Research Overview

Sabine Hildebrandt is an Instructor in Pediatrics at Boston Children’s Hospital and a Lecturer on Global Health and Social Medicine at Harvard Medical School. Her research interests are the history and ethics of anatomy, specifically the history of anatomy in National Socialist Germany. Her publications and presentations in this area have contributed to the realization of a first German symposium on anatomy in National Socialism in 2010. She is an associate member of the ethics commission of the Anatomische Gesellschaft and has contributed to its recent official statement on the history of anatomy in National Socialism. She continues to develop her educational work that integrates anatomy, medical history and medical ethics.

About Sabine Hildebrandt, MD

Dr. Hildebrandt received her medical degree from Philipps-Universität Marburg, Germany, in 1984. After an early training in experimental rheumatology she embarked on a career in anatomical education. Before joining Boston Children’s Hospital/Harvard Medical School in 2013, she taught anatomy at the Division of Anatomical Sciences, Department of Medical Education/University of Michigan Medical School.

Key Publications

  • Hildebrandt S. Capital Punishment and Anatomy: History and Ethics of an Ongoing Association. Clin Anat. 2008;21(1):5-14.
  • Hildebrandt S. Anatomy in the Third Reich: An Outline, Part 1. National Socialist Politics, Anatomical Institutions, and Anatomists. Clin Anat. 2009;22(8):883-893.
  • Hildebrandt S. Anatomy in the Third Reich: An Outline, Part 2. Bodies for Anatomy and Related Medical Disciplines. Clin Anat. 2009;22(8):894-905.
  • Hildebrandt S. Anatomy in the Third Reich: An Outline, Part 3. The Science and Ethics of Anatomy in National Socialist Germany and Postwar Consequences. Clin Anat. 2009;22(8):906-915.
  • Bohl M, Bosch P, Hildebrandt S. Medical students’ perceptions of the body donor as a “First patient” or “Teacher”: A Pilot Study. Anat Sci Educ. 2011;4(4):208-213.
  • Hildebrandt S. Anatomy in the Third Reich: Careers Disrupted by National Socialist Policies. Ann Anat. 2012;194(3):251-266.
  • Bohl M, Holman A, Mueller DA, Gruppen LD, Hildebrandt S. The Willed Body Donor Interview Project: Medical student and donor expectations. Anat Sci Educ. 2013;6(2):90-100
  • Hildebrandt S. The Women on Stieve’s list: Victims of National Socialism Whose Bodies Were Used for Anatomical Research. Clin Anat. 2013;26(1):3-21.
  • Hildebrandt S. Research on Bodies of the Executed in German Anatomy: An Accepted Method that Changed During the Third Reich. Study of Anatomical Journals from 1924 to 1951. Clin Anat. 2013;26(3):304-326.
  • Hildebrandt S. Current Status of Identification of Victims of the National Socialist Regime Whose Bodies Were Used for Anatomical Purposes. Clin Anat. 2014;27(4)514-536.

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PUBLICATIONS

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  1. Yee A, Coombs DM, Hildebrandt S, Seidelman WE, Coert JH, Mackinnon SE. In Reply: Nerve Surgeons' Assessment of the Role of Eduard Pernkopf's Atlas of Topographic and Applied Human Anatomy in Surgical Practice. Neurosurgery. 2018 Jul 13. View abstract
  2. Yee A, Coombs DM, Hildebrandt S, Seidelman WE, Coert JH, Mackinnon SE. Nerve Surgeons' Assessment of the Role of Eduard Pernkopf's Atlas of Topographic and Applied Human Anatomy in Surgical Practice. Neurosurgery. 2018 May 08. View abstract
  3. Hildebrandt S, Benedict S, Miller E, Gaffney M, Grodin MA. "Forgotten" Chapters in the History of Transcervical Sterilization: Carl Clauberg and Hans-Joachim Lindemann. J Hist Med Allied Sci. 2017 Jul 01; 72(3):272-301. View abstract
  4. Hildebrandt S, Seidelman WE. Where do they come from? A call for complete transparency regarding the origin of human tissues in research. ESMO Open. 2017; 2(2):e000201. View abstract
  5. Hildebrandt S, Czarnowski G. Alfred Pischinger (1899-1983): An Austrian career in anatomy continuing through National Socialism to postwar leadership. Ann Anat. 2017 May; 211:104-113. View abstract
  6. Hildebrandt S. Strkalj G, Pather N (eds.): Commemoration and Memorials in Anatomy. Remembering the victims of abusive practice in anatomy: the example of Nazi Germany. 2017. View abstract
  7. Kahn PA, Champney TH, Hildebrandt S. The incompatibility of the use of unclaimed bodies with ethical anatomical education in the United States. Anat Sci Educ. 2017 Mar; 10(2):200-201. View abstract
  8. Cornwall J, Winkelmann A, Hildebrandt S. Cadaver Exome Sequencing for Teaching First-Year Medical Students. JAMA. 2016 Jul 05; 316(1):102-3. View abstract
  9. Hildebrandt S. Insights into the Freiburg Anatomical Institute during National Socialism, 1933-1945. Ann Anat. 2016 May; 205:90-102. View abstract
  10. Hildebrandt, Sabine. The Anatomy of Murder: Ethical Transgressions and Anatomical Science during the Third Reich. 2016; 374. View abstract
  11. Hildebrandt S, Villiez Av, Seidelman WE. Posthumous testimony for Dr. Leo Gross and his family: the restoration of the ‘lost’ biography of a physician victim of the Holocaust. Medizinhistorisches Journal,. 2016; (4):295-326. View abstract
  12. Hildebrandt S, Von Villiez A, Seidelman WE. Posthumous Testimony for Dr. Leo Gross and his Family / Restoration of the 'Lost' Biography of a Physician Victim of the Holocaust Medizinhist J. 2016; 51(4):295-326. View abstract
  13. Hildebrandt S. Thoughts on practical core elements of an ethical anatomical education. Clin Anat. 2016 Jan; 29(1):37-45. View abstract
  14. Longacre M, Beinfeld S, Hildebrandt S, Glantz L, Grodin MA. Public health in the Vilna Ghetto as a form of Jewish resistance. Am J Public Health. 2015 Feb; 105(2):293-301. View abstract
  15. Hansson N, Hildebrandt S. Swedish-German contacts in the field of anatomy 1930-1950: Gösta Häggqvist and Hermann Stieve. Ann Anat. 2014 Sep; 196(5):259-67. View abstract
  16. Hildebrandt S. What is happening in our anatomical dissection rooms? Clin Anat. 2014 Sep; 27(6):833-4. View abstract
  17. Hildebrandt S. [The Herrlinger case: a controversy of ethics in anatomy and medical history]. Hist Hosp. 2014-2015; 29:447-65. View abstract
  18. Hildebrandt S. Current status of identification of victims of the National Socialist regime whose bodies were used for anatomical purposes. Clin Anat. 2014 May; 27(4):514-36. View abstract
  19. Hildebrandt S. Anatomische Gesellschaft from 1933 to 1950: a professional society under political strain - the Benninghoff papers. Ann Anat. 2013 Oct; 195(5):381-92. View abstract
  20. Hildebrandt S. Wolfgang Bargmann (1906-1978) and Heinrich von Hayek (1900-1969): careers in anatomy continuing through German National Socialism to postwar leadership. Ann Anat. 2013 Jul; 195(4):283-95. View abstract
  21. Hildebrandt S. The women on Stieve's list: Victims of national socialism whose bodies were used for anatomical research. Clin Anat. 2013 Jan; 26(1):3-21. View abstract
  22. Hildebrandt S. [Anatomy in National Socialism: stages of an ethical transgression]. Medizinhist J. 2013; 48(2):153-85. View abstract
  23. Bohl M, Holman A, Mueller DA, Gruppen LD, Hildebrandt S. The willed body donor interview project: medical student and donor expectations. Anat Sci Educ. 2013 Mar-Apr; 6(2):90-100. View abstract
  24. Hildebrandt S. Commentary on "First hand accounts of events in the laboratory of Prof. Eduard Pernkopf" by S.H. Aharinejad and S.W. Carmichael. Clin Anat. 2013 Apr; 26(3):292-3. View abstract
  25. Hildebrandt S. The case of Robert Herrlinger: a unique postwar controversy on the ethics of the anatomical use of bodies of the executed during National Socialism. Ann Anat. 2013 Jan; 195(1):11-24. View abstract
  26. Hildebrandt S. Research on bodies of the executed in German anatomy: an accepted method that changed during the Third Reich. Study of anatomical journals from 1924 to 1951. Clin Anat. 2013 Apr; 26(3):304-26. View abstract
  27. Hildebrandt S. The anatomist Hans Elias: A Jewish German in exile. Clin Anat. 2012 Apr; 25(3):284-94. View abstract
  28. Hildebrandt S. Anatomy in the Third Reich: Careers disrupted by National Socialist Policies. Ann Anat. 2012 Jun; 194(3):251-66. View abstract
  29. Hildebrandt S, Redies C. Anatomy in the Third Reich. Ann Anat. 2012 Jun; 194(3):225-7. View abstract
  30. Bohl M, Bosch P, Hildebrandt S. Medical students' perceptions of the body donor as a "first patient" or "teacher": a pilot study. Anat Sci Educ. 2011 Jul-Aug; 4(4):208-13. View abstract
  31. Hildebrandt S. First symposium on "Anatomie im Nationalsozialismus" ("Anatomy in National Socialism"), Würzburg, Germany, September 29, 2010. Clin Anat. 2011 Jan; 24(1):97-100. View abstract
  32. Gest TR, Hildebrandt S. The pattern of the thoracic splanchnic nerves as they pass through the diaphragm. Clin Anat. 2010 Sep; 23(6):732. View abstract
  33. Hildebrandt S. Lessons to be learned from the history of anatomical teaching in the United States: the example of the University of Michigan. Anat Sci Educ. 2010 Jul-Aug; 3(4):202-12. View abstract
  34. Hildebrandt S. Developing empathy and clinical detachment during the dissection course in gross anatomy. Anat Sci Educ. 2010 Jul-Aug; 3(4):216; author reply 217. View abstract
  35. Hildebrandt S. Response to the commentary on "Anatomy in the Third Reich: An outline" by G. Aumüller and R. Hildebrand. Clin Anat. 2010 Mar; 23(2):242. View abstract
  36. Hildebrandt S. Letter in response to Winkelmann and Schagen, Seidelman and Levi: call for a new era in research on "Medicine/Anatomy in the Third Reich". Clin Anat. 2010 Jan; 23(1):124. View abstract
  37. Hildebrandt S. Anatomy in the Third Reich: an outline, part 2. Bodies for anatomy and related medical disciplines. Clin Anat. 2009 Nov; 22(8):894-905. View abstract
  38. Hildebrandt S. Anatomy in the Third Reich: an outline, part 3. The science and ethics of anatomy in National Socialist Germany and postwar consequences. Clin Anat. 2009 Nov; 22(8):906-15. View abstract
  39. Hildebrandt S. Anatomy in the Third Reich: an outline, part 1. National Socialist politics, anatomical institutions, and anatomists. Clin Anat. 2009 Nov; 22(8):883-93. View abstract
  40. Gest TR, Hildebrandt S. The pattern of the thoracic splanchnic nerves as they pass through the diaphragm. Clin Anat. 2009 Oct; 22(7):809-14. View abstract
  41. Hildebrandt S. Capital punishment and anatomy: history and ethics of an ongoing association. Clin Anat. 2008 Jan; 21(1):5-14. View abstract
  42. Hildebrandt S. How the Pernkopf controversy facilitated a historical and ethical analysis of the anatomical sciences in Austria and Germany: a recommendation for the continued use of the Pernkopf atlas. Clin Anat. 2006 Mar; 19(2):91-100. View abstract
  43. Hildebrandt S, Jäckh G, Weber S, Peter HH. A long-term longitudinal isotypic study of anti-topoisomerase I autoantibodies. Rheumatol Int. 1993; 12(6):231-4. View abstract
  44. Hildebrandt S, Weiner ES, Earnshaw WC, Zanetti M, Rothfield NF. Idiotypic analysis of human anticentromere autoantibodies. Autoimmunity. 1991; 9(2):131-40. View abstract
  45. Hildebrandt S, Noell GS, Vazquez-Abad D, Earnshaw WC, Zanetti M, Rothfield NF. Idiotypic analysis of human anti-topoisomerase I autoantibodies. Autoimmunity. 1991; 10(1):41-8. View abstract
  46. Weiner ES, Hildebrandt S, Senécal JL, Daniels L, Noell S, Joyal F, Roussin A, Earnshaw W, Rothfield NF. Prognostic significance of anticentromere antibodies and anti-topoisomerase I antibodies in Raynaud's disease. A prospective study. Arthritis Rheum. 1991 Jan; 34(1):68-77. View abstract
  47. Hildebrandt S, Weiner ES, Senecal JL, Noell GS, Earnshaw WC, Rothfield NF. Autoantibodies to topoisomerase I (Scl-70): analysis by gel diffusion, immunoblot, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Clin Immunol Immunopathol. 1990 Dec; 57(3):399-410. View abstract
  48. Hildebrandt S, Weiner E, Senécal JL, Noell S, Daniels L, Earnshaw WC, Rothfield NF. The IgG, IgM, and IgA isotypes of anti-topoisomerase I and anticentromere autoantibodies. Arthritis Rheum. 1990 May; 33(5):724-7. View abstract
  49. Hildebrandt S, von der Heydt I, von Wichert P. Expression of CD 21, CD 22, and the mouse erythrocyte receptor on peripheral B lymphocytes in rheumatoid arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis. 1988 Jul; 47(7):588-94. View abstract
  50. Hildebrandt S, Becker H, Schauer U. [B-cell subpopulation, rosetting with mouse erythrocytes, in patients with rheumatoid arthritis]. Immun Infekt. 1986 Feb; 14(1):26-7. View abstract