Research Overview

Jonathan Gaffin, MD, MMSc, is a pediatric pulmonologist and clinical researcher with a particular interest in pediatric asthma and the environment, especially as it may relate to potential interventions.

Dr. Gaffin’s primary research activities are aimed at investigating the epidemic of inner city childhood asthma as part of the School Inner City Asthma Study (SICAS; PI: Wanda Phipatanakul, M.D., M.S.). This study prospectively evaluates the effect of the school environment on asthma symptoms in urban public school children with asthma. Dr. Gaffin is specifically interested in the role of indoor air pollution in the school environment. In this unique study design, classroom air pollution is monitored while children attend school and is then able to be compared from classroom to classroom to determine its effects on asthma symptoms in the students. Preliminary data shows a powerful association between pollution exposure and asthma symptoms. Furthermore, data also suggests that certain indoor pollutants can be predicted from measures of outdoor pollution. Planned studies include the use of geographic information systems (GIS) technology, climate, and ambient pollution to take a novel approach to integrate the home and school-based exposures to fully evaluate the individual health risks posed to at-risk children. This approach to the micro-environment will enable an assessment across multiple settings in relation to health and disease. Additionally, Dr. Gaffin is an investigator in several asthma clinical trials at Boston Children’s Hospital and the site-principle investigator for several cystic fibrosis observational and interventional studies.

About Jonathan Gaffin, MD, MMSc

Dr. Gaffin received his MD from the University of Massachusetts in 2004. He completed residency in Pediatrics at The Yale-New Haven Children’s Hospital in 2007 and subspecialty training in Pediatric Pulmonology at Boston Children’s Hospital from 2007-2010. He also completed a Master’s of Medical Science degree, which provided training in translational and clinical research, from Harvard Medical School (2011). Dr. Gaffin is the founder and co-director of the Boston Children’s Hospital Severe Asthma Clinic and is on staff as a pediatric pulmonologist at Boston Children’s Hospital.

Active Projects

2013-2018 School-based air pollution and asthma morbidity in Inner City School Children
NIAID/NIH K23 1K23AI106945-01
Principal Investigator
The goal of this mentored career development award is to determine the role of indoor air pollution specific to the inner city school classroom environment on asthma morbidity for inner city school children with asthma. This research will provide important information that may lead to specific interventions to improve air quality and health in inner city schools.

Researcher Services

Research Departments

Research Divisions

PUBLICATIONS

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  1. Kantor DB, Petty CR, Phipatanakul W, Gaffin JM. Transcutaneous CO-oximetry differentiates asthma exacerbation and convalescence in children. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2018 Aug; 142(2):676-678.e5. View abstract
  2. DeBoer MD, Phillips BR, Mauger DT, Zein J, Erzurum SC, Fitzpatrick AM, Gaston BM, Myers R, Ross KR, Chmiel J, Lee MJ, Fahy JV, Peters M, Ly NP, Wenzel SE, Fajt ML, Holguin F, Moore WC, Peters SP, Meyers D, Bleecker ER, Castro M, Coverstone AM, Bacharier LB, Jarjour NN, Sorkness RL, Ramratnam S, Irani AM, Israel E, Levy B, Phipatanakul W, Gaffin JM, Gerald Teague W. Effects of endogenous sex hormones on lung function and symptom control in adolescents with asthma. BMC Pulm Med. 2018 Apr 10; 18(1):58. View abstract
  3. Barsky EE, Giancola LM, Baxi SN, Gaffin JM. A Practical Approach to Severe Asthma in Children. Ann Am Thorac Soc. 2018 Apr; 15(4):399-408. View abstract
  4. Lai PS, Kolde R, Franzosa EA, Gaffin JM, Baxi SN, Sheehan WJ, Gold DR, Gevers D, Xavier RJ, Phipatanakul W. The classroom microbiome and asthma morbidity in children attending 3 inner-city schools. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2018 Jun; 141(6):2311-2313. View abstract
  5. Jackson DJ, Bacharier LB, Mauger DT, Boehmer S, Beigelman A, Chmiel JF, Fitzpatrick AM, Gaffin JM, Morgan WJ, Peters SP, Phipatanakul W, Sheehan WJ, Cabana MD, Holguin F, Martinez FD, Pongracic JA, Baxi SN, Benson M, Blake K, Covar R, Gentile DA, Israel E, Krishnan JA, Kumar HV, Lang JE, Lazarus SC, Lima JJ, Long D, Ly N, Marbin J, Moy JN, Myers RE, Olin JT, Raissy HH, Robison RG, Ross K, Sorkness CA, Lemanske RF. Quintupling Inhaled Glucocorticoids to Prevent Childhood Asthma Exacerbations. N Engl J Med. 2018 Mar 08; 378(10):891-901. View abstract
  6. Sheehan WJ, Gaffin JM, Peden DB, Bush RK, Phipatanakul W. Advances in environmental and occupational disorders in 2016. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2017 Dec; 140(6):1683-1692. View abstract
  7. Gaffin JM, Hauptman M, Petty CR, Sheehan WJ, Lai PS, Wolfson JM, Gold DR, Coull BA, Koutrakis P, Phipatanakul W. Nitrogen dioxide exposure in school classrooms of inner-city children with asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2018 Jun; 141(6):2249-2255.e2. View abstract
  8. Teague WG, Phillips BR, Fahy JV, Wenzel SE, Fitzpatrick AM, Moore WC, Hastie AT, Bleecker ER, Meyers DA, Peters SP, Castro M, Coverstone AM, Bacharier LB, Ly NP, Peters MC, Denlinger LC, Ramratnam S, Sorkness RL, Gaston BM, Erzurum SC, Comhair SAA, Myers RE, Zein J, DeBoer MD, Irani AM, Israel E, Levy B, Cardet JC, Phipatanakul W, Gaffin JM, Holguin F, Fajt ML, Aujla SJ, Mauger DT, Jarjour NN. Baseline Features of the Severe Asthma Research Program (SARP III) Cohort: Differences with Age. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2018 Mar - Apr; 6(2):545-554.e4. View abstract
  9. Dilley MA, Petty CR, Sheehan WJ, Gaffin JM, Hauptman M, Phipatanakul W. Adherence and stress in a population of inner-city children with asthma. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2017 09; 28(6):610-612. View abstract
  10. Moore PE, Poston JT, Boyer D, Barsky E, Gaffin J, Boyne KB, Ross KR, Mann Dosier LB, Vece TJ, Casey AM, Welsh SK, Logan JW, Shepherd EG, Phinzy PA, Panitch HB, Papantonakis CM, Austin ED, Orandi AB, Kitcharoensakkul M, Abe MK, Horani A, Rettig JS, Pittman J. ATS Core Curriculum 2017: Part II. Pediatric Pulmonary Medicine. Ann Am Thorac Soc. 2017 Aug; 14(Supplement_2):S165-S181. View abstract
  11. Phipatanakul W, Koutrakis P, Coull BA, Kang CM, Wolfson JM, Ferguson ST, Petty CR, Samnaliev M, Cunningham A, Sheehan WJ, Gaffin JM, Baxi SN, Lai PS, Permaul P, Liang L, Thorne PS, Adamkiewicz G, Brennan KJ, Baccarelli AA, Gold DR. The School Inner-City Asthma Intervention Study: Design, rationale, methods, and lessons learned. Contemp Clin Trials. 2017 Sep; 60:14-23. View abstract
  12. Phipatanakul W, Mauger DT, Sorkness RL, Gaffin JM, Holguin F, Woodruff PG, Ly NP, Bacharier LB, Bhakta NR, Moore WC, Bleecker ER, Hastie AT, Meyers DA, Castro M, Fahy JV, Fitzpatrick AM, Gaston BM, Jarjour NN, Levy BD, Peters SP, Teague WG, Fajt M, Wenzel SE, Erzurum SC, Israel E. Effects of Age and Disease Severity on Systemic Corticosteroid Responses in Asthma. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2017 06 01; 195(11):1439-1448. View abstract
  13. Greenberg J, Prushinskaya O, Harris JD, Guidetti-Myers G, Steiding J, Sawicki GS, Gaffin JM. Utilization of a patient-centered asthma passport tool in a subspecialty clinic. J Asthma. 2018 Feb; 55(2):180-187. View abstract
  14. Kopel LS, Petty CR, Gaffin JM, Sheehan WJ, Baxi SN, Kanchongkittiphon W, Fu C, Gold DR, Phipatanakul W. Caregiver stress among inner-city school children with asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2017 Jul - Aug; 5(4):1132-1134.e3. View abstract
  15. Denlinger LC, Phillips BR, Ramratnam S, Ross K, Bhakta NR, Cardet JC, Castro M, Peters SP, Phipatanakul W, Aujla S, Bacharier LB, Bleecker ER, Comhair SA, Coverstone A, DeBoer M, Erzurum SC, Fain SB, Fajt M, Fitzpatrick AM, Gaffin J, Gaston B, Hastie AT, Hawkins GA, Holguin F, Irani AM, Israel E, Levy BD, Ly N, Meyers DA, Moore WC, Myers R, Opina MT, Peters MC, Schiebler ML, Sorkness RL, Teague WG, Wenzel SE, Woodruff PG, Mauger DT, Fahy JV, Jarjour NN. Inflammatory and Comorbid Features of Patients with Severe Asthma and Frequent Exacerbations. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2017 02 01; 195(3):302-313. View abstract
  16. Sheehan WJ, Permaul P, Petty CR, Coull BA, Baxi SN, Gaffin JM, Lai PS, Gold DR, Phipatanakul W. Association Between Allergen Exposure in Inner-City Schools and Asthma Morbidity Among Students. JAMA Pediatr. 2017 Jan 01; 171(1):31-38. View abstract
  17. Gaffin JM, Phipatanakul W. The Calculated Risk of Childhood Asthma From Severe Bronchiolitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2017 Jan - Feb; 5(1):97-98. View abstract
  18. Dilley MA, Sheehan WJ, Petty CR, Gaffin JM, Hauptman M, Phipatanakul W. Comparison of treatment modalities for inpatient asthma exacerbations among US pediatric hospitals. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2017 May - Jun; 5(3):855-857.e1. View abstract
  19. Fitzpatrick AM, Jackson DJ, Mauger DT, Boehmer SJ, Phipatanakul W, Sheehan WJ, Moy JN, Paul IM, Bacharier LB, Cabana MD, Covar R, Holguin F, Lemanske RF, Martinez FD, Pongracic JA, Beigelman A, Baxi SN, Benson M, Blake K, Chmiel JF, Daines CL, Daines MO, Gaffin JM, Gentile DA, Gower WA, Israel E, Kumar HV, Lang JE, Lazarus SC, Lima JJ, Ly N, Marbin J, Morgan W, Myers RE, Olin JT, Peters SP, Raissy HH, Robison RG, Ross K, Sorkness CA, Thyne SM, Szefler SJ. Individualized therapy for persistent asthma in young children. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2016 Dec; 138(6):1608-1618.e12. View abstract
  20. Jhun I, Gaffin JM, Coull BA, Huffaker MF, Petty CR, Sheehan WJ, Baxi SN, Lai PS, Kang CM, Wolfson JM, Gold DR, Koutrakis P, Phipatanakul W. School Environmental Intervention to Reduce Particulate Pollutant Exposures for Children with Asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2017 Jan - Feb; 5(1):154-159.e3. View abstract
  21. Gaffin JM, Petty CR, Hauptman M, Kang CM, Wolfson JM, Abu Awad Y, Di Q, Lai PS, Sheehan WJ, Baxi S, Coull BA, Schwartz JD, Gold DR, Koutrakis P, Phipatanakul W. Modeling indoor particulate exposures in inner-city school classrooms. J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol. 2017 09; 27(5):451-457. View abstract
  22. Sheehan WJ, Mauger DT, Paul IM, Moy JN, Boehmer SJ, Szefler SJ, Fitzpatrick AM, Jackson DJ, Bacharier LB, Cabana MD, Covar R, Holguin F, Lemanske RF, Martinez FD, Pongracic JA, Beigelman A, Baxi SN, Benson M, Blake K, Chmiel JF, Daines CL, Daines MO, Gaffin JM, Gentile DA, Gower WA, Israel E, Kumar HV, Lang JE, Lazarus SC, Lima JJ, Ly N, Marbin J, Morgan WJ, Myers RE, Olin JT, Peters SP, Raissy HH, Robison RG, Ross K, Sorkness CA, Thyne SM, Wechsler ME, Phipatanakul W. Acetaminophen versus Ibuprofen in Young Children with Mild Persistent Asthma. N Engl J Med. 2016 Aug 18; 375(7):619-30. View abstract
  23. Gaffin JM, Zhou JS, Cai Q, Petty CR, Fu C, Sheehan WJ, Baxi S, Bailey A, Gold DR, Phipatanakul W. Utility of a portable hand-held forced expiratory volume in 1 second meter for monitoring asthma in an inner-city school setting. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2016 09; 117(3):323-4. View abstract
  24. Badr DT, Gaffin JM, Phipatanakul W. Pediatric Rhinosinusitis. Curr Treat Options Allergy. 2016 Sep; 3(3):268-281. View abstract
  25. Levy S, Dedeoglu F, Gaffin JM, Garvey KC, Harstad E, MacGinnitie A, Rufo PA, Huang Q, Ziemnik RE, Wisk LE, Weitzman ER. A Screening Tool for Assessing Alcohol Use Risk among Medically Vulnerable Youth. PLoS One. 2016; 11(5):e0156240. View abstract
  26. Kanchongkittiphon W, Gaffin JM, Kopel L, Petty CR, Bollinger ME, Miller RL, Perzanowski M, Matsui EC, Phipatanakul W. Association of FEF25%-75% and bronchodilator reversibility with asthma control and asthma morbidity in inner-city children with asthma. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2016 07; 117(1):97-9. View abstract
  27. Bacharier LB, Guilbert TW, Mauger DT, Boehmer S, Beigelman A, Fitzpatrick AM, Jackson DJ, Baxi SN, Benson M, Burnham CD, Cabana M, Castro M, Chmiel JF, Covar R, Daines M, Gaffin JM, Gentile DA, Holguin F, Israel E, Kelly HW, Lazarus SC, Lemanske RF, Ly N, Meade K, Morgan W, Moy J, Olin T, Peters SP, Phipatanakul W, Pongracic JA, Raissy HH, Ross K, Sheehan WJ, Sorkness C, Szefler SJ, Teague WG, Thyne S, Martinez FD. Early Administration of Azithromycin and Prevention of Severe Lower Respiratory Tract Illnesses in Preschool Children With a History of Such Illnesses: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA. 2015 Nov 17; 314(19):2034-2044. View abstract
  28. Lai PS, Sheehan WJ, Gaffin JM, Petty CR, Coull BA, Gold DR, Phipatanakul W. School Endotoxin Exposure and Asthma Morbidity in Inner-city Children. Chest. 2015 Nov; 148(5):1251-1258. View abstract
  29. Gaffin JM. Postnatal environmental tobacco smoke exposure is associated with objective markers of atopy in preschool-aged children. Evid Based Med. 2015 Dec; 20(6):219. View abstract
  30. Gaffin JM, Landrum A, Petty CR, Baxi S, Sheehan WJ, Phipatanakul W. Black and Hispanic perceptions of asthma medication in the School Inner-City Asthma Study. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2015 Jun; 114(6):533-4. View abstract
  31. Rao DR, Sordillo JE, Kopel LS, Gaffin JM, Sheehan WJ, Hoffman E, Ozonoff A, Gold DR, Phipatanakul W. Association between allergic sensitization and exhaled nitric oxide in children in the School Inner-City Asthma Study. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2015 Mar; 114(3):256-257.e1. View abstract
  32. Kanchongkittiphon W, Gaffin JM, Phipatanakul W. Child with atopic dermatitis. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2015 Jan; 114(1):6-11. View abstract
  33. Kanchongkittiphon W, Mendell MJ, Gaffin JM, Wang G, Phipatanakul W. Indoor environmental exposures and exacerbation of asthma: an update to the 2000 review by the Institute of Medicine. Environ Health Perspect. 2015 Jan; 123(1):6-20. View abstract
  34. Gaffin JM, Kanchongkittiphon W, Phipatanakul W. Reprint of: Perinatal and early childhood environmental factors influencing allergic asthma immunopathogenesis. Int Immunopharmacol. 2014 Nov; 23(1):337-46. View abstract
  35. Gaffin JM, Kanchongkittiphon W, Phipatanakul W. Perinatal and early childhood environmental factors influencing allergic asthma immunopathogenesis. Int Immunopharmacol. 2014 Sep; 22(1):21-30. View abstract
  36. Kanchongkittiphon W, Gaffin JM, Phipatanakul W. The indoor environment and inner-city childhood asthma. Asian Pac J Allergy Immunol. 2014 Jun; 32(2):103-10. View abstract
  37. Kopel LS, Phipatanakul W, Gaffin JM. Social disadvantage and asthma control in children. Paediatr Respir Rev. 2014 Sep; 15(3):256-62; quiz 262-3. View abstract
  38. Kanchongkittiphon W, Sheehan WJ, Friedlander J, Chapman MD, King EM, Martirosyan K, Baxi SN, Permaul P, Gaffin JM, Kopel L, Bailey A, Fu C, Petty CR, Gold DR, Phipatanakul W. Allergens on desktop surfaces in preschools and elementary schools of urban children with asthma. Allergy. 2014 Jul; 69(7):960-963. View abstract
  39. Kopel LS, Gaffin JM, Ozonoff A, Rao DR, Sheehan WJ, Friedlander JL, Permaul P, Baxi SN, Fu C, Subramanian SV, Gold DR, Phipatanakul W. Perceived neighborhood safety and asthma morbidity in the school inner-city asthma study. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2015 Jan; 50(1):17-24. View abstract
  40. Gaffin JM, Raby BA, Petty CR, Hoffman EB, Baccarelli AA, Gold DR, Phipatanakul W. ß-2 adrenergic receptor gene methylation is associated with decreased asthma severity in inner-city schoolchildren: asthma and rhinitis. Clin Exp Allergy. 2014; 44(5):681-9. View abstract
  41. Gaffin JM, Phipatanakul W. Beta-2-Adrenergic Receptor Methylation Influences Asthma Phenotype in The School Inner City Asthma Study. Receptors Clin Investig. 2014; 1(1). View abstract
  42. Baxi SN, Muilenberg ML, Rogers CA, Sheehan WJ, Gaffin J, Permaul P, Kopel LS, Lai PS, Lane JP, Bailey A, Petty CR, Fu C, Gold DR, Phipatanakul W. Exposures to molds in school classrooms of children with asthma. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2013 Nov; 24(7):697-703. View abstract
  43. Gaffin JM, Bouzaher A, McCown M, Larabee Tuttle K, Israel E, Phipatanakul W. Rethinking the prevalence of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction in patients with asthma. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2013 Dec; 111(6):567-8. View abstract
  44. Friedlander JL, Sheehan WJ, Baxi SN, Kopel LS, Gaffin JM, Ozonoff A, Fu C, Gold DR, Phipatanakul W. Food allergy and increased asthma morbidity in a School-based Inner-City Asthma Study. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2013 Sep-Oct; 1(5):479-84. View abstract
  45. Permaul P, Sheehan WJ, Baxi SN, Gaffin JM, Fu C, Petty CR, Gold DR, Phipatanakul W. Predictors of indoor exposure to mouse allergen in inner-city elementary schools. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2013 Oct; 111(4):299-301.e1. View abstract
  46. Rao DR, Gaffin JM, Baxi SN, Sheehan WJ, Hoffman EB, Phipatanakul W. The utility of forced expiratory flow between 25% and 75% of vital capacity in predicting childhood asthma morbidity and severity. J Asthma. 2012 Aug; 49(6):586-92. View abstract
  47. Permaul P, Hoffman E, Fu C, Sheehan W, Baxi S, Gaffin J, Lane J, Bailey A, King E, Chapman M, Gold D, Phipatanakul W. Allergens in urban schools and homes of children with asthma. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2012 Sep; 23(6):543-9. View abstract
  48. Gaffin JM, Spergel JM, Boguniewicz M, Eichenfield LF, Paller AS, Fowler JF, Dinulos JG, Tilles SA, Schneider LC, Phipatanakul W. Effect of cat and daycare exposures on the risk of asthma in children with atopic dermatitis. Allergy Asthma Proc. 2012 May-Jun; 33(3):282-8. View abstract
  49. Cortot CF, Sheehan WJ, Permaul P, Friedlander JL, Baxi SN, Gaffin JM, Dioun AF, Hoffman EB, Schneider LC, Phipatanakul W. Role of specific IgE and skin-prick testing in predicting food challenge results to baked egg. Allergy Asthma Proc. 2012 May-Jun; 33(3):275-81. View abstract
  50. Sheehan WJ, Hoffman EB, Fu C, Baxi SN, Bailey A, King EM, Chapman MD, Lane JP, Gaffin JM, Permaul P, Gold DR, Phipatanakul W. Endotoxin exposure in inner-city schools and homes of children with asthma. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2012 Jun; 108(6):418-22. View abstract
  51. Rork JF, Sheehan WJ, Gaffin JM, Timmons KG, Sidbury R, Schneider LC, Phipatanakul W. Parental response to written eczema action plans in children with eczema. Arch Dermatol. 2012 Mar; 148(3):391-2. View abstract
  52. Phipatanakul W, Bailey A, Hoffman EB, Sheehan WJ, Lane JP, Baxi S, Rao D, Permaul P, Gaffin JM, Rogers CA, Muilenberg ML, Gold DR. The school inner-city asthma study: design, methods, and lessons learned. J Asthma. 2011 Dec; 48(10):1007-14. View abstract
  53. Baxi SN, Sheehan WJ, Gaffin JM, Yodying J, Panupattanapong S, Lane JP, Fu C, Hoffman EB, Gold DR, Phipatanakul W. Agreement between parent and student responses to an asthma and allergy questionnaire in a diverse, inner-city elementary school population. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2011 Oct; 107(4):371-3. View abstract
  54. Issa-El-Khoury K, Bayuk JL, Patil S, Ling M, Long A, Hesterberg P, Ling M, Patil S, Banerji A, Rork JF, Sheehan WJ, Gaffin JM, Timmons KG, Sidbury R, Schneider LC, Phipatanakul W, Cortot CF, Sheehan WJ, Baxi SN, Dioun AF, Schneider LC, Phipatanakul W. Research abstracts presented at the Fall Meeting of the New England Society of Allergy, October 23-24, 2010, Woodstock, Vermont. Allergy Asthma Proc. 2011 Jan 01; 32(1):80-81. View abstract
  55. Gaffin JM, Sheehan WJ, Morrill J, Cinar M, Borras Coughlin IM, Sawicki GS, Twarog FJ, Young MC, Schneider LC, Phipatanakul W. Tree nut allergy, egg allergy, and asthma in children. Clin Pediatr (Phila). 2011 Feb; 50(2):133-9. View abstract
  56. Gaffin JM, Israel E, Phipatanakul W. The effect of prophylactic palivizumab on recurrent wheezing in children with an atopic family history. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2011 Jan; 127(1):292-3; author reply 293. View abstract
  57. Gaffin JM, Shotola NL, Martin TR, Phipatanakul W. Clinically useful spirometry in preschool-aged children: evaluation of the 2007 American Thoracic Society Guidelines. J Asthma. 2010 Sep; 47(7):762-7. View abstract
  58. Gaffin JM, Phipatanakul W. The role of indoor allergens in the development of asthma. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol. 2009 Apr; 9(2):128-35. View abstract
  59. Gaffin JM, Sheehan WJ, Morrill J, Sawicki G, Twarog F, Cinar M, Young M, Schneider LC, Phipatanakul W. Peanut Allergy is Associated with Increased Asthma Prevalence in Food Allergic Children. AAAAI. 2009. View abstract
  60. Gaffin JM, Phipatanakul W. Montelukast as Monotherapy for Pediatric Asthma. MP Med Prakt Pediatr. 2009; 3(63):20-23. View abstract
  61. Gaffin JM, Gallagher PG. Picture of the month. Blueberry muffin baby (extramedullary hematopoiesis) due to congenital cytomegalovirus infection. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2007 Nov; 161(11):1102-3. View abstract
  62. Jonathan M. Gaffin, MD Sumit Bhargava, MD. Sleep. Yale Curriculum in Primary Care. 2007. View abstract
  63. Jonathan M. Gaffin, MD Sumit Bhargava, MD. Sleep. Yale Curriculum in Primary Care. 2006. View abstract