockade of IP-10/CXCR3 promotes progressive renal fibrosis. Nephron Exp Nephrol. 2007; 107(1):e12-21.
  59. Miao Z, Premack BA, Wei Z, Wang Y, Gerard C, Showell H, Howard M, Schall TJ, Berahovich R. Proinflammatory proteases liberate a discrete high-affinity functional FPRL1 (CCR12) ligand from CCL23. J Immunol. 2007 Jun 01; 178(11):7395-404.
  60. Barbi J, Oghumu S, Rosas LE, Carlson T, Lu B, Gerard C, Lezama-Davila CM, Satoskar AR. Lack of CXCR3 delays the development of hepatic inflammation but does not impair resistance to Leishmania donovani. J Infect Dis. 2007 Jun 01; 195(11):1713-7.
  61. Romano D, Magalon K, Pertuit M, Rasolonjanahary R, Barlier A, Enjalbert A, Gerard C. Conditional overexpression of the wild-type Gs alpha as the gsp oncogene initiates chronic extracellularly regulated kinase 1/2 activation and hormone hypersecretion in pituitary cell lines. Endocrinology. 2007 Jun; 148(6):2973-83.
  62. Hamrah P, Yamagami S, Liu Y, Zhang Q, Vora SS, Lu B, Gerard CJ, Dana MR. Deletion of the chemokine receptor CCR1 prolongs corneal allograft survival. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2007 Mar; 48(3):1228-36.
  63. Levy H, Kalish LA, Huntington I, Weller N, Gerard C, Silverman EK, Celedón JC, Pier GB, Weiss ST. Inflammatory markers of lung disease in adult patients with cystic fibrosis. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2007 Mar; 42(3):256-62.
  64. Chakravarty SD, Xu J, Lu B, Gerard C, Flynn J, Chan J. The chemokine receptor CXCR3 attenuates the control of chronic Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in BALB/c mice. J Immunol. 2007 Feb 01; 178(3):1723-35.
  65. Melendi GA, Hoffman SJ, Karron RA, Irusta PM, Laham FR, Humbles A, Schofield B, Pan CH, Rabold R, Thumar B, Thumar A, Gerard NP, Mitzner W, Barnum SR, Gerard C, Kleeberger SR, Polack FP. C5 modulates airway hyperreactivity and pulmonary eosinophilia during enhanced respiratory syncytial virus disease by decreasing C3a receptor expression. J Virol. 2007 Jan; 81(2):991-9.
  66. Hsieh MF, Lai SL, Chen JP, Sung JM, Lin YL, Wu-Hsieh BA, Gerard C, Luster A, Liao F. Both CXCR3 and CXCL10/IFN-inducible protein 10 are required for resistance to primary infection by dengue virus. J Immunol. 2006 Aug 01; 177(3):1855-63.
  67. Kristensen NN, Gad M, Thomsen AR, Lu B, Gerard C, Claesson MH. CXC chemokine receptor 3 expression increases the disease-inducing potential of CD4+ CD25- T cells in adoptive transfer colitis. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2006 May; 12(5):374-81.
  68. Wald O, Weiss ID, Wald H, Shoham H, Bar-Shavit Y, Beider K, Galun E, Weiss L, Flaishon L, Shachar I, Nagler A, Lu B, Gerard C, Gao JL, Mishani E, Farber J, Peled A. IFN-gamma acts on T cells to induce NK cell mobilization and accumulation in target organs. J Immunol. 2006 Apr 15; 176(8):4716-29.
  69. Liu L, Huang D, Matsui M, He TT, Hu T, Demartino J, Lu B, Gerard C, Ransohoff RM. Severe disease, unaltered leukocyte migration, and reduced IFN-gamma production in CXCR3-/- mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. J Immunol. 2006 Apr 01; 176(7):4399-409.
  70. Köhl J, Baelder R, Lewkowich IP, Pandey MK, Hawlisch H, Wang L, Best J, Herman NS, Sproles AA, Zwirner J, Whitsett JA, Gerard C, Sfyroera G, Lambris JD, Wills-Karp M. A regulatory role for the C5a anaphylatoxin in type 2 immunity in asthma. J Clin Invest. 2006 Mar; 116(3):783-96.
  71. Rahpeymai Y, Hietala MA, Wilhelmsson U, Fotheringham A, Davies I, Nilsson AK, Zwirner J, Wetsel RA, Gerard C, Pekny M, Pekna M. Complement: a novel factor in basal and ischemia-induced neurogenesis. EMBO J. 2006 Mar 22; 25(6):1364-74.
  72. Miller AL, Gerard C, Schaller M, Gruber AD, Humbles AA, Lukacs NW. Deletion of CCR1 attenuates pathophysiologic responses during respiratory syncytial virus infection. J Immunol. 2006 Feb 15; 176(4):2562-7.
  73. Pan J, Burdick MD, Belperio JA, Xue YY, Gerard C, Sharma S, Dubinett SM, Strieter RM. CXCR3/CXCR3 ligand biological axis impairs RENCA tumor growth by a mechanism of immunoangiostasis. J Immunol. 2006 Feb 01; 176(3):1456-64.
  74. Annunziato F, Cosmi L, Liotta F, Lazzeri E, Romagnani P, Angeli R, Lasagni L, Manetti R, Marra F, Gerard C, Petrai I, Dello Sbarba P, Tonelli F, Maggi E, Romagnani S. CXCR3 and alphaEbeta7 integrin identify a subset of CD8+ mature thymocytes that share phenotypic and functional properties with CD8+ gut intraepithelial lymphocytes. Gut. 2006 Jul; 55(7):961-8.
  75. Kalish LA, Waltz DA, Dovey M, Potter-Bynoe G, McAdam AJ, Lipuma JJ, Gerard C, Goldmann D. Impact of Burkholderia dolosa on lung function and survival in cystic fibrosis. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2006 Feb 15; 173(4):421-5.
  76. Gerard NP, Lu B, Liu P, Craig S, Fujiwara Y, Okinaga S, Gerard C. An anti-inflammatory function for the complement anaphylatoxin C5a-binding protein, C5L2. J Biol Chem. 2005 Dec 02; 280(48):39677-80.
  77. Honczarenko M, Lu B, Nicholson-Weller A, Gerard NP, Silberstein LE, Gerard C. C5L2 receptor is not involved in C3a / C3a-desArg-mediated enhancement of bone marrow hematopoietic cell migration to CXCL12. Leukemia. 2005 Sep; 19(9):1682-3; author reply 1684-5.
  78. Veillard NR, Steffens S, Pelli G, Lu B, Kwak BR, Gerard C, Charo IF, Mach F. Differential influence of chemokine receptors CCR2 and CXCR3 in development of atherosclerosis in vivo. Circulation. 2005 Aug 09; 112(6):870-8.
  79. de Lemos C, Christensen JE, Nansen A, Moos T, Lu B, Gerard C, Christensen JP, Thomsen AR. Opposing effects of CXCR3 and CCR5 deficiency on CD8+ T cell-mediated inflammation in the central nervous system of virus-infected mice. J Immunol. 2005 Aug 01; 175(3):1767-75.
  80. Yoneyama H, Matsuno K, Toda E, Nishiwaki T, Matsuo N, Nakano A, Narumi S, Lu B, Gerard C, Ishikawa S, Matsushima K. Plasmacytoid DCs help lymph node DCs to induce anti-HSV CTLs. J Exp Med. 2005 Aug 01; 202(3):425-35.
  81. Lee BJ, Giannoni F, Lyon A, Yada S, Lu B, Gerard C, Sarawar SR. Role of CXCR3 in the immune response to murine gammaherpesvirus 68. J Virol. 2005 Jul; 79(14):9351-5.
  82. Gerard C. Biomedicine. Asthmatics breathe easier when it's SNO-ing. Science. 2005 Jun 10; 308(5728):1560-1.
  83. Abonia JP, Friend DS, Austen WG, Moore FD, Carroll MC, Chan R, Afnan J, Humbles A, Gerard C, Knight P, Kanaoka Y, Yasuda S, Morokawa N, Austen KF, Stevens RL, Gurish MF. Mast cell protease 5 mediates ischemia-reperfusion injury of mouse skeletal muscle. J Immunol. 2005 Jun 01; 174(11):7285-91.
  84. Gerard C. Inflammatory chemokines: tuned in, turned on, dropped out. Nat Immunol. 2005 Apr; 6(4):366-8.
  85. Yamagami S, Hamrah P, Miyamoto K, Miyazaki D, Dekaris I, Dawson T, Lu B, Gerard C, Dana MR. CCR5 chemokine receptor mediates recruitment of MHC class II-positive Langerhans cells in the mouse corneal epithelium. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2005 Apr; 46(4):1201-7.
  86. Hawlisch H, Belkaid Y, Baelder R, Hildeman D, Gerard C, Köhl J. C5a negatively regulates toll-like receptor 4-induced immune responses. Immunity. 2005 Apr; 22(4):415-26.
  87. Waeckel L, Mallat Z, Potteaux S, Combadière C, Clergue M, Duriez M, Bao L, Gerard C, Rollins BJ, Tedgui A, Levy BI, Silvestre JS. Impairment in postischemic neovascularization in mice lacking the CXC chemokine receptor 3. Circ Res. 2005 Mar 18; 96(5):576-82.
  88. Rosas LE, Barbi J, Lu B, Fujiwara Y, Gerard C, Sanders VM, Satoskar AR. CXCR3-/- mice mount an efficient Th1 response but fail to control Leishmania major infection. Eur J Immunol. 2005 Feb; 35(2):515-23.
  89. Widney DP, Hu Y, Foreman-Wykert AK, Bui KC, Nguyen TT, Lu B, Gerard C, Miller JF, Smith JB. CXCR3 and its ligands participate in the host response to Bordetella bronchiseptica infection of the mouse respiratory tract but are not required for clearance of bacteria from the lung. Infect Immun. 2005 Jan; 73(1):485-93.
  90. John AE, Gerard CJ, Schaller M, Miller AL, Berlin AA, Humbles AA, Lukacs NW. Respiratory syncytial virus-induced exaggeration of allergic airway disease is dependent upon CCR1-associated immune responses. Eur J Immunol. 2005 Jan; 35(1):108-16.
  91. Ness TL, Carpenter KJ, Ewing JL, Gerard CJ, Hogaboam CM, Kunkel SL. CCR1 and CC chemokine ligand 5 interactions exacerbate innate immune responses during sepsis. J Immunol. 2004 Dec 01; 173(11):6938-48.
  92. Martín-Fontecha A, Thomsen LL, Brett S, Gerard C, Lipp M, Lanzavecchia A, Sallusto F. Induced recruitment of NK cells to lymph nodes provides IFN-gamma for T(H)1 priming. Nat Immunol. 2004 Dec; 5(12):1260-5.
  93. Chiu BC, Freeman CM, Stolberg VR, Hu JS, Zeibecoglou K, Lu B, Gerard C, Charo IF, Lira SA, Chensue SW. Impaired lung dendritic cell activation in CCR2 knockout mice. Am J Pathol. 2004 Oct; 165(4):1199-209.
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  198. Post TW, Bozic CR, Rothenberg ME, Luster AD, Gerard N, Gerard C. Molecular characterization of two murine eosinophil beta chemokine receptors. J Immunol. 1995 Dec 01; 155(11):5299-305.
  199. Li C, Chen G, Gerard NP, Gerard C, Bozic CR, Hersh LB. Comparison of the structure and expression of the human and rat neprilysin (endopeptidase 24.11)-encoding genes. Gene. 1995 Oct 27; 164(2):363-6.
  200. García Rodríguez C, Cundell DR, Tuomanen EI, Kolakowski LF, Gerard C, Gerard NP. The role of N-glycosylation for functional expression of the human platelet-activating factor receptor. Glycosylation is required for efficient membrane trafficking. J Biol Chem. 1995 Oct 20; 270(42):25178-84.
  201. Cundell DR, Gerard NP, Gerard C, Idanpaan-Heikkila I, Tuomanen EI. Streptococcus pneumoniae anchor to activated human cells by the receptor for platelet-activating factor. Nature. 1995 Oct 05; 377(6548):435-8.
  202. Kolakowski LF, Lu B, Gerard C, Gerard NP. Probing the "message:address" sites for chemoattractant binding to the C5a receptor. Mutagenesis of hydrophilic and proline residues within the transmembrane segments. J Biol Chem. 1995 Jul 28; 270(30):18077-82.
  203. Bozza M, Kolakowski LF, Jenkins NA, Gilbert DJ, Copeland NG, David JR, Gerard C. Structural characterization and chromosomal location of the mouse macrophage migration inhibitory factor gene and pseudogenes. Genomics. 1995 Jun 10; 27(3):412-9.
  204. Bozic CR, Kolakowski LF, Gerard NP, Garcia-Rodriguez C, von Uexkull-Guldenband C, Conklyn MJ, Breslow R, Showell HJ, Gerard C. Expression and biologic characterization of the murine chemokine KC. J Immunol. 1995 Jun 01; 154(11):6048-57.
  205. Lu B, Gerard NP, Kolakowski LF, Bozza M, Zurakowski D, Finco O, Carroll MC, Gerard C. Neutral endopeptidase modulation of septic shock. J Exp Med. 1995 Jun 01; 181(6):2271-5.
  206. Van Sande J, Swillens S, Gerard C, Allgeier A, Massart C, Vassart G, Dumont JE. In Chinese hamster ovary K1 cells dog and human thyrotropin receptors activate both the cyclic AMP and the phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate cascades in the presence of thyrotropin and the cyclic AMP cascade in its absence. Eur J Biochem. 1995 Apr 15; 229(2):338-43.
  207. Bozic CR, Gerard NP, von Uexkull-Guldenband C, Kolakowski LF, Conklyn MJ, Breslow R, Showell HJ, Gerard C. The murine interleukin 8 type B receptor homologue and its ligands. Expression and biological characterization. J Biol Chem. 1994 Nov 25; 269(47):29355-8.
  208. Asano K, Chee CB, Gaston B, Lilly CM, Gerard C, Drazen JM, Stamler JS. Constitutive and inducible nitric oxide synthase gene expression, regulation, and activity in human lung epithelial cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994 Oct 11; 91(21):10089-93.
  209. Wu LS, Torosian G, Sigvardson K, Gerard C, Hussain MA. Investigation of moricizine hydrochloride polymorphs. J Pharm Sci. 1994 Oct; 83(10):1404-6.
  210. Wu LS, Gerard C, Koval C, Rowe S, Hussain MA. Crystallinity, hygroscopicity and dissolution of moricizine hydrochloride hemihydrate. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 1994 Aug; 12(8):1043-6.
  211. Gerard C, Gerard NP. The pro-inflammatory seven-transmembrane segment receptors of the leukocyte. Curr Opin Immunol. 1994 Feb; 6(1):140-5.
  212. Gerard NP, Gerard C. Receptor-dependent internalization of platelet-activating factor. J Immunol. 1994 Jan 15; 152(2):793-800.
  213. Gerard C, Gerard NP. C5A anaphylatoxin and its seven transmembrane-segment receptor. Annu Rev Immunol. 1994; 12:775-808.
  214. Wu LS, Gerard C, Hussain MA. Thermal analysis and solution calorimetry studies on losartan polymorphs. Pharm Res. 1993 Dec; 10(12):1793-5.
  215. Wetmore LA, Gerard C, Drazen JM. Human lung expresses unique gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase transcripts. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993 Aug 15; 90(16):7461-5.
  216. Amatruda TT, Gerard NP, Gerard C, Simon MI. Specific interactions of chemoattractant factor receptors with G-proteins. J Biol Chem. 1993 May 15; 268(14):10139-44.
  217. Gerard NP, Bao L, Xiao-Ping H, Eddy RL, Shows TB, Gerard C. Human chemotaxis receptor genes cluster at 19q13.3-13.4. Characterization of the human C5a receptor gene. Biochemistry. 1993 Feb 09; 32(5):1243-50.
  218. Abramowicz D, Durez P, Gerard C, Donckier V, Amraoui Z, Velu T, Goldman M. Neonatal induction of transplantation tolerance in mice is associated with in vivo expression of IL-4 and -10 mRNAs. Transplant Proc. 1993 Feb; 25(1 Pt 1):312-3.
  219. Gerard NP, Bao L, Xiao-Ping H, Gerard C. Molecular aspects of the tachykinin receptors. Regul Pept. 1993 Jan 22; 43(1-2):21-35.
  220. Gerard C, Bao L, Orozco O, Pearson M, Kunz D, Gerard NP. Structural diversity in the extracellular faces of peptidergic G-protein-coupled receptors. Molecular cloning of the mouse C5a anaphylatoxin receptor. J Immunol. 1992 Oct 15; 149(8):2600-6.
  221. Iijima H, Gerard NP, Squassoni C, Ewig J, Face D, Drazen JM, Kim YA, Shriver B, Hersh LB, Gerard C. Exon 16 del: a novel form of human neutral endopeptidase (CALLA). Am J Physiol. 1992 Jun; 262(6 Pt 1):L725-9.
  222. Bao L, Gerard NP, Eddy RL, Shows TB, Gerard C. Mapping of genes for the human C5a receptor (C5AR), human FMLP receptor (FPR), and two FMLP receptor homologue orphan receptors (FPRH1, FPRH2) to chromosome 19. Genomics. 1992 Jun; 13(2):437-40.
  223. Kunz D, Gerard NP, Gerard C. The human leukocyte platelet-activating factor receptor. cDNA cloning, cell surface expression, and construction of a novel epitope-bearing analog. J Biol Chem. 1992 May 05; 267(13):9101-6.
  224. Didsbury JR, Uhing RJ, Tomhave E, Gerard C, Gerard N, Snyderman R. Functional high efficiency expression of cloned leukocyte chemoattractant receptor cDNAs. FEBS Lett. 1992 Feb 10; 297(3):275-9.
  225. Parad RB, Gerard C. A sequence variation in intron 17B of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene. Hum Mutat. 1992; 1(3):258-9.
  226. Vassart G, Parmentier M, Libert F, Eggerickx D, Gerard C, Maenhaut C, Mollereau C, Perret J, Schurman S, Van Sande J. Identification of orphan G protein-coupled receptors. Clin Neuropharmacol. 1992; 15 Suppl 1 Pt A:147A-148A.
  227. Didsbury JR, Uhing RJ, Tomhave E, Gerard C, Gerard N, Snyderman R. Receptor class desensitization of leukocyte chemoattractant receptors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1991 Dec 15; 88(24):11564-8.
  228. Gerard NP, Garraway LA, Eddy RL, Shows TB, Iijima H, Paquet JL, Gerard C. Human substance P receptor (NK-1): organization of the gene, chromosome localization, and functional expression of cDNA clones. Biochemistry. 1991 Nov 05; 30(44):10640-6.
  229. Munger JS, Shi GP, Mark EA, Chin DT, Gerard C, Chapman HA. A serine esterase released by human alveolar macrophages is closely related to liver microsomal carboxylesterases. J Biol Chem. 1991 Oct 05; 266(28):18832-8.
  230. Beckmann MP, Munger WE, Kozlosky C, VandenBos T, Price V, Lyman S, Gerard NP, Gerard C, Cerretti DP. Molecular characterization of the interleukin-8 receptor. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1991 Sep 16; 179(2):784-9.
  231. Gerard NP, Gerard C. The chemotactic receptor for human C5a anaphylatoxin. Nature. 1991 Feb 14; 349(6310):614-7.
  232. Gerard NP, Eddy RL, Shows TB, Gerard C. The human neurokinin A (substance K) receptor. Molecular cloning of the gene, chromosome localization, and isolation of the cDNA from tracheal and gastric tissues. J Biol Chem. 1991 Jan 15; 266(2):1354.
  233. Gerard NP, Gerard C. Molecular cloning of the human neurokinin-2 receptor cDNA by polymerase chain reaction and isolation of the gene. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1991; 632:389-90.
  234. Gerard C, Eddy RL, Shows TB. The core polypeptide of cystic fibrosis tracheal mucin contains a tandem repeat structure. Evidence for a common mucin in airway and gastrointestinal tissue. J Clin Invest. 1990 Dec; 86(6):1921-7.
  235. Gerard NP, Eddy RL, Shows TB, Gerard C. The human neurokinin A (substance K) receptor. Molecular cloning of the gene, chromosome localization, and isolation of cDNA from tracheal and gastric tissues. J Biol Chem. 1990 Nov 25; 265(33):20455-62.
  236. Gerard NP, Gerard C. Construction and expression of a novel recombinant anaphylatoxin, C5a-N19, as a probe for the human C5a receptor. Biochemistry. 1990 Oct 02; 29(39):9274-81.
  237. Perret J, Ludgate M, Libert F, Gerard C, Dumont JE, Vassart G, Parmentier M. Stable expression of the human TSH receptor in CHO cells and characterization of differentially expressing clones. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1990 Sep 28; 171(3):1044-50.
  238. Koshino T, Bhaskar KR, Reid LM, Gerard C, Warner A, Shore SA, Anderson K, Butler G, Iijima H, Drazen JM. Recovery of an epitope recognized by a novel monoclonal antibody from airway lavage during experimental induction of chronic bronchitis. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 1990 May; 2(5):453-62.
  239. Martins MA, Shore SA, Gerard NP, Gerard C, Drazen JM. Peptidase modulation of the pulmonary effects of tachykinins in tracheal superfused guinea pig lungs. J Clin Invest. 1990 Jan; 85(1):170-6.
  240. Libert F, Lefort A, Gerard C, Parmentier M, Perret J, Ludgate M, Dumont JE, Vassart G. Cloning, sequencing and expression of the human thyrotropin (TSH) receptor: evidence for binding of autoantibodies. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1989 Dec 29; 165(3):1250-5.
  241. Drazen JM, Gerard C. Reversing the irreversible. N Engl J Med. 1989 Jun 08; 320(23):1555-6.
  242. Gerard NP, Hodges MK, Drazen JM, Weller PF, Gerard C. Characterization of a receptor for C5a anaphylatoxin on human eosinophils. J Biol Chem. 1989 Jan 25; 264(3):1760-6.
  243. Gerard C, Bhaskar KR, Gerard NP, Drazen JM, Reid L. Studies on the peptide core of human bronchial mucus glycoprotein. Symp Soc Exp Biol. 1989; 43:221-30.
  244. Hansen C, Gerard C, Vassart G, Stordeur P, Christophe D. Thyroid-specific and cAMP-dependent hypersensitive regions in thyroglobulin gene chromatin. Eur J Biochem. 1988 Dec 15; 178(2):387-93.
  245. Gerard NP, Lively MO, Gerard C. Amino acid sequence of guinea pig C3a anaphylatoxin. Protein Seq Data Anal. 1988; 1(6):473-8.
  246. Franke AE, Andrews GC, Stimler-Gerard NP, Gerard CJ, Showell HJ. Human C5a anaphylatoxin: gene synthesis, expression, and recovery of biologically active material from Escherichia coli. Methods Enzymol. 1988; 162:653-68.
  247. Bass DA, Gerard C, Olbrantz P, Wilson J, McCall CE, McPhail LC. Priming of the respiratory burst of neutrophils by diacylglycerol. Independence from activation or translocation of protein kinase C. J Biol Chem. 1987 May 15; 262(14):6643-9.
  248. Gerard C, McPhail LC, Marfat A, Stimler-Gerard NP, Bass DA, McCall CE. Role of protein kinases in stimulation of human polymorphonuclear leukocyte oxidative metabolism by various agonists. Differential effects of a novel protein kinase inhibitor. J Clin Invest. 1986 Jan; 77(1):61-5.
  249. Gerard C, Showell HJ, Hoeprich PD, Hugli TE, Stimler NP. Evidence for a role of the amino-terminal region in the biological activity of the classical anaphylatoxin, porcine C5a des-Arg-74. J Biol Chem. 1985 Mar 10; 260(5):2613-6.
  250. Hugli TE, Gerard C, Kawahara M, Scheetz ME, Barton R, Briggs S, Koppel G, Russell S. Isolation of three separate anaphylatoxins from complement-activated human serum. Mol Cell Biochem. 1981 Dec 04; 41:59-66.
  251. Gerard C, Chenoweth DE, Hugli TE. Response of human neutrophils to C5a: a role for the oligosaccharide moiety of human C5ades Arg-74 but not of C5a in biologic activity. J Immunol. 1981 Nov; 127(5):1978-82.
  252. Gerard C, Hugli TE. Identification of classical anaphylatoxin as the des-Arg form of the C5a molecule: evidence of a modulator role for the oligosaccharide unit in human des-Arg74-C5a. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1981 Mar; 78(3):1833-7.
  253. Hugli TE, Stimler NP, Gerard C, Moon KE. Possible role of serum anaphylatoxins in hypersensitivity reactions. Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol. 1981; 66 Suppl 1:113-20.
  254. Gerard C, Hugli TE. C5a: a mediator of chemotaxis and cellular release reactions. Kroc Found Ser. 1981; 14:147-60.
  255. Gerard C, Hugli TE. Amino acid sequence of the anaphylatoxin from the fifth component of porcine complement. J Biol Chem. 1980 May 25; 255(10):4710-5.
  256. Gerard C, Chenoweth DE, Hugli TE. Molecular aspects of the serum chemotactic factors. J Reticuloendothel Soc. 1979 Dec; 26(Suppl):711-8.
  257. Gerard C, Hugli TE. Anaphylatoxin from the fifth component of porcine complement. Purification and partial chemical characterization. J Biol Chem. 1979 Jul 25; 254(14):6346-51.
  258. Ozols J, Gerard C. Cleavage of tryptophanyl peptide bonds in cytochrome b5 by cyanogen bromide. J Biol Chem. 1977 Sep 10; 252(17):5986-9.
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