Research Overview

Kosuke Kawai received his doctorate degree from the Harvard School of Public Health. As a senior biostatistician and epidemiologist in the Department of Otolaryngology at Boston Children’s Hospital, he actively collaborates with clinical faculty members and research staff. He is interested in innovative application of advanced statistical methods. Exemplary in this respect is his employment of a three-level hierarchical mixed-effects model to account for the correlation between ears in a longitudinal study of children with cochlear implants. He also conducts research on herpes zoster epidemiology to identify risk factors and appropriate strategies for prevention. We demonstrated that the incidence of herpes zoster has increased by more than 4-fold from 1945 to 2007.

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  1. Irace AL, Shank C, Adil EA, Cunningham MJ, Kawai K, Sideridis G, Rahbar R. Changes in Scope of Procedures Performed by Pediatric Otolaryngologists in the Past Decade. JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2018 Apr 01; 144(4):322-329. View abstract
  2. Kenna MA, Irace AL, Strychowsky JE, Kawai K, Barrett D, Manganella J, Cunningham MJ. Otolaryngologic Manifestations of Klippel-Feil Syndrome in Children. JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2018 Mar 01; 144(3):238-243. View abstract
  3. Irace AL, Walker RD, Kawai K, Maddock M, Dombrowski ND, Sideridis G, Ferrari L, Rahbar R. Development and validation of a quality of life instrument for patients with laryngeal cleft. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2018 May; 108:143-150. View abstract
  4. Londahl M, Irace AL, Kawai K, Dombrowski ND, Jennings R, Rahbar R. Prevalence of Laryngeal Cleft in Pediatric Patients With Esophageal Atresia. JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2018 Feb 01; 144(2):164-168. View abstract
  5. Bostic K, Lewis RM, Chai B, Manganella JL, Barrett DL, Kawai K, Kenna MA, Stiles DJ, Clark T. Enlarged Vestibular Aqueduct and Cochlear Implants: The Effect of Early Counseling on the Length of Time Between Candidacy and Implantation. Otol Neurotol. 2018 Feb; 39(2):e90-e95. View abstract
  6. Kawai K, Hawkins CA, Hertzmark E, Francis JM, Sando D, Muya AN, Ulenga N, Fawzi WW. Impact of Antiretroviral Therapy on the Risk of Herpes Zoster among Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Individuals in Tanzania. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2018 Feb; 98(2):396-401. View abstract
  7. Velayutham P, Irace AL, Kawai K, Dodrill P, Perez J, Londahl M, Mundy L, Dombrowski ND, Rahbar R. Silent aspiration: Who is at risk? Laryngoscope. 2017 Dec 27. View abstract
  8. Kawai K, Yawn BP. Risk Factors for Herpes Zoster: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Mayo Clin Proc. 2017 Dec; 92(12):1806-1821. View abstract
  9. Ashry Y, Kawai K, Poe D. Utility of Adjunctive Procedures With Balloon Dilation of the Eustachian Tube. Laryngoscope Investig Otolaryngol. 2017 Dec; 2(6):337-343. View abstract
  10. Kawai K, Kawai AT, Wollan P, Yawn BP. Adverse impacts of chronic pain on health-related quality of life, work productivity, depression and anxiety in a community-based study. Fam Pract. 2017 Nov 16; 34(6):656-661. View abstract
  11. Sobin L, Kawai K, Irace AL, Gergin O, Cunningham M, Sawicki GS, Adil EA. Microbiology of the Upper and Lower Airways in Pediatric Cystic Fibrosis Patients. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2017 08; 157(2):302-308. View abstract
  12. Gergin O, Adil E, Kawai K, Watters K, Moritz E, Rahbar R. Routine airway surveillance in pediatric tracheostomy patients. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2017 Jun; 97:1-4. View abstract
  13. Yuen S, Kawai K, Roberson DW, Murray R. Do post-tonsillectomy patients who report bleeding require observation if no bleeding is present on exam? Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2017 Apr; 95:75-79. View abstract
  14. Rampakakis E, Stutz M, Kawai K, Tsai TF, Cheong HJ, Dhitavat J, Ortiz-Covarrubias A, Cashat-Cruz M, Monsanto H, Johnson KD, Sampalis JS, Acosta CJ. Association between work time loss and quality of life in patients with Herpes Zoster: a pooled analysis of the MASTER studies. Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2017 Jan 18; 15(1):11. View abstract
  15. Chang DT, Irace AL, Kawai K, Rogers-Vizena CR, Nuss R, Adil EA. Nasal septal perforation in children: Presentation, etiology, and management. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2017 Jan; 92:176-180. View abstract
  16. Yuen SN, Leung PP, Funamura J, Kawai K, Roberson DW, Adil EA. Complications of turbinate reduction surgery in combination with tonsillectomy in pediatric patients. Laryngoscope. 2017 Aug; 127(8):1920-1923. View abstract
  17. Funamura JL, Yuen S, Kawai K, Gergin O, Adil E, Rahbar R, Watters K. Characterizing mortality in pediatric tracheostomy patients. Laryngoscope. 2017 Jul; 127(7):1701-1706. View abstract
  18. Hseu A, Sandler M, Ericson D, Ayele N, Kawai K, Nuss R. Paradoxical vocal fold motion in children presenting with exercise induced dyspnea. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2016 Nov; 90:165-169. View abstract
  19. Adil EA, Kawai K, Dombrowski N, Irace AL, Cunningham MJ. Nasal versus tracheobronchial biopsies to diagnose primary ciliary dyskinesia: A meta-analysis. Laryngoscope. 2017 Jan; 127(1):6-13. View abstract
  20. Gergin O, Adil EA, Kawai K, Watters K, Moritz E, Rahbar R. Indications of pediatric tracheostomy over the last 30 years: Has anything changed? Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2016 Aug; 87:144-7. View abstract
  21. Johnson BH, Palmer L, Gatwood J, Lenhart G, Kawai K, Acosta CJ. Healthcare resource utilization and costs associated with herpes zoster in the US. J Med Econ. 2016 Oct; 19(10):928-35. View abstract
  22. Kawai K, Yawn BP, Wollan P, Harpaz R. Increasing Incidence of Herpes Zoster Over a 60-year Period From a Population-based Study. Clin Infect Dis. 2016 Jul 15; 63(2):221-6. View abstract
  23. Adil E, Gergin O, Kawai K, Rahbar R, Watters K. Usefulness of Upper Airway Endoscopy in the Evaluation of Pediatric Pulmonary Aspiration. JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2016 Apr; 142(4):339-43. View abstract
  24. Gergin O, Kawai K, MacDougall RD, Robson CD, Moritz E, Cunningham M, Adil E. Sinus Computed Tomography Imaging in Pediatric Cystic Fibrosis: Added Value? Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2016 07; 155(1):160-5. View abstract
  25. McLaughlin EJ, Cunningham MJ, Kazahaya K, Hsing J, Kawai K, Adil EA. Endoscopic Radiofrequency Ablation-Assisted Resection of Juvenile Nasopharyngeal Angiofibroma: Comparison with Traditional Endoscopic Technique. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2016 06; 154(6):1145-8. View abstract
  26. Johnson BH, Palmer L, Gatwood J, Lenhart G, Kawai K, Acosta CJ. Annual incidence rates of herpes zoster among an immunocompetent population in the United States. BMC Infect Dis. 2015 Nov 06; 15:502. View abstract
  27. Adil E, Al Shemari H, Kacprowicz A, Perez J, Larson K, Hernandez K, Kawai K, Cowenhoven J, Urion D, Rahbar R. Evaluation and Management of Chronic Aspiration in Children With Normal Upper Airway Anatomy. JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2015 Nov; 141(11):1006-11. View abstract
  28. Brodsky JR, Cusick BA, Kawai K, Kenna M, Zhou G. Peripheral vestibular loss detected in pediatric patients using a smartphone-based test of the subjective visual vertical. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2015 Dec; 79(12):2094-8. View abstract
  29. Strychowsky JE, Kawai K, Moritz E, Rahbar R, Adil EA. To stent or not to stent? A meta-analysis of endonasal congenital bilateral choanal atresia repair. Laryngoscope. 2016 Jan; 126(1):218-27. View abstract
  30. Kawai K, Rampakakis E, Tsai TF, Cheong HJ, Dhitavat J, Covarrubias AO, Yang L, Cashat-Cruz M, Monsanto H, Johnson K, Sampalis JS, Acosta CJ. Predictors of postherpetic neuralgia in patients with herpes zoster: a pooled analysis of prospective cohort studies from North and Latin America and Asia. Int J Infect Dis. 2015 May; 34:126-31. View abstract
  31. Chen Q, Hsu T, Chan R, Kawai K, Acosta CJ, Walia A, Pan JY. Clinical and economic burden of herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia in patients from the National Skin Centre, Singapore. Dermatologica Sinica. 2015; 4(33):201-205. View abstract
  32. Tsai TF, Yao CA, Yu HS, Lan CC, Chao SC, Yang JH, Yang KC, Chen CY, White RR, Psaradellis E, Rampakakis E, Kawai K, Acosta CJ, Sampalis JS. Herpes zoster-associated severity and duration of pain, health-related quality of life, and healthcare utilization in Taiwan: a prospective observational study. Int J Dermatol. 2015; 54(5):529-36. View abstract
  33. Kawai K, Gebremeskel BG, Acosta CJ. Systematic review of incidence and complications of herpes zoster: towards a global perspective. BMJ Open. 2014 Jun 10; 4(6):e004833. View abstract
  34. Kawai K, Preaud E, Baron-Papillon F, Largeron N, Acosta CJ. Cost-effectiveness of vaccination against herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia: a critical review. Vaccine. 2014 Mar 26; 32(15):1645-53. View abstract
  35. Song H, Lee J, Lee M, Choi WS, Choi JH, Lee MS, Hashemi M, Rampakakis E, Kawai K, White R, Acosta C, Sampalis JS, Cheong HJ. Burden of illness, quality of life, and healthcare utilization among patients with herpes zoster in South Korea: a prospective clinical-epidemiological study. Int J Infect Dis. 2014 Mar; 20:23-30. View abstract
  36. Lemos EV, de la Hoz FP, Einarson TR, McGhan WF, Quevedo E, Castañeda C, Kawai K. Carbapenem resistance and mortality in patients with Acinetobacter baumannii infection: systematic review and meta-analysis. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2014 May; 20(5):416-23. View abstract
  37. Kawai K, Meydani SN, Urassa W, Wu D, Mugusi FM, Saathoff E, Bosch RJ, Villamor E, Spiegelman D, Fawzi WW. Micronutrient supplementation and T cell-mediated immune responses in patients with tuberculosis in Tanzania. Epidemiol Infect. 2014 Jul; 142(7):1505-9. View abstract
  38. Uusküla A, Müürsepp A, Kawai K, Raag M, Jürisson M, Pillsbury M. The epidemiological and economic impact of a quadrivalent human papillomavirus (hpv) vaccine in Estonia. BMC Infect Dis. 2013 Jul 03; 13:304. View abstract
  39. Lemos EV, de la Hoz FP, Alvis N, Einarson TR, Quevedo E, Castañeda C, Leon Y, Amado C, Cañon O, Kawai K. Impact of carbapenem resistance on clinical and economic outcomes among patients with Acinetobacter baumannii infection in Colombia. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2014 Feb; 20(2):174-80. View abstract
  40. Kawai K, O'Brien MA, Conway JH, Marshall GS, Kuter BJ. Factors associated with receipt of two doses of varicella vaccine among adolescents in the United States. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2013 May; 32(5):538-42. View abstract
  41. Lemos EV, De la Hoz F, Alvis N, Quevedo E, Einarson TR, Castañeda C, Kawai K. Healthcare costs in patients with Acinetobacter baumannii infection in Colombia. Infectio. 2013; 4(17):185-192. View abstract
  42. Kawai K, de Araujo GT, Fonseca M, Pillsbury M, Singhal PK. Estimated health and economic impact of quadrivalent HPV (types 6/11/16/18) vaccination in Brazil using a transmission dynamic model. BMC Infect Dis. 2012 Oct 09; 12:250. View abstract
  43. Kawai K, O'Brien MA, Goveia MG, Mast TC, El Khoury AC. Burden of rotavirus gastroenteritis and distribution of rotavirus strains in Asia: a systematic review. Vaccine. 2012 Feb 08; 30(7):1244-54. View abstract
  44. Kawai K, Villamor E, Mugusi FM, Saathoff E, Urassa W, Bosch RJ, Spiegelman D, Fawzi WW. Predictors of change in nutritional and hemoglobin status among adults treated for tuberculosis in Tanzania. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2011 Oct; 15(10):1380-9. View abstract
  45. Kawai K, Spiegelman D, Shankar AH, Fawzi WW. Maternal multiple micronutrient supplementation and pregnancy outcomes in developing countries: meta-analysis and meta-regression. Bull World Health Organ. 2011 Jun 01; 89(6):402-411B. View abstract
  46. Stone CA, Kawai K, Kupka R, Fawzi WW. Role of selenium in HIV infection. Nutr Rev. 2010 Nov; 68(11):671-81. View abstract
  47. Kawai K, Msamanga G, Manji K, Villamor E, Bosch RJ, Hertzmark E, Fawzi WW. Sex differences in the effects of maternal vitamin supplements on mortality and morbidity among children born to HIV-infected women in Tanzania. Br J Nutr. 2010 Jun; 103(12):1784-91. View abstract
  48. Kawai K, Kupka R, Mugusi F, Aboud S, Okuma J, Villamor E, Spiegelman D, Fawzi WW. A randomized trial to determine the optimal dosage of multivitamin supplements to reduce adverse pregnancy outcomes among HIV-infected women in Tanzania. Am J Clin Nutr. 2010 Feb; 91(2):391-7. View abstract
  49. Kawai K, Saathoff E, Antelman G, Msamanga G, Fawzi WW. Geophagy (Soil-eating) in relation to Anemia and Helminth infection among HIV-infected pregnant women in Tanzania. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2009 Jan; 80(1):36-43. View abstract
  50. Kawai K, Kaaya SF, Kajula L, Mbwambo J, Kilonzo GP, Fawzi WW. Parents' and teachers' communication about HIV and sex in relation to the timing of sexual initiation among young adolescents in Tanzania. Scand J Public Health. 2008 Nov; 36(8):879-88. View abstract