Research Overview

Dr. Ludwig is co-director of the New Balance Foundation Obesity Prevention Center. His research focuses on the effects of diet on hormones, metabolism and body weight. He developed a novel “low glycemic load” diet (i.e., one that decreases the surge in blood sugar after meals) for the treatment of obesity-related diseases. In addition, his group has done some of the original studies linking sugar-sweetened beverages and fast food to excessive weight gain, heart disease and type 2 diabetes.

Dr Ludwig founded the Optimal Weight for Life (OWL) program at Children's Hospital, one of the country’s oldest and largest multidisciplinary clinics for the care of overweight children. OWL serves as a home for research into innovative approaches to treatment childhood obesity.

Dr. Ludwig is Principal Investigator on numerous grants from the National Institutes of Health, has published over 150 scientific articles, and served for 10 years as Contributing Writer for JAMA.

Dr. Ludwig has written 3 books for the public, including Ending the Food fight (2007), Always Hungry? (2016) and the cookbook Always Delicious (2018)

About David Ludwig

David Ludwig received a PhD and an MD from Stanford University School of Medicine. He completed an internship and residency in pediatrics and a fellowship in pediatric endocrinology at Boston Children's Hospital.

Researcher Services

Researcher Areas

  • Obesity

Research Departments

Research Divisions


Publications powered by Harvard Catalyst Profiles

  1. Litman EA, Gortmaker SL, Ebbeling CB, Ludwig DS. Source of bias in sugar-sweetened beverage research: a systematic review. Public Health Nutr. 2018 Mar 26; 1-6. View abstract
  2. Ludwig DS. Epidemic Childhood Obesity: Not Yet the End of the Beginning. Pediatrics. 2018 Feb 26. View abstract
  3. Astley CM, Todd JN, Salem RM, Vedantam S, Ebbeling CB, Huang PL, Ludwig DS, Hirschhorn JN, Florez JC. Genetic Evidence That Carbohydrate-Stimulated Insulin Secretion Leads to Obesity. Clin Chem. 2018 Jan; 64(1):192-200. View abstract
  4. Ebbeling CB, Klein GL, Luoto PK, Wong JMW, Bielak L, Eddy RG, Steltz SK, Devlin C, Sandman M, Hron B, Shimy K, Heymsfield SB, Wolfe RR, Wong WW, Feldman HA, Ludwig DS. A randomized study of dietary composition during weight-loss maintenance: Rationale, study design, intervention, and assessment. Contemp Clin Trials. 2018 Feb; 65:76-86. View abstract
  5. Ebbeling CB, Young IS, Lichtenstein AH, Ludwig DS, McKinley M, Perez-Escamilla R, Rimm E. Dietary Fat: Friend or Foe? Clin Chem. 2018 Jan; 64(1):34-41. View abstract
  6. Shukla AP, Andono J, Touhamy SH, Casper A, Iliescu RG, Mauer E, Shan Zhu Y, Ludwig DS, Aronne LJ. Carbohydrate-last meal pattern lowers postprandial glucose and insulin excursions in type 2 diabetes. BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care. 2017; 5(1):e000440. View abstract
  7. Hron BM, Ebbeling CB, Feldman HA, Ludwig DS. Hepatic, adipocyte, enteric and pancreatic hormones: response to dietary macronutrient composition and relationship with metabolism. Nutr Metab (Lond). 2017; 14:44. View abstract
  8. Wong JMW, Ebbeling CB, Robinson L, Feldman HA, Ludwig DS. Effects of Advice to Drink 8 Cups of Water per Day in Adolescents With Overweight or Obesity: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA Pediatr. 2017 May 01; 171(5):e170012. View abstract
  9. Wolever TM, Augustin LS, Brand-Miller JC, Delport E, Livesey G, Ludwig DS, Sievenpiper JL. Glycemic index is as reliable as macronutrients on food labels. Am J Clin Nutr. 2017 Mar; 105(3):768-769. View abstract
  10. Esko T, Hirschhorn JN, Feldman HA, Hsu YH, Deik AA, Clish CB, Ebbeling CB, Ludwig DS. Metabolomic profiles as reliable biomarkers of dietary composition. Am J Clin Nutr. 2017 Mar; 105(3):547-554. View abstract
  11. Levenson AE, Milliren CE, Biddinger SB, Ebbeling CB, Feldman HA, Ludwig DS, de Ferranti SD. Calorically restricted diets decrease PCSK9 in overweight adolescents. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2017 Apr; 27(4):342-349. View abstract
  12. Ludwig DS. Lowering the Bar on the Low-Fat Diet. JAMA. 2016 Nov 22; 316(20):2087-2088. View abstract
  13. Fleischman A, Hourigan SE, Lyon HN, Landry MG, Reynolds J, Steltz SK, Robinson L, Keating S, Feldman HA, Antonelli RC, Ludwig DS, Ebbeling CB. Creating an integrated care model for childhood obesity: a randomized pilot study utilizing telehealth in a community primary care setting. Clin Obes. 2016 Dec; 6(6):380-388. View abstract
  14. Ludwig DS, Ebbeling CB. Raising the bar on the low-carbohydrate diet. Am J Clin Nutr. 2016 11; 104(5):1487-1488. View abstract
  15. Rhodes ET, Vernacchio L, Mitchell AA, Fischer C, Giacalone P, Ludwig DS, Ebbeling CB. A telephone intervention to achieve differentiation in dietary intake: a randomized trial in paediatric primary care. Pediatr Obes. 2017 Dec; 12(6):494-501. View abstract
  16. Zenlea IS, Milliren C, Herel S, Thomaseo Burton E, Askins N, Ludwig DS, Rhodes ET. Outcomes from an orientation model to reduce attrition in paediatric weight management. Clin Obes. 2016 Oct; 6(5):313-20. View abstract
  17. Ludwig DS. Lifespan Weighed Down by Diet. JAMA. 2016 Jun 07; 315(21):2269-70. View abstract
  18. Bertoia ML, Mukamal KJ, Cahill LE, Hou T, Ludwig DS, Mozaffarian D, Willett WC, Hu FB, Rimm EB. Correction: Changes in Intake of Fruits and Vegetables and Weight Change in United States Men and Women Followed for Up to 24 Years: Analysis from Three Prospective Cohort Studies. PLoS Med. 2016 Jan; 13(1):e1001956. View abstract
  19. Mozaffarian D, Ludwig DS. Dietary Cholesterol and Blood Cholesterol Concentrations-Reply. JAMA. 2015 Nov 17; 314(19):2084-5. View abstract
  20. Tobias DK, Chen M, Manson JE, Ludwig DS, Willett W, Hu FB. Effect of low-fat diet interventions versus other diet interventions on long-term weight change in adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 2015 Dec; 3(12):968-79. View abstract
  21. Bertoia ML, Mukamal KJ, Cahill LE, Hou T, Ludwig DS, Mozaffarian D, Willett WC, Hu FB, Rimm EB. Changes in Intake of Fruits and Vegetables and Weight Change in United States Men and Women Followed for Up to 24 Years: Analysis from Three Prospective Cohort Studies. PLoS Med. 2015 Sep; 12(9):e1001878. View abstract
  22. Hron BM, Ebbeling CB, Feldman HA, Ludwig DS. Relationship of insulin dynamics to body composition and resting energy expenditure following weight loss. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2015 Nov; 23(11):2216-22. View abstract
  23. de Ferranti SD, Milliren CE, Denhoff ER, Quinn N, Osganian SK, Feldman HA, Ebbeling CB, Ludwig DS. Providing food to treat adolescents at risk for cardiovascular disease. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2015 Oct; 23(10):2109-17. View abstract
  24. French SA, Sherwood NE, JaKa MM, Haapala JL, Ebbeling CB, Ludwig DS. Physical changes in the home environment to reduce television viewing and sugar-sweetened beverage consumption among 5- to 12-year-old children: a randomized pilot study. Pediatr Obes. 2016 10; 11(5):e12-5. View abstract
  25. Wong JM, Gallagher M, Gooding H, Feldman HA, Gordon CM, Ludwig DS, Ebbeling CB. A randomized pilot study of dietary treatments for polycystic ovary syndrome in adolescents. Pediatr Obes. 2016 06; 11(3):210-20. View abstract
  26. Mozaffarian D, Ludwig DS. The 2015 US Dietary Guidelines: Lifting the Ban on Total Dietary Fat. JAMA. 2015 Jun 23-30; 313(24):2421-2. View abstract
  27. Ludwig DS, Astrup A, Willett WC. The glycemic index: Reports of its demise have been exaggerated. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2015 Jul; 23(7):1327-8. View abstract
  28. Smith JD, Hou T, Ludwig DS, Rimm EB, Willett W, Hu FB, Mozaffarian D. Changes in intake of protein foods, carbohydrate amount and quality, and long-term weight change: results from 3 prospective cohorts. Am J Clin Nutr. 2015 Jun; 101(6):1216-24. View abstract
  29. Heymsfield SB, Ebbeling CB, Zheng J, Pietrobelli A, Strauss BJ, Silva AM, Ludwig DS. Multi-component molecular-level body composition reference methods: evolving concepts and future directions. Obes Rev. 2015 Apr; 16(4):282-94. View abstract
  30. Mozaffarian D, Rogoff KS, Ludwig DS. Taxes and subsidies to improve diet--reply. JAMA. 2015 Jan 20; 313(3):308. View abstract
  31. Lennerz BS, Vafai SB, Delaney NF, Clish CB, Deik AA, Pierce KA, Ludwig DS, Mootha VK. Effects of sodium benzoate, a widely used food preservative, on glucose homeostasis and metabolic profiles in humans. Mol Genet Metab. 2015 Jan; 114(1):73-9. View abstract
  32. Mozaffarian D, Rogoff KS, Ludwig DS. The real cost of food: can taxes and subsidies improve public health? JAMA. 2014 Sep 03; 312(9):889-90. View abstract
  33. Ludwig DS, Friedman MI. Increasing adiposity: consequence or cause of overeating? JAMA. 2014 Jun 04; 311(21):2167-8. View abstract
  34. Ludwig D. Hysteria, race, and phlogiston. A model of ontological elimination in the human sciences. Stud Hist Philos Biol Biomed Sci. 2014 Mar; 45:68-77. View abstract
  35. Gillman MW, Ludwig DS. How early should obesity prevention start? N Engl J Med. 2013 Dec 05; 369(23):2173-5. View abstract
  36. Ludwig DS, Rouse HL, Currie J. Pregnancy weight gain and childhood body weight: a within-family comparison. PLoS Med. 2013 Oct; 10(10):e1001521. View abstract
  37. Ludwig DS, Willett WC. Three daily servings of reduced-fat milk: an evidence-based recommendation? JAMA Pediatr. 2013 Sep; 167(9):788-9. View abstract
  38. Ludwig DS. Examining the health effects of fructose. JAMA. 2013 Jul 03; 310(1):33-4. View abstract
  39. Lennerz BS, Alsop DC, Holsen LM, Stern E, Rojas R, Ebbeling CB, Goldstein JM, Ludwig DS. Effects of dietary glycemic index on brain regions related to reward and craving in men. Am J Clin Nutr. 2013 Sep; 98(3):641-7. View abstract
  40. Odegaard AO, Jacobs DR, Steffen LM, Van Horn L, Ludwig DS, Pereira MA. Breakfast frequency and development of metabolic risk. Diabetes Care. 2013 Oct; 36(10):3100-6. View abstract
  41. Ramon-Krauel M, Salsberg SL, Ebbeling CB, Voss SD, Mulkern RV, Apura MM, Cooke EA, Sarao K, Jonas MM, Ludwig DS. A low-glycemic-load versus low-fat diet in the treatment of fatty liver in obese children. Child Obes. 2013 Jun; 9(3):252-60. View abstract
  42. Walsh CO, Ebbeling CB, Swain JF, Markowitz RL, Feldman HA, Ludwig DS. Effects of diet composition on postprandial energy availability during weight loss maintenance. PLoS One. 2013; 8(3):e58172. View abstract
  43. Mozaffarian D, Hemenway D, Ludwig DS. Curbing gun violence: lessons from public health successes. JAMA. 2013 Feb 13; 309(6):551-2. View abstract
  44. Ebbeling CB, Ludwig DS. Sugar-sweetened beverages, genetic risk, and obesity. N Engl J Med. 2013 01 17; 368(3):287. View abstract
  45. Willett WC, Ludwig DS. Science souring on sugar. BMJ. 2013 Jan 15; 346:e8077. View abstract
  46. Mozaffarian RS, Lee RM, Kennedy MA, Ludwig DS, Mozaffarian D, Gortmaker SL. Identifying whole grain foods: a comparison of different approaches for selecting more healthful whole grain products. Public Health Nutr. 2013 Dec; 16(12):2255-64. View abstract
  47. Ludwig DS, Blumenthal SJ, Willett WC. Opportunities to reduce childhood hunger and obesity: restructuring the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (the Food Stamp Program). JAMA. 2012 Dec 26; 308(24):2567-8. View abstract
  48. Mirza NM, Palmer MG, Sinclair KB, McCarter R, He J, Ebbeling CB, Ludwig DS, Yanovski JA. Effects of a low glycemic load or a low-fat dietary intervention on body weight in obese Hispanic American children and adolescents: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2013 Feb; 97(2):276-85. View abstract
  49. Ebbeling CB, Feldman HA, Chomitz VR, Antonelli TA, Gortmaker SL, Osganian SK, Ludwig DS. A randomized trial of sugar-sweetened beverages and adolescent body weight. N Engl J Med. 2012 Oct 11; 367(15):1407-16. View abstract
  50. Ludwig DS, Ebbeling CB, Livingston EH. Surgical vs lifestyle treatment for type 2 diabetes. JAMA. 2012 Sep 12; 308(10):981-2. View abstract
  51. Ebbeling CB, Swain JF, Feldman HA, Wong WW, Hachey DL, Garcia-Lago E, Ludwig DS. Effects of dietary composition on energy expenditure during weight-loss maintenance. JAMA. 2012 Jun 27; 307(24):2627-34. View abstract
  52. Rhodes ET, Prosser LA, Hoerger TJ, Lieu T, Ludwig DS, Laffel LM. Estimated morbidity and mortality in adolescents and young adults diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diabet Med. 2012 Apr; 29(4):453-63. View abstract
  53. Rhodes ET, Goran MI, Lieu TA, Lustig RH, Prosser LA, Songer TJ, Weigensberg MJ, Weinstock RS, Gonzalez T, Rawluk K, Zoghbi RM, Ludwig DS, Laffel LM. Health-related quality of life in adolescents with or at risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus. J Pediatr. 2012 Jun; 160(6):911-7. View abstract
  54. Ludwig DS. Weight loss strategies for adolescents: a 14-year-old struggling to lose weight. JAMA. 2012 Feb 01; 307(5):498-508. View abstract
  55. Ludwig DS. Ask the doctor. More and more nutrition advice seems to be anti-sugar these days. So are artificial sweetners a good alternative? Harv Health Lett. 2011 Dec; 37(2):1. View abstract
  56. Fabricatore AN, Ebbeling CB, Wadden TA, Ludwig DS. Continuous glucose monitoring to assess the ecologic validity of dietary glycemic index and glycemic load. Am J Clin Nutr. 2011 Dec; 94(6):1519-24. View abstract
  57. Mekary RA, Rimm EB, Giovannucci E, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC, Ludwig DS, Hu FB. Joint association of glycemic load and alcohol intake with type 2 diabetes incidence in women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2011 Dec; 94(6):1525-32. View abstract
  58. Willett WC, Ludwig DS. The 2010 Dietary Guidelines--the best recipe for health? N Engl J Med. 2011 Oct 27; 365(17):1563-5. View abstract
  59. Brownell KD, Ludwig DS. The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program, soda, and USDA policy: who benefits? JAMA. 2011 Sep 28; 306(12):1370-1. View abstract
  60. Walsh CO, Ziniel SI, Delichatsios HK, Ludwig DS. Nutrition attitudes and knowledge in medical students after completion of an integrated nutrition curriculum compared to a dedicated nutrition curriculum: a quasi-experimental study. BMC Med Educ. 2011 Aug 12; 11:58. View abstract
  61. Ludwig DS. Conversation with a Harvard expert. Dr. David S. Ludwig is a nutrition and obesity researcher at Harvard-affiliated Children's Hospital Boston. His research has focused on the harmful health effects of high-glycemic load foods. He is author of "Ending the Food Fight," a book about children's nutrition and weight. Harv Health Lett. 2011 Aug; 36(10):3. View abstract
  62. Murtagh L, Ludwig DS. State intervention in life-threatening childhood obesity. JAMA. 2011 Jul 13; 306(2):206-7. View abstract
  63. Rhodes ET, Prosser LA, Lieu TA, Songer TJ, Ludwig DS, Laffel LM. Preferences for type 2 diabetes health states among adolescents with or at risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Pediatr Diabetes. 2011 Dec; 12(8):724-32. View abstract
  64. Ludwig DS. Technology, diet, and the burden of chronic disease. JAMA. 2011 Apr 06; 305(13):1352-3. View abstract
  65. Mirza NM, Klein CJ, Palmer MG, McCarter R, He J, Ebbeling CB, Ludwig DS, Yanovski JA. Effects of high and low glycemic load meals on energy intake, satiety and hunger in obese Hispanic-American youth. Int J Pediatr Obes. 2011 Jun; 6(2-2):e523-31. View abstract
  66. Fabricatore AN, Wadden TA, Ebbeling CB, Thomas JG, Stallings VA, Schwartz S, Ludwig DS. Targeting dietary fat or glycemic load in the treatment of obesity and type 2 diabetes: a randomized controlled trial. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2011 Apr; 92(1):37-45. View abstract
  67. Ludwig DS, Ebbeling CB. Weight-loss maintenance--mind over matter? N Engl J Med. 2010 Nov 25; 363(22):2159-61. View abstract
  68. Ebbeling CB, Ludwig DS. Pediatric obesity prevention initiatives: more questions than answers. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2010 Nov; 164(11):1067-9. View abstract
  69. Rhodes ET, Pawlak DB, Takoudes TC, Ebbeling CB, Feldman HA, Lovesky MM, Cooke EA, Leidig MM, Ludwig DS. Effects of a low-glycemic load diet in overweight and obese pregnant women: a pilot randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2010 Dec; 92(6):1306-15. View abstract
  70. Mozaffarian D, Ludwig DS. Dietary guidelines in the 21st century--a time for food. JAMA. 2010 Aug 11; 304(6):681-2. View abstract
  71. Ludwig DS, Currie J. The association between pregnancy weight gain and birthweight: a within-family comparison. Lancet. 2010 Sep 18; 376(9745):984-90. View abstract
  72. Delgado-Borrego A, Healey D, Negre B, Christofi M, Sabharwal S, Ludwig DA, Chung RT, Jonas MM. Influence of body mass index on outcome of pediatric chronic hepatitis C virus infection. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2010 Aug; 51(2):191-7. View abstract
  73. Lichtenstein AH, Ludwig DS. Bring back home economics education. JAMA. 2010 May 12; 303(18):1857-8. View abstract
  74. Brownell KD, Kersh R, Ludwig DS, Post RC, Puhl RM, Schwartz MB, Willett WC. Personal responsibility and obesity: a constructive approach to a controversial issue. Health Aff (Millwood). 2010 Mar-Apr; 29(3):379-87. View abstract
  75. Nestle M, Ludwig DS. Front-of-package food labels: public health or propaganda? JAMA. 2010 Feb 24; 303(8):771-2. View abstract
  76. Wolff MS, Rhodes ET, Ludwig DS. Training in childhood obesity management in the United States: a survey of pediatric, internal medicine-pediatrics and family medicine residency program directors. BMC Med Educ. 2010 Feb 17; 10:18. View abstract
  77. Katan MB, Ludwig DS. Extra calories cause weight gain--but how much? JAMA. 2010 Jan 06; 303(1):65-6. View abstract
  78. Ludwig DS. Artificially sweetened beverages: cause for concern. JAMA. 2009 Dec 09; 302(22):2477-8. View abstract
  79. Brownell KD, Farley T, Willett WC, Popkin BM, Chaloupka FJ, Thompson JW, Ludwig DS. The public health and economic benefits of taxing sugar-sweetened beverages. N Engl J Med. 2009 Oct 15; 361(16):1599-605. View abstract
  80. Ludwig DS, Brownell KD. Public health action amid scientific uncertainty: the case of restaurant calorie labeling regulations. JAMA. 2009 Jul 22; 302(4):434-5. View abstract
  81. Botero D, Ebbeling CB, Blumberg JB, Ribaya-Mercado JD, Creager MA, Swain JF, Feldman HA, Ludwig DS. Acute effects of dietary glycemic index on antioxidant capacity in a nutrient-controlled feeding study. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2009 Sep; 17(9):1664-70. View abstract
  82. Ebbeling CB, Ludwig DS. Nutritively sweetened beverages and obesity. JAMA. 2009 Jun 03; 301(21):2209-10; author reply 2210-1. View abstract
  83. Rhodes ET, Ludwig DS. Obesity: Guiding the management of pediatric obesity. Nat Rev Endocrinol. 2009 May; 5(5):247-9. View abstract
  84. Wang YC, Ludwig DS, Sonneville K, Gortmaker SL. Impact of change in sweetened caloric beverage consumption on energy intake among children and adolescents. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2009 Apr; 163(4):336-43. View abstract
  85. Ludwig DS, Pollack HA. Obesity and the economy: from crisis to opportunity. JAMA. 2009 Feb 04; 301(5):533-5. View abstract
  86. Bernstein AS, Ludwig DS. The importance of biodiversity to medicine. JAMA. 2008 Nov 19; 300(19):2297-9. View abstract
  87. Ludwig DS, Nestle M. Can the food industry play a constructive role in the obesity epidemic? JAMA. 2008 Oct 15; 300(15):1808-11. View abstract
  88. de Ferranti S, Ludwig DS. Storm over statins--the controversy surrounding pharmacologic treatment of children. N Engl J Med. 2008 Sep 25; 359(13):1309-12. View abstract
  89. Ludwig DS, Kabat-Zinn J. Mindfulness in medicine. JAMA. 2008 Sep 17; 300(11):1350-2. View abstract
  90. Scribner KB, Pawlak DB, Aubin CM, Majzoub JA, Ludwig DS. Long-term effects of dietary glycemic index on adiposity, energy metabolism, and physical activity in mice. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2008 Nov; 295(5):E1126-31. View abstract
  91. Albala C, Ebbeling CB, Cifuentes M, Lera L, Bustos N, Ludwig DS. Effects of replacing the habitual consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages with milk in Chilean children. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Sep; 88(3):605-11. View abstract
  92. Mulkern RV, Salsberg SL, Krauel MR, Ludwig DS, Voss S. A paradoxical signal intensity increase in fatty livers using opposed-phase gradient echo imaging with fat-suppression pulses. Pediatr Radiol. 2008 Oct; 38(10):1099-104. View abstract
  93. Ebbeling CB, Ludwig DS. Tracking pediatric obesity: an index of uncertainty? JAMA. 2008 May 28; 299(20):2442-3. View abstract
  94. Chaput JP, Tremblay A, Rimm EB, Bouchard C, Ludwig DS. A novel interaction between dietary composition and insulin secretion: effects on weight gain in the Quebec Family Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Feb; 87(2):303-9. View abstract
  95. Ludwig DS, Ebbeling CB. Weighing the data in studies of the glycaemic index. Int J Obes (Lond). 2008 Jul; 32(7):1190. View abstract
  96. Ludwig DS. Childhood obesity--the shape of things to come. N Engl J Med. 2007 Dec 06; 357(23):2325-7. View abstract
  97. Spear BA, Barlow SE, Ervin C, Ludwig DS, Saelens BE, Schetzina KE, Taveras EM. Recommendations for treatment of child and adolescent overweight and obesity. Pediatrics. 2007 Dec; 120 Suppl 4:S254-88. View abstract
  98. Rhodes ET, Ludwig DS. Childhood obesity as a chronic disease: keeping the weight off. JAMA. 2007 Oct 10; 298(14):1695-6. View abstract
  99. Scribner KB, Pawlak DB, Ludwig DS. Hepatic steatosis and increased adiposity in mice consuming rapidly vs. slowly absorbed carbohydrate. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2007 Sep; 15(9):2190-9. View abstract
  100. Rhodes ET, Ebbeling CB, Meyers AF, Bayerl CT, Ooi WL, Bettencourt MF, Ludwig DS. Pediatric obesity management: variation by specialty and awareness of guidelines. Clin Pediatr (Phila). 2007 Jul; 46(6):491-504. View abstract
  101. Ebbeling CB, Leidig MM, Feldman HA, Lovesky MM, Ludwig DS. Effects of a low-glycemic load vs low-fat diet in obese young adults: a randomized trial. JAMA. 2007 May 16; 297(19):2092-102. View abstract
  102. Ebbeling CB, Garcia-Lago E, Leidig MM, Seger-Shippee LG, Feldman HA, Ludwig DS. Altering portion sizes and eating rate to attenuate gorging during a fast food meal: effects on energy intake. Pediatrics. 2007 May; 119(5):869-75. View abstract
  103. Salsberg SL, Ludwig DS. Putting your genes on a diet: the molecular effects of carbohydrate. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 May; 85(5):1169-70. View abstract
  104. Eddy KT, Tanofsky-Kraff M, Thompson-Brenner H, Herzog DB, Brown TA, Ludwig DS. Eating disorder pathology among overweight treatment-seeking youth: clinical correlates and cross-sectional risk modeling. Behav Res Ther. 2007 Oct; 45(10):2360-71. View abstract
  105. Ludwig DS. Clinical update: the low-glycaemic-index diet. Lancet. 2007 Mar 17; 369(9565):890-2. View abstract
  106. Rhodes ET, Laffel LM, Gonzalez TV, Ludwig DS. Accuracy of administrative coding for type 2 diabetes in children, adolescents, and young adults. Diabetes Care. 2007 Jan; 30(1):141-3. View abstract
  107. Lesser LI, Ebbeling CB, Goozner M, Wypij D, Ludwig DS. Relationship between funding source and conclusion among nutrition-related scientific articles. PLoS Med. 2007 Jan; 4(1):e5. View abstract
  108. de Ferranti SD, Gauvreau K, Ludwig DS, Newburger JW, Rifai N. Inflammation and changes in metabolic syndrome abnormalities in US adolescents: findings from the 1988-1994 and 1999-2000 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Clin Chem. 2006 Jul; 52(7):1325-30. View abstract
  109. Wiecha JL, Peterson KE, Ludwig DS, Kim J, Sobol A, Gortmaker SL. When children eat what they watch: impact of television viewing on dietary intake in youth. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2006 Apr; 160(4):436-42. View abstract
  110. Rhodes ET, Finkelstein JA, Marshall R, Allen C, Gillman MW, Ludwig DS. Screening for type 2 diabetes mellitus in children and adolescents: attitudes, barriers, and practices among pediatric clinicians. Ambul Pediatr. 2006 Mar-Apr; 6(2):110-4. View abstract
  111. Ebbeling CB, Feldman HA, Osganian SK, Chomitz VR, Ellenbogen SJ, Ludwig DS. Effects of decreasing sugar-sweetened beverage consumption on body weight in adolescents: a randomized, controlled pilot study. Pediatrics. 2006 Mar; 117(3):673-80. View abstract
  112. Ludwig DS, Roberts SB. Influence of glycemic index/load on glycemic response, appetite, and food intake in healthy humans. Diabetes Care. 2006 Feb; 29(2):474; author reply 475-6. View abstract
  113. Ludwig DS, Ebbeling CB. Overweight children and adolescents. N Engl J Med. 2005 Sep 08; 353(10):1070-1; author reply 1070-1. View abstract
  114. Biddinger SB, Ludwig DS. The insulin-like growth factor axis: a potential link between glycemic index and cancer. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005 Aug; 82(2):277-8. View abstract
  115. Rhodes ET, Wolfsdorf JI, Cuthbertson DD, Feldman HA, Ludwig DS. Effect of low-dose insulin treatment on body weight and physical development in children and adolescents at risk for type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2005 Aug; 28(8):1948-53. View abstract
  116. Olshansky SJ, Carnes BA, Hershow R, Passaro D, Layden J, Brody J, Hayflick L, Butler RN, Allison DB, Ludwig DS. Misdirection on the road to Shangri-La. Sci Aging Knowledge Environ. 2005 Jul 13; 2005(28):pe15. View abstract
  117. Olshansky SJ, Carnes BA, Hershow R, Passaro D, Layden J, Brody J, Hayflick L, Butler RN, Ludwig DS. Misdirection on the road to Shangri-La. Sci Aging Knowledge Environ. 2005 Jun 01; 2005(22):pe15. View abstract
  118. Ebbeling CB, Leidig MM, Sinclair KB, Seger-Shippee LG, Feldman HA, Ludwig DS. Effects of an ad libitum low-glycemic load diet on cardiovascular disease risk factors in obese young adults. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005 May; 81(5):976-82. View abstract
  119. Olshansky SJ, Passaro DJ, Hershow RC, Layden J, Brody J, Carnes BA, Hayflick L, Butler RN, Allison DB, Ludwig DS. Peering into the future of American longevity. Discov Med. 2005 Apr; 5(26):130-4. View abstract
  120. Olshansky SJ, Passaro DJ, Hershow RC, Layden J, Carnes BA, Brody J, Hayflick L, Butler RN, Allison DB, Ludwig DS. A potential decline in life expectancy in the United States in the 21st century. N Engl J Med. 2005 Mar 17; 352(11):1138-45. View abstract
  121. Apovian CM, Baker C, Ludwig DS, Hoppin AG, Hsu G, Lenders C, Pratt JS, Forse RA, O'brien A, Tarnoff M. Best practice guidelines in pediatric/adolescent weight loss surgery. Obes Res. 2005 Feb; 13(2):274-82. View abstract
  122. Pereira MA, Kartashov AI, Ebbeling CB, Van Horn L, Slattery ML, Jacobs DR, Ludwig DS. Fast-food habits, weight gain, and insulin resistance (the CARDIA study): 15-year prospective analysis. Lancet. 2005 Jan 1-7; 365(9453):36-42. View abstract
  123. Pereira MA, Swain J, Goldfine AB, Rifai N, Ludwig DS. Effects of a low-glycemic load diet on resting energy expenditure and heart disease risk factors during weight loss. JAMA. 2004 Nov 24; 292(20):2482-90. View abstract
  124. de Ferranti SD, Gauvreau K, Ludwig DS, Neufeld EJ, Newburger JW, Rifai N. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in American adolescents: findings from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Circulation. 2004 Oct 19; 110(16):2494-7. View abstract
  125. Ludwig DS, Jenkins DJ. Carbohydrates and the postprandial state: have our cake and eat it too? Am J Clin Nutr. 2004 Oct; 80(4):797-8. View abstract
  126. Pawlak DB, Kushner JA, Ludwig DS. Effects of dietary glycaemic index on adiposity, glucose homoeostasis, and plasma lipids in animals. Lancet. 2004 Aug 28-Sep 3; 364(9436):778-85. View abstract
  127. Ludwig DS, Gortmaker SL. Programming obesity in childhood. Lancet. 2004 Jul 17-23; 364(9430):226-7. View abstract
  128. Ebbeling CB, Sinclair KB, Pereira MA, Garcia-Lago E, Feldman HA, Ludwig DS. Compensation for energy intake from fast food among overweight and lean adolescents. JAMA. 2004 Jun 16; 291(23):2828-33. View abstract
  129. Bowman SA, Gortmaker SL, Ebbeling CB, Pereira MA, Ludwig DS. Effects of fast-food consumption on energy intake and diet quality among children in a national household survey. Pediatrics. 2004 Jan; 113(1 Pt 1):112-8. View abstract
  130. Jenkins DJ, Kendall CW, Marchie A, Jenkins AL, Augustin LS, Ludwig DS, Barnard ND, Anderson JW. Type 2 diabetes and the vegetarian diet. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003 Sep; 78(3 Suppl):610S-616S. View abstract
  131. Ebbeling CB, Leidig MM, Sinclair KB, Hangen JP, Ludwig DS. A reduced-glycemic load diet in the treatment of adolescent obesity. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2003 Aug; 157(8):773-9. View abstract
  132. Pawlak DB, Ebbeling CB, Ludwig DS. Spirited critique of glycaemic index (GI) and its role in the treatment of obesity. Obes Rev. 2003 Feb; 4(1):73-4. View abstract
  133. Ludwig DS. Novel treatments for Obesity. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2003; 12 Suppl:S8. View abstract
  134. Ludwig DS. Diet and development of the insulin resistance syndrome. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2003; 12 Suppl:S4. View abstract
  135. Pawlak DB, Ebbeling CB, Ludwig DS. Should obese patients be counselled to follow a low-glycaemic index diet? Yes. Obes Rev. 2002 Nov; 3(4):235-43. View abstract
  136. Goldfine AB, Ebbeling CB, Ludwig DS. Antegrade intravenous catheterization for metabolic studies in man. Diabetologia. 2002 Dec; 45(12):1742-3. View abstract
  137. Ludwig DS, Ebbeling CB, Pereira MA, Pawlak DB. A physiological basis for disparities in diabetes and heart disease risk among racial and ethnic groups. J Nutr. 2002 Sep; 132(9):2492-3. View abstract
  138. Ebbeling CB, Pawlak DB, Ludwig DS. Childhood obesity: public-health crisis, common sense cure. Lancet. 2002 Aug 10; 360(9331):473-82. View abstract
  139. Ludwig DS. The glycemic index: physiological mechanisms relating to obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. JAMA. 2002 May 08; 287(18):2414-23. View abstract
  140. Pereira MA, Jacobs DR, Van Horn L, Slattery ML, Kartashov AI, Ludwig DS. Dairy consumption, obesity, and the insulin resistance syndrome in young adults: the CARDIA Study. JAMA. 2002 Apr 24; 287(16):2081-9. View abstract
  141. Ludwig DS, Ebbeling CB. Type 2 diabetes mellitus in children: primary care and public health considerations. JAMA. 2001 Sep 26; 286(12):1427-30. View abstract
  142. Pereira MA, Ludwig DS. Dietary fiber and body-weight regulation. Observations and mechanisms. Pediatr Clin North Am. 2001 Aug; 48(4):969-80. View abstract
  143. Ludwig DS, Peterson KE, Gortmaker SL. Relation between consumption of sugar-sweetened drinks and childhood obesity: a prospective, observational analysis. Lancet. 2001 Feb 17; 357(9255):505-8. View abstract
  144. Ludwig DS, Tritos NA, Mastaitis JW, Kulkarni R, Kokkotou E, Elmquist J, Lowell B, Flier JS, Maratos-Flier E. Melanin-concentrating hormone overexpression in transgenic mice leads to obesity and insulin resistance. J Clin Invest. 2001 Feb; 107(3):379-86. View abstract
  145. Ebbeling CB, Ludwig DS. Treating obesity in youth: should dietary glycemic load be a consideration? Adv Pediatr. 2001; 48:179-212. View abstract
  146. Agus MS, Swain JF, Larson CL, Eckert EA, Ludwig DS. Dietary composition and physiologic adaptations to energy restriction. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000 Apr; 71(4):901-7. View abstract
  147. Ludwig DS. Dietary glycemic index and obesity. J Nutr. 2000 02; 130(2S Suppl):280S-283S. View abstract
  148. Ludwig DS, Pereira MA, Kroenke CH, Hilner JE, Van Horn L, Slattery ML, Jacobs DR. Dietary fiber, weight gain, and cardiovascular disease risk factors in young adults. JAMA. 1999 Oct 27; 282(16):1539-46. View abstract
  149. Ludwig DS, Majzoub JA, Al-Zahrani A, Dallal GE, Blanco I, Roberts SB. High glycemic index foods, overeating, and obesity. Pediatrics. 1999 Mar; 103(3):E26. View abstract
  150. Tritos NA, Vicent D, Gillette J, Ludwig DS, Flier ES, Maratos-Flier E. Functional interactions between melanin-concentrating hormone, neuropeptide Y, and anorectic neuropeptides in the rat hypothalamus. Diabetes. 1998 Nov; 47(11):1687-92. View abstract
  151. Melanson KJ, Greenberg AS, Ludwig DS, Saltzman E, Dallal GE, Roberts SB. Blood glucose and hormonal responses to small and large meals in healthy young and older women. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 1998 Jul; 53(4):B299-305. View abstract
  152. Ludwig DS, Mountjoy KG, Tatro JB, Gillette JA, Frederich RC, Flier JS, Maratos-Flier E. Melanin-concentrating hormone: a functional melanocortin antagonist in the hypothalamus. Am J Physiol. 1998 Apr; 274(4 Pt 1):E627-33. View abstract
  153. Maffei M, Stoffel M, Barone M, Moon B, Dammerman M, Ravussin E, Bogardus C, Ludwig DS, Flier JS, Talley M, et al. Absence of mutations in the human OB gene in obese/diabetic subjects. Diabetes. 1996 May; 45(5):679-82. View abstract
  154. Qu D, Ludwig DS, Gammeltoft S, Piper M, Pelleymounter MA, Cullen MJ, Mathes WF, Przypek R, Kanarek R, Maratos-Flier E. A role for melanin-concentrating hormone in the central regulation of feeding behaviour. Nature. 1996 Mar 21; 380(6571):243-7. View abstract
  155. Ludwig DS, Vidal-Puig A, O'Brien RM, Printz RL, Granner DK, Moller DE, Flier JS. Examination of the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase gene promoter in patients with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1996 Feb; 81(2):503-6. View abstract
  156. Ludwig DS, Schoolnik GK. Structure-function analysis of protein active sites with anti-idiotypic antibody. Methods Enzymol. 1989; 178:163-71. View abstract
  157. Ribi HO, Ludwig DS, Mercer KL, Schoolnik GK, Kornberg RD. Three-dimensional structure of cholera toxin penetrating a lipid membrane. Science. 1988 Mar 11; 239(4845):1272-6. View abstract
  158. Clayberger C, Parham P, Rothbard J, Ludwig DS, Schoolnik GK, Krensky AM. HLA-A2 peptides can regulate cytolysis by human allogeneic T lymphocytes. Nature. 1987 Dec 24-31; 330(6150):763-5. View abstract
  159. Finkelstein RA, Burks MF, Zupan A, Dallas WS, Jacob CO, Ludwig DS. Antigenic determinants of the cholera/coli family of enterotoxins. Rev Infect Dis. 1987 Sep-Oct; 9 Suppl 5:S490-502. View abstract
  160. Ludwig DS, Schoolnik GK. Anti-receptor antibodies designed to elicit "internal image"-bearing anti-idiotypes: a possible AIDS vaccine. Med Hypotheses. 1987 Jul; 23(3):303-7. View abstract
  161. Ludwig DS, Finkelstein RA, Karu AE, Dallas WS, Ashby ER, Schoolnik GK. Anti-idiotypic antibodies as probes of protein active sites: application to cholera toxin subunit B. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1987 Jun; 84(11):3673-7. View abstract
  162. Finkelstein RA, Burks MF, Zupan A, Dallas WS, Jacob CO, Ludwig DS. Epitopes of the cholera family of enterotoxins. Rev Infect Dis. 1987 May-Jun; 9(3):544-61. View abstract
  163. Parham P, Clayberger C, Zorn SL, Ludwig DS, Schoolnik GK, Krensky AM. Inhibition of alloreactive cytotoxic T lymphocytes by peptides from the alpha 2 domain of HLA-A2. Nature. 1987 Feb 12-18; 325(6105):625-8. View abstract
  164. Ludwig DS, Ribi HO, Schoolnik GK, Kornberg RD. Two-dimensional crystals of cholera toxin B-subunit-receptor complexes: projected structure at 17-A resolution. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1986 Nov; 83(22):8585-8. View abstract
  165. Ludwig DS, Holmes RK, Schoolnik GK. Chemical and immunochemical studies on the receptor binding domain of cholera toxin B subunit. J Biol Chem. 1985 Oct 15; 260(23):12528-34. View abstract