Research Overview

1. Analysis of Outcomes from General Surgical Cases at Boston Children's Hospital. This project involves the creation of an integrated database that allows our research group to evaluate the relationship between patient personality types, anesthesia technique, and surgery VS. outcomes including short-term (PACU) outcomes as well as longer-term behavioral outcomes. This project has already yielded data comparing anesthesia/surgery techniques and parental satisfaction, patient personality and post-operative outcomes, and anesthesia technique and postoperative agitation.

2. Our research group has created a national data-sharing group to evaluate the analgesia techniques and outcomes after chest wall surgery in children and adolescents. This group - the Society for Pediatric Anesthesia Improvement Network uses an internet-.based data collection technology to aggregate data from 8 major pediatric centers across the country. 3. The outcomes group is pursuing a project 'The Pediatric Sedation State Scale' - in which we are validating a new scale that will codify the state of a child during a procedural sedation experience This project uses video of actual sedation encounters and allows grading of these videos by multiple sedation providers to compare the state of children during procedures.

Researcher Services

Researcher Areas

  • Outcomes Research for Anesthesia and Procedural Sedation

Research Departments


Publications powered by Harvard Catalyst Profiles

  1. Vlassakova BG, Sinnott SM, Askins N, Callahan MX, Leahy IC, Zurakowski D, Hickey PR, Cravero JP. The Anesthesia Perioperative "Call for Help"-Experience at a Quaternary Pediatric Medical Center: Analysis of 67,564 Anesthesia Encounters. Anesth Analg. 2018 Apr 17. View abstract
  2. Williams MR, Nayshtut M, Hoefnagel A, McKeown A, Carlson DW, Cravero J, Lightdale J, Mason KP, Wilson S, Turk DC, Dworkin RH, Ward DS. Efficacy Outcome Measures for Pediatric Procedural Sedation Clinical Trials: An ACTTION Systematic Review. Anesth Analg. 2018 Mar; 126(3):956-967. View abstract
  3. Callahan MJ, MacDougall RD, Bixby SD, Voss SD, Robertson RL, Cravero JP. Correction to: Ionizing radiation from computed tomography versus anesthesia for magnetic resonance imaging in infants and children: patient safety considerations. Pediatr Radiol. 2018 Mar; 48(3):454. View abstract
  4. Hernandez MA, Palazzi L, Lapalma J, Cravero J. Erector spinae plane block for inguinal hernia repair in preterm infants. Paediatr Anaesth. 2018 Mar; 28(3):298-299. View abstract
  5. Gomez-Morad AD, Cravero JP, Harvey BC, Bernier R, Halpin E, Walsh B, Nasr VG. The Evaluation of a Noninvasive Respiratory Volume Monitor in Pediatric Patients Undergoing General Anesthesia. Anesth Analg. 2017 12; 125(6):1913-1919. View abstract
  6. Callahan MJ, MacDougall RD, Bixby SD, Voss SD, Robertson RL, Cravero JP. Ionizing radiation from computed tomography versus anesthesia for magnetic resonance imaging in infants and children: patient safety considerations. Pediatr Radiol. 2018 01; 48(1):21-30. View abstract
  7. Shah AC, Ng WCK, Sinnott S, Cravero JP. Population analysis of predictors of difficult intubation with direct laryngoscopy in pediatric patients with and without thyroid disease. J Anesth. 2018 Feb; 32(1):54-61. View abstract
  8. Cravero JP, Callahan MJ. The radiological home: Pediatric anesthesiologist's role in risk assessment for imaging procedures. Paediatr Anaesth. 2017 09; 27(9):878-879. View abstract
  9. Grunwell JR, Travers C, Stormorken AG, Scherrer PD, Chumpitazi CE, Stockwell JA, Roback MG, Cravero J, Kamat PP. Pediatric Procedural Sedation Using the Combination of Ketamine and Propofol Outside of the Emergency Department: A Report From the Pediatric Sedation Research Consortium. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2017 Aug; 18(8):e356-e363. View abstract
  10. Mallory MD, Travers C, McCracken CE, Hertzog J, Cravero JP. Upper Respiratory Infections and Airway Adverse Events in Pediatric Procedural Sedation. Pediatrics. 2017 Jul; 140(1). View abstract
  11. Cravero JP, Flick RP, Malviya SV. Comment on Growth in an Anesthesiologist and Nurse Anesthetist-Supervised Sedation Nurse Program Using Propofol and Dexmedetomidine. A A Case Rep. 2017 06 15; 8(12):337. View abstract
  12. Cravero JP, Askins N, Sriswasdi P, Tsze DS, Zurakowski D, Sinnott S. Validation of the Pediatric Sedation State Scale. Pediatrics. 2017 May; 139(5). View abstract
  13. Williams MR, Ward DS, Carlson D, Cravero J, Dexter F, Lightdale JR, Mason KP, Miner J, Vargo JJ, Berkenbosch JW, Clark RM, Constant I, Dionne R, Dworkin RH, Gozal D, Grayzel D, Irwin MG, Lerman J, O'Connor RE, Pandharipande P, Rappaport BA, Riker RR, Tobin JR, Turk DC, Twersky RS, Sessler DI. Evaluating Patient-Centered Outcomes in Clinical Trials of Procedural Sedation, Part 1 Efficacy: Sedation Consortium on Endpoints and Procedures for Treatment, Education, and Research Recommendations. Anesth Analg. 2017 03; 124(3):821-830. View abstract
  14. Devji TF, Madenci AL, Carpino E, Leahy IC, Samnaliev M, Dearden JL, Weil BR, Weldon CB, Cravero J. Safety and cost-effectiveness of port removal outside of the operating room among pediatric patients. J Pediatr Surg. 2016 Nov; 51(11):1891-1895. View abstract
  15. Sulton C, McCracken C, Simon HK, Hebbar K, Reynolds J, Cravero J, Mallory M, Kamat P. Pediatric Procedural Sedation Using Dexmedetomidine: A Report From the Pediatric Sedation Research Consortium. Hosp Pediatr. 2016 09; 6(9):536-44. View abstract
  16. Beach ML, Cohen DM, Gallagher SM, Cravero JP. In Reply. Anesthesiology. 2016 08; 125(2):425-6. View abstract
  17. Grunwell JR, Marupudi NK, Gupta RV, Travers CD, McCracken CE, Williamson JL, Stockwell JA, Fortenberry JD, Couloures K, Cravero J, Kamat PP. Outcomes following implementation of a pediatric procedural sedation guide for referral to general anesthesia for magnetic resonance imaging studies. Paediatr Anaesth. 2016 Jun; 26(6):628-36. View abstract
  18. Cravero JP, Sriswasdi P, Lekowski R, Carpino E, Blum R, Askins N, Zurakowski D, Sinnott S. Creation of an integrated outcome database for pediatric anesthesia. Paediatr Anaesth. 2016 Apr; 26(4):345-55. View abstract
  19. Peyton J, Cravero JP. The pretracheal stethoscope useful, but not a necessity. Paediatr Anaesth. 2016 Mar; 26(3):256-8. View abstract
  20. Havidich JE, Beach M, Dierdorf SF, Onega T, Suresh G, Cravero JP. Preterm Versus Term Children: Analysis of Sedation/Anesthesia Adverse Events and Longitudinal Risk. Pediatrics. 2016 Mar; 137(3):e20150463. View abstract
  21. Beach ML, Cohen DM, Gallagher SM, Cravero JP. Major Adverse Events and Relationship to Nil per Os Status in Pediatric Sedation/Anesthesia Outside the Operating Room: A Report of the Pediatric Sedation Research Consortium. Anesthesiology. 2016 Jan; 124(1):80-8. View abstract
  22. Rosen HD, Mervitz D, Cravero JP. Pediatric emergence delirium: Canadian Pediatric Anesthesiologists' experience. Paediatr Anaesth. 2016 Feb; 26(2):207-12. View abstract
  23. Tsze DS, Mallory MD, Cravero JP. Practice Patterns and Adverse Events of Nitrous Oxide Sedation and Analgesia: A Report from the Pediatric Sedation Research Consortium. J Pediatr. 2016 Feb; 169:260-5.e2. View abstract
  24. Lobo K, Donado C, Cornelissen L, Kim J, Ortiz R, Peake RW, Kellogg M, Alexander ME, Zurakowski D, Kurgansky KE, Peyton J, Bilge A, Boretsky K, McCann ME, Berde CB, Cravero J. A Phase 1, Dose-escalation, Double-blind, Block-randomized, Controlled Trial of Safety and Efficacy of Neosaxitoxin Alone and in Combination with 0.2% Bupivacaine, with and without Epinephrine, for Cutaneous Anesthesia. Anesthesiology. 2015 Oct; 123(4):873-85. View abstract
  25. Biber JL, Allareddy V, Allareddy V, Gallagher SM, Couloures KG, Speicher DG, Cravero JP, Stormorken AG. Prevalence and Predictors of Adverse Events during Procedural Sedation Anesthesia-Outside the Operating Room for Esophagogastroduodenoscopy and Colonoscopy in Children: Age Is an Independent Predictor of Outcomes. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2015 Oct; 16(8):e251-9. View abstract
  26. Cravero J, Anderson B, Wolf A. Whither dexmedetomidine? Paediatr Anaesth. 2015 Sep; 25(9):868-70. View abstract
  27. Scherrer PD, Mallory MD, Cravero JP, Lowrie L, Hertzog JH, Berkenbosch JW. The impact of obesity on pediatric procedural sedation-related outcomes: results from the Pediatric Sedation Research Consortium. Paediatr Anaesth. 2015 Jul; 25(7):689-97. View abstract
  28. Connors JM, Cravero JP, Kost S, LaViolette D, Lowrie L, Scherrer PD. Great expectations-defining quality in pediatric sedation: outcomes of a multidisciplinary consensus conference. J Healthc Qual. 2015 Mar-Apr; 37(2):139-54. View abstract
  29. Cravero JP, Coté CJ. Raising the bar for pediatric sedation studies and trials. Paediatr Anaesth. 2015 Jan; 25(1):2-4. View abstract
  30. Kamat PP, McCracken CE, Gillespie SE, Fortenberry JD, Stockwell JA, Cravero JP, Hebbar KB. Pediatric critical care physician-administered procedural sedation using propofol: a report from the Pediatric Sedation Research Consortium Database. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2015 Jan; 16(1):11-20. View abstract
  31. Muhly WT, Maxwell LG, Cravero JP. Pain management following the Nuss procedure: a survey of practice and review. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2014 Oct; 58(9):1134-9. View abstract
  32. Berde CB, Boretsky KR, Cravero JP. Paravertebral block for analgesia after pediatric thoracic surgery. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2014 May-Jun; 39(3):179-80. View abstract
  33. Rosen HD, Cravero JP. Research on emergence agitation in children. Can J Anaesth. 2013 Aug; 60(8):822-3. View abstract
  34. Monroe KK, Beach M, Reindel R, Badwan L, Couloures KG, Hertzog JH, Cravero JP. Analysis of procedural sedation provided by pediatricians. Pediatr Int. 2013 Feb; 55(1):17-23. View abstract
  35. Hollman GA, Banks DM, Berkenbosch JW, Boswinkel JP, Eickhoff JC, Fagin D, Hagen SA, Hales RL, Houck CS, Kaur T, Kost S, Lowrie L, Nishisaki A, Scherrer PD, Stephenson L, Stormorken A, Cravero JP. Development, implementation, and initial participant feedback of a pediatric sedation provider course. Teach Learn Med. 2013; 25(3):249-57. View abstract
  36. Langhan ML, Mallory M, Hertzog J, Lowrie L, Cravero J. Physiologic monitoring practices during pediatric procedural sedation: a report from the Pediatric Sedation Research Consortium. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2012 Nov; 166(11):990-8. View abstract
  37. Fein JA, Zempsky WT, Cravero JP. Relief of pain and anxiety in pediatric patients in emergency medical systems. Pediatrics. 2012 Nov; 130(5):e1391-405. View abstract
  38. Cravero JP, Fanciullo GJ, McHugo GJ, Baird JC. The validity of the Computer Face Scale for measuring pediatric pain and mood. Paediatr Anaesth. 2013 Feb; 23(2):156-61. View abstract
  39. Havidich JE, Cravero JP. The current status of procedural sedation for pediatric patients in out-of-operating room locations. Curr Opin Anaesthesiol. 2012 Aug; 25(4):453-60. View abstract
  40. Cravero JP. Pediatric sedation with propofol-continuing evolution of procedural sedation practice. J Pediatr. 2012 May; 160(5):714-6. View abstract
  41. Cravero JP, Muffly M. Case presentation: abdominal compartment syndrome complicating posterior spinal fusion. Paediatr Anaesth. 2012 Mar; 22(3):278-80. View abstract
  42. Coté CJ, Cravero J. Brave new world: do we need it, do we want it, can we afford it? Paediatr Anaesth. 2011 Sep; 21(9):919-23. View abstract
  43. Cravero JP, Havidich JE. Pediatric sedation--evolution and revolution. Paediatr Anaesth. 2011 Jul; 21(7):800-9. View abstract
  44. Mallory MD, Baxter AL, Yanosky DJ, Cravero JP. Emergency physician-administered propofol sedation: a report on 25,433 sedations from the pediatric sedation research consortium. Ann Emerg Med. 2011 May; 57(5):462-8.e1. View abstract
  45. Couloures KG, Beach M, Cravero JP, Monroe KK, Hertzog JH. Impact of provider specialty on pediatric procedural sedation complication rates. Pediatrics. 2011 May; 127(5):e1154-60. View abstract
  46. Trummel JM, Surgenor SD, Cravero JP, Gordon SR, Blike GT. Comparison of differing sedation practice for upper endoscopic ultrasound using expert observational analysis of the procedural sedation. J Patient Saf. 2009 Sep; 5(3):153-9. View abstract
  47. Cravero JP. Risk and safety of pediatric sedation/anesthesia for procedures outside the operating room. Curr Opin Anaesthesiol. 2009 Aug; 22(4):509-13. View abstract
  48. Cravero JP, Beach ML, Blike GT, Gallagher SM, Hertzog JH. The incidence and nature of adverse events during pediatric sedation/anesthesia with propofol for procedures outside the operating room: a report from the Pediatric Sedation Research Consortium. Anesth Analg. 2009 Mar; 108(3):795-804. View abstract
  49. Carayannopoulos AG, Cravero JP, Stinson MT, Sites BD. Use of regional blockade to facilitate inpatient rehabilitation of recalcitrant complex regional pain syndrome. PM R. 2009 Feb; 1(2):194-8. View abstract
  50. Gulur P, Rodi SW, Washington TA, Cravero JP, Fanciullo GJ, McHugo GJ, Baird JC. Computer Face Scale for measuring pediatric pain and mood. J Pain. 2009 Feb; 10(2):173-9. View abstract
  51. Baxter AL, Bernard PA, Berkenbosch JW, Blike G, Cohen DM, Connors JM, Cravero JP, Fagin DH, Freilich S, Havidich J, Hertzog JH, Hollman G, King L, Kost S, Leder M, Linzer J, Litman RS, Lowrie L, Lubisch NB, Mallory M, Scherrer PD, Stockwell JA, Werner DA. Society for Pediatric Sedation reply to Dr Cote's editorial. Paediatr Anaesth. 2008 Jun; 18(6):559-60; author reply 560-1. View abstract
  52. Baxter AL, Mallory MD, Spandorfer PR, Sharma S, Freilich SH, Cravero J. Etomidate versus pentobarbital for computed tomography sedations: report from the Pediatric Sedation Research Consortium. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2007 Oct; 23(10):690-5. View abstract
  53. Fanciullo GJ, Cravero JP, Mudge BO, McHugo GJ, Baird JC. Development of a new computer method to assess children's pain. Pain Med. 2007 Oct; 8 Suppl 3:S121-8. View abstract
  54. Cravero JP, Blike GT, Beach M, Gallagher SM, Hertzog JH, Havidich JE, Gelman B. Incidence and nature of adverse events during pediatric sedation/anesthesia for procedures outside the operating room: report from the Pediatric Sedation Research Consortium. Pediatrics. 2006 Sep; 118(3):1087-96. View abstract
  55. Cravero JP, Blike GT. Pediatric anesthesia in the nonoperating room setting. Curr Opin Anaesthesiol. 2006 Aug; 19(4):443-9. View abstract
  56. Merguerian PA, Corbett ST, Cravero J. Voiding ability using propofol sedation in children undergoing voiding cystourethrograms: a retrospective analysis. J Urol. 2006 Jul; 176(1):299-302. View abstract
  57. Cravero JP. Emergence agitation: time for heavy lifting. J Clin Anesth. 2005 Nov; 17(7):491-3. View abstract
  58. Sacchetti A, Cravero J. Sedation in the emergency department. Pediatr Ann. 2005 Aug; 34(8):617-22. View abstract
  59. Blike GT, Christoffersen K, Cravero JP, Andeweg SK, Jensen J. A method for measuring system safety and latent errors associated with pediatric procedural sedation. Anesth Analg. 2005 Jul; 101(1):48-58, table of contents. View abstract
  60. Cravero JP, Blike GT, Surgenor SD, Jensen J. Development and validation of the Dartmouth Operative Conditions Scale. Anesth Analg. 2005 Jun; 100(6):1614-21. View abstract
  61. Dinulos JG, Cravero JP. General anesthesia in infants and children for pediatric dermatologic procedures: is it worth it? Arch Dermatol. 2005 May; 141(5):629-30. View abstract
  62. Zempsky WT, Cravero JP. Relief of pain and anxiety in pediatric patients in emergency medical systems. Pediatrics. 2004 Nov; 114(5):1348-56. View abstract
  63. Cravero JP, Blike GT. Review of pediatric sedation. Anesth Analg. 2004 Nov; 99(5):1355-64. View abstract
  64. Sites BD, Gallagher JD, Cravero J, Lundberg J, Blike G. The learning curve associated with a simulated ultrasound-guided interventional task by inexperienced anesthesia residents. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2004 Nov-Dec; 29(6):544-8. View abstract
  65. Mace SE, Barata IA, Cravero JP, Dalsey WC, Godwin SA, Kennedy RM, Malley KC, Moss RL, Sacchetti AD, Warden CR, Wears RL. Clinical policy: evidence-based approach to pharmacologic agents used in pediatric sedation and analgesia in the emergency department. Ann Emerg Med. 2004 Oct; 44(4):342-77. View abstract
  66. Mace SE, Barata IA, Cravero JP, Dalsey WC, Godwin SA, Kennedy RM, Malley KC, Moss RL, Sacchetti AD, Warden CR, Wears RL. Clinical policy: evidence-based approach to pharmacologic agents used in pediatric sedation and analgesia in the emergency department. J Pediatr Surg. 2004 Oct; 39(10):1472-84. View abstract
  67. Mace SE, Barata IA, Cravero JP, Dalsey WC, Godwin SA, Kennedy RM, Malley KC, Moss RL, Sacchetti AD, Warden CR, Wears RL. Clinical policy: evidence-based approach to pharmacologic agents used in pediatric sedation and analgesia in the emergency department. J Emerg Nurs. 2004 Oct; 30(5):447-61. View abstract
  68. Chaimberg KH, Cravero JP. Mucositis and airway obstruction in a pediatric patient. Anesth Analg. 2004 Jul; 99(1):59-61. View abstract
  69. Yaster M, Cravero JP. The continuing conundrum of sedation for painful and nonpainful procedures. J Pediatr. 2004 Jul; 145(1):10-2. View abstract
  70. Cravero JP, Blike GT. Pediatric sedation. Curr Opin Anaesthesiol. 2004 Jun; 17(3):247-51. View abstract
  71. Cravero JP, Beach M, Thyr B, Whalen K. The effect of small dose fentanyl on the emergence characteristics of pediatric patients after sevoflurane anesthesia without surgery. Anesth Analg. 2003 Aug; 97(2):364-7, table of contents. View abstract
  72. Mohr JJ, Barach P, Cravero JP, Blike GT, Godfrey MM, Batalden PB, Nelson EC. Microsystems in health care: Part 6. Designing patient safety into the microsystem. Jt Comm J Qual Saf. 2003 Aug; 29(8):401-8. View abstract
  73. Maxwell LG, Tobias JD, Cravero JP, Malviya S. Adverse effects of sedatives in children. Expert Opin Drug Saf. 2003 Mar; 2(2):167-94. View abstract
  74. Sites BD, Blike G, Cravero J, Andeweg S, Beach M. Single-dose caudal anaesthesia for two infants undergoing diagnostic brain magnetic resonance imaging: high risk and nonhigh risk. Paediatr Anaesth. 2003 Feb; 13(2):171-4. View abstract
  75. Polaner DM, Houck CS, Rockoff MA, Mancuso TJ, Finley GA, Maxwell LG, Cravero J, Kain ZN, Bell C, Bosenberg A, Zwass M, Valley R, Agarwal R, Savarese A, Rice LJ, Coté CJ, Davidson PJ, Ferrari LR, Davis PJ. Sedation, risk, and safety: do we really have data at last? Pediatrics. 2001 Oct; 108(4):1006-8. View abstract
  76. Blike G, Cravero J, Nelson E. Same patients, same critical events--different systems of care, different outcomes: description of a human factors approach aimed at improving the efficacy and safety of sedation/analgesia care. Qual Manag Health Care. 2001; 10(1):17-36. View abstract
  77. Cravero JP, Beach M, Dodge CP, Whalen K. Emergence characteristics of sevoflurane compared to halothane in pediatric patients undergoing bilateral pressure equalization tube insertion. J Clin Anesth. 2000 Aug; 12(5):397-401. View abstract
  78. Cravero J, Surgenor S, Whalen K. Emergence agitation in paediatric patients after sevoflurane anaesthesia and no surgery: a comparison with halothane. Paediatr Anaesth. 2000; 10(4):419-24. View abstract