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Paul Hickey, MD

Department of Anesthesiology, Perioperative and Pain Medicine Research
Cardiac Anesthesia Research
Hospital Title:
Academic Title:
Professor of Anaesthesia, Harvard Medical School
Research Focus Area:
Brain injurySimulation
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Research Overview

Paul Hickey's research interests include brain injury resulting from cardiac surgery in children, pain and stress responses in the fetus, infants, and children; the pathophysiology and modulation of inflammatory responses to surgery; and cardiopulmonary bypass involving leukocyte and endothelial adhesion. 

About Paul Hickey

Paul Hickey received his MD degree from Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons. He completed an internship and residency in surgery at Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center, a fellowship in cardiac surgery at the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, and a residency in anesthesia and fellowship in cardiac anesthesia at Massachusetts General Hospital. Dr. Hickey is internationally and nationally considered a leading expert in pediatric cardiac anesthesia. He is a past Editor of the Journal of Anesthesia and Analgesia and the Journal of Cardiothoracic Anesthesia.


Publications powered by Harvard Catalyst Profiles
  1. Zgleszewski SE, Graham DA, Hickey PR, Brustowicz RM, Odegard KC, Koka R, Seefelder C, Navedo AT, Randolph AG. Anesthesiologist- and System-Related Risk Factors for Risk-Adjusted Pediatric Anesthesia-Related Cardiac Arrest. Anesth Analg. 2016 Feb; 122(2):482-9.
  2. Forman SA, Miller KW, Talmor D, Hickey P, Strichartz G, Wiener-Kronish J. Research at the Harvard Anesthesia Departments. Anesthesiology. 2014 Dec; 121(6):1141-3.
  3. McCann ME, Schouten AN, Dobija N, Munoz C, Stephenson L, Poussaint TY, Kalkman CJ, Hickey PR, de Vries LS, Tasker RC. Infantile postoperative encephalopathy: perioperative factors as a cause for concern. Pediatrics. 2014 Mar; 133(3):e751-7.
  4. Mason KP, Zurakowski D, Zgleszewski SE, Robson CD, Carrier M, Hickey PR, Dinardo JA. High dose dexmedetomidine as the sole sedative for pediatric MRI. Paediatr Anaesth. 2008 May; 18(5):403-11.
  5. Odegard KC, DiNardo JA, Kussman BD, Shukla A, Harrington J, Casta A, McGowan FX, Hickey PR, Bacha EA, Thiagarajan RR, Laussen PC. The frequency of anesthesia-related cardiac arrests in patients with congenital heart disease undergoing cardiac surgery. Anesth Analg. 2007 Aug; 105(2):335-43.
  6. Soriano SG, Anand KJ, Rovnaghi CR, Hickey PR. Of mice and men: should we extrapolate rodent experimental data to the care of human neonates? Anesthesiology. 2005 Apr; 102(4):866-8; author reply 868-9.
  7. de Ferranti S, Gauvreau K, Hickey PR, Jonas RA, Wypij D, du Plessis A, Bellinger DC, Kuban K, Newburger JW, Laussen PC. Intraoperative hyperglycemia during infant cardiac surgery is not associated with adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes at 1, 4, and 8 years. Anesthesiology. 2004 Jun; 100(6):1345-52.
  8. Tabbutt S, Newburger JW, Hickey PR, Mayer JE, Neufeld EJ. Time course of early induction of intracellular adhesion molecule-1 messenger RNA during reperfusion, following cardiopulmonary bypass with hypothermic circulatory arrest in lambs. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2003 Jan; 4(1):83-8.
  9. Gruber EM, Laussen PC, Casta A, Zimmerman AA, Zurakowski D, Reid R, Odegard KC, Chakravorti S, Davis PJ, McGowan FX, Hickey PR, Hansen DD. Stress response in infants undergoing cardiac surgery: a randomized study of fentanyl bolus, fentanyl infusion, and fentanyl-midazolam infusion. Anesth Analg. 2001 Apr; 92(4):882-90.
  10. Schermerhorn ML, Tofukuji M, Khoury PR, Phillips L, Hickey PR, Sellke FW, Mayer JE, Nelson DP. Sialyl lewis oligosaccharide preserves cardiopulmonary and endothelial function after hypothermic circulatory arrest in lambs. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2000 Aug; 120(2):230-7.
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  12. Gruber EM, Shukla AC, Reid RW, Hickey PR, Hansen DD. Synthetic antifibrinolytics are not associated with an increased incidence of baffle fenestration closure after the modified Fontan procedure. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2000 Jun; 14(3):257-9.
  13. Bellinger DC, Wypij D, Kuban KC, Rappaport LA, Hickey PR, Wernovsky G, Jonas RA, Newburger JW. Developmental and neurological status of children at 4 years of age after heart surgery with hypothermic circulatory arrest or low-flow cardiopulmonary bypass. Circulation. 1999 Aug 03; 100(5):526-32.
  14. Soriano SG, Coxon A, Wang YF, Frosch MP, Lipton SA, Hickey PR, Mayadas TN. Mice deficient in Mac-1 (CD11b/CD18) are less susceptible to cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. Stroke. 1999 Jan; 30(1):134-9.
  15. Nagashima M, Shin'oka T, Nollert G, Shum-Tim D, Hickey PR, Roth SJ, Kirchhoff A, Springer TA, Burke PR, Mayer JE. Effects of a monoclonal antibody to P-selectin on recovery of neonatal lamb hearts after cold cardioplegic ischemia. Circulation. 1998 Nov 10; 98(19 Suppl):II391-7; discussion II397-8.
  16. Hickey PR. Neurologic sequelae associated with deep hypothermic circulatory arrest. Ann Thorac Surg. 1998 Jun; 65(6 Suppl):S65-9; discussion S69-70, S74-6.
  17. Soriano SG, Wang YF, Lipton SA, Dikkes P, Gutierrez-Ramos JC, Hickey PR. ICAM-1 dependent pathway is not involved in the development of neuronal apoptosis after transient focal cerebral ischemia. Brain Res. 1998 Jan 12; 780(2):337-41.
  18. du Plessis AJ, Jonas RA, Wypij D, Hickey PR, Riviello J, Wessel DL, Roth SJ, Burrows FA, Walter G, Farrell DM, Walsh AZ, Plumb CA, del Nido P, Burke RP, Castaneda AR, Mayer JE, Newburger JW. Perioperative effects of alpha-stat versus pH-stat strategies for deep hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass in infants. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1997 Dec; 114(6):991-1000; discussion 1000-1.
  19. Blume ED, Nelson DP, Gauvreau K, Walsh AZ, Plumb C, Neufeld EJ, Hickey PR, Mayer JE, Newburger JW. Soluble adhesion molecules in infants and children undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass. Circulation. 1997 Nov 04; 96(9 Suppl):II-352-7.
  20. Zünd G, Uezono S, Stahl GL, Dzus AL, McGowan FX, Hickey PR, Colgan SP. Hypoxia enhances induction of endothelial ICAM-1: role for metabolic acidosis and proteasomes. Am J Physiol. 1997 Nov; 273(5 Pt 1):C1571-80.
  21. Zimmerman AA, Burrows FA, Jonas RA, Hickey PR. The limits of detectable cerebral perfusion by transcranial Doppler sonography in neonates undergoing deep hypothermic low-flow cardiopulmonary bypass. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1997 Oct; 114(4):594-600.
  22. Tabbutt S, Nelson DP, Tsai N, Miura T, Hickey PR, Mayer JE, Neufeld EJ. Induction of aquaporin-1 mRNA following cardiopulmonary bypass and reperfusion. Mol Med. 1997 Sep; 3(9):600-9.
  23. Fox ML, Burrows FA, Reid RW, Hickey PR, Laussen PC, Hansen DD. The influence of cardiopulmonary bypass on ionized magnesium in neonates, infants, and children undergoing repair of congenital heart lesions. Anesth Analg. 1997 Mar; 84(3):497-500.
  24. Helmers SL, Wypij D, Constantinou JE, Newburger JW, Hickey PR, Carrazana EJ, Barlow JK, Kuban KC, Holmes GL. Perioperative electroencephalographic seizures in infants undergoing repair of complex congenital cardiac defects. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol. 1997 Jan; 102(1):27-36.
  25. Miura T, Nelson DP, Schermerhorn ML, Shin'oka T, Zund G, Hickey PR, Neufeld EJ, Mayer JE. Blockade of selectin-mediated leukocyte adhesion improves postischemic function in lamb hearts. Ann Thorac Surg. 1996 Nov; 62(5):1295-300.
  26. Soriano SG, Lipton SA, Wang YF, Xiao M, Springer TA, Gutierrez-Ramos JC, Hickey PR. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1-deficient mice are less susceptible to cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury. Ann Neurol. 1996 May; 39(5):618-24.
  27. Laussen PC, Reid RW, Stene RA, Pare DS, Hickey PR, Jonas RA, Freed MD. Tracheal extubation of children in the operating room after atrial septal defect repair as part of a clinical practice guideline. Anesth Analg. 1996 May; 82(5):988-93.
  28. du Plessis AJ, Newburger J, Hickey P, Jonas RA, Volpe JJ. Cerebral oxygenation during hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass: clinical findings support mathematical model. Anesthesiology. 1996 Apr; 84(4):1008-9.
  29. Hickey PR, McGowan FX. Adhesion molecules and inflammation: the next targets for perioperative organ protection? Anesth Analg. 1995 Dec; 81(6):1123-4.
  30. Kern FH, Ungerleider RM, Schulman SR, Meliones JN, Schell RM, Baldwin B, Hickey PR, Newman MF, Jonas RA, Greeley WJ. Comparing two strategies of cardiopulmonary bypass cooling on jugular venous oxygen saturation in neonates and infants. Ann Thorac Surg. 1995 Nov; 60(5):1198-202.
  31. Wernovsky G, Wypij D, Jonas RA, Mayer JE, Hanley FL, Hickey PR, Walsh AZ, Chang AC, Castañeda AR, Newburger JW, Wessel DL. Postoperative course and hemodynamic profile after the arterial switch operation in neonates and infants. A comparison of low-flow cardiopulmonary bypass and circulatory arrest. Circulation. 1995 Oct 15; 92(8):2226-35.
  32. Aoki M, Jonas RA, Nomura F, Kawata H, Hickey PR. Anti-CD18 attenuates deleterious effects of cardiopulmonary bypass and hypothermic circulatory arrest in piglets. J Card Surg. 1995 Jul; 10(4 Suppl):407-17.
  33. McManus ML, Kevy SV, Bower LK, Hickey PR. Coagulation factor deficiencies during initiation of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. J Pediatr. 1995 Jun; 126(6):900-4.
  34. Laussen PC, Hansen DD, Perry SB, Fox ML, Javorski JJ, Burrows FA, Lock JE, Hickey PR. Transcatheter closure of ventricular septal defects: hemodynamic instability and anesthetic management. Anesth Analg. 1995 Jun; 80(6):1076-82.
  35. du Plessis AJ, Newburger J, Jonas RA, Hickey P, Naruse H, Tsuji M, Walsh A, Walter G, Wypij D, Volpe JJ. Cerebral oxygen supply and utilization during infant cardiac surgery. Ann Neurol. 1995 Apr; 37(4):488-97.
  36. Bellinger DC, Jonas RA, Rappaport LA, Wypij D, Wernovsky G, Kuban KC, Barnes PD, Holmes GL, Hickey PR, Strand RD, et al. Developmental and neurologic status of children after heart surgery with hypothermic circulatory arrest or low-flow cardiopulmonary bypass. N Engl J Med. 1995 Mar 02; 332(9):549-55.
  37. Chang AC, Zucker HA, Hickey PR, Wessel DL. Pulmonary vascular resistance in infants after cardiac surgery: role of carbon dioxide and hydrogen ion. Crit Care Med. 1995 Mar; 23(3):568-74.
  38. Aoki M, Jonas RA, Nomura F, Stromski ME, Tsuji MK, Hickey PR, Holtzman D. Effects of cerebroplegic solutions during hypothermic circulatory arrest and short-term recovery. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1994 Aug; 108(2):291-301.
  39. Aoki M, Jonas RA, Nomura F, Stromski ME, Tsuji MK, Hickey PR, Holtzman DH. Effects of aprotinin on acute recovery of cerebral metabolism in piglets after hypothermic circulatory arrest. Ann Thorac Surg. 1994 Jul; 58(1):146-53.
  40. Wessel DL, Adatia I, Thompson JE, Hickey PR. Delivery and monitoring of inhaled nitric oxide in patients with pulmonary hypertension. Crit Care Med. 1994 Jun; 22(6):930-8.
  41. Kilbridge PM, Mayer JE, Newburger JW, Hickey PR, Walsh AZ, Neufeld EJ. Induction of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and E-selectin mRNA in heart and skeletal muscle of pediatric patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1994 May; 107(5):1183-92.
  42. du Plessis AJ, Treves ST, Hickey PR, O'Tuama L, Barlow CF, Costello J, Castaneda AR, Wessel DL. Regional cerebral perfusion abnormalities after cardiac operations. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) findings in children with postoperative movement disorders. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1994 Apr; 107(4):1036-43.
  43. Aoki M, Nomura F, Stromski ME, Tsuji MK, Fackler JC, Hickey PR, Holtzman D, Jonas RA. Effects of MK-801 and NBQX on acute recovery of piglet cerebral metabolism after hypothermic circulatory arrest. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 1994 Jan; 14(1):156-65.
  44. Musumeci R, Hickey PR. Anesthesia in a neonate with tamponade due to massive pericardial effusion. Anesth Analg. 1994 Jan; 78(1):169-71.
  45. Newburger JW, Jonas RA, Wernovsky G, Wypij D, Hickey PR, Kuban KC, Farrell DM, Holmes GL, Helmers SL, Constantinou J, Carrazana E, Barlow JK, Walsh AZ, Lucius KC, Share JC, Wessel DL, Hanley FL, Mayer JE, Costaneda AR, Ware JH, et al. A comparison of the perioperative neurologic effects of hypothermic circulatory arrest versus low-flow cardiopulmonary bypass in infant heart surgery. N Engl J Med. 1993 Oct 07; 329(15):1057-64.
  46. Kawata H, Fackler JC, Aoki M, Tsuji MK, Sawatari K, Offutt M, Hickey PR, Holtzman D, Jonas RA. Recovery of cerebral blood flow and energy state in piglets after hypothermic circulatory arrest versus recovery after low-flow bypass. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1993 Oct; 106(4):671-85.
  47. Chang AC, Kulik TJ, Hickey PR, Wessel DL. Real-time gas-exchange measurement of oxygen consumption in neonates and infants after cardiac surgery. Crit Care Med. 1993 Sep; 21(9):1369-75.
  48. Jonas RA, Bellinger DC, Rappaport LA, Wernovsky G, Hickey PR, Farrell DM, Newburger JW. Relation of pH strategy and developmental outcome after hypothermic circulatory arrest. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1993 Aug; 106(2):362-8.
  49. Aoki M, Nomura F, Stromski ME, Tsuji MK, Fackler JC, Hickey PR, Holtzman DH, Jonas RA. Effects of pH on brain energetics after hypothermic circulatory arrest. Ann Thorac Surg. 1993 May; 55(5):1093-103.
  50. Hickey PR, Mayer JE. Anti-CD18 attenuates myocardial stunning in the isolated neonatal lamb heart. J Card Surg. 1993 Mar; 8(2 Suppl):313-5.
  51. Hickey PR, Retzack SM. Acute right ventricular failure after pulmonary hypertensive responses to airway instrumentation: effect of fentanyl dose. Anesthesiology. 1993 Feb; 78(2):372-6.
  52. Kawata H, Aoki M, Hickey PR, Mayer JE. Effect of antibody to leukocyte adhesion molecule CD18 on recovery of neonatal lamb hearts after 2 hours of cold ischemia. Circulation. 1992 Nov; 86(5 Suppl):II364-70.
  53. Wong PC, Barlow CF, Hickey PR, Jonas RA, Castaneda AR, Farrell DM, Lock JE, Wessel DL. Factors associated with choreoathetosis after cardiopulmonary bypass in children with congenital heart disease. Circulation. 1992 Nov; 86(5 Suppl):II118-26.
  54. Kern FH, Jonas RA, Mayer JE, Hanley FL, Castaneda AR, Hickey PR. Temperature monitoring during CPB in infants: does it predict efficient brain cooling? Ann Thorac Surg. 1992 Oct; 54(4):749-54.
  55. Hickey PR. Transesophageal echocardiography in pediatric cardiac surgery. Anesthesiology. 1992 Sep; 77(3):610-1.
  56. Kern FH, Morana NJ, Sears JJ, Hickey PR. Coagulation defects in neonates during cardiopulmonary bypass. Ann Thorac Surg. 1992 Sep; 54(3):541-6.
  57. Anand KJ, Hickey PR. Halothane-morphine compared with high-dose sufentanil for anesthesia and postoperative analgesia in neonatal cardiac surgery. N Engl J Med. 1992 Jan 02; 326(1):1-9.
  58. Hickey PR, Wessel DL, Streitz SL, Fox ML, Kern FH, Bridges ND, Hansen DD. Transcatheter closure of atrial septal defects: hemodynamic complications and anesthetic management. Anesth Analg. 1992 Jan; 74(1):44-50.
  59. Hickey PR. Cardiac dysrhythmias in pediatric patients during anesthesia and the role of oximetry and capnography. Anesth Analg. 1991 Dec; 73(6):686-8.
  60. Hickey PR. Pro: deep hypothermic circulatory arrest is preferable to low-flow bypass. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 1991 Dec; 5(6):635-7.
  61. Hickey PR, Hansen DD. High-dose fentanyl reduces intraoperative ventricular fibrillation in neonates with hypoplastic left heart syndrome. J Clin Anesth. 1991 Jul-Aug; 3(4):295-300.
  62. Bellinger DC, Wernovsky G, Rappaport LA, Mayer JE, Castaneda AR, Farrell DM, Wessel DL, Lang P, Hickey PR, Jonas RA, et al. Cognitive development of children following early repair of transposition of the great arteries using deep hypothermic circulatory arrest. Pediatrics. 1991 May; 87(5):701-7.
  63. Jonas RA, Hickey P. Invited letter concerning: No flow during cardiopulmonary bypass. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1991 Feb; 101(2):364-5.
  64. Anand KJ, Hansen DD, Hickey PR. Hormonal-metabolic stress responses in neonates undergoing cardiac surgery. Anesthesiology. 1990 Oct; 73(4):661-70.
  65. Castaneda AR, Mayer JE, Jonas RA, Lock JE, Wessel DL, Hickey PR. The neonate with critical congenital heart disease: repair--a surgical challenge. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1989 Nov; 98(5 Pt 2):869-75.
  66. Hickey PR. Perioperative cardiovascular collapse in a patient previously treated with doxorubicin. Anesth Analg. 1989 Jul; 69(1):138-9.
  67. Perry SB, McAuliffe J, Balschi JA, Hickey PR, Ingwall JS. Velocity of the creatine kinase reaction in the neonatal rabbit heart: role of mitochondrial creatine kinase. Biochemistry. 1988 Mar 22; 27(6):2165-72.
  68. Benca JF, Hickey PR, Dornbusch JN, Koka BV, McGill TJ, Jonas R. Ventilatory management assisted by cardiopulmonary bypass for distal tracheal reconstruction in a neonate. Anesthesiology. 1988 Feb; 68(2):270-1.
  69. Anand KJ, Hickey PR. Pain and its effects in the human neonate and fetus. N Engl J Med. 1987 Nov 19; 317(21):1321-9.
  70. McAuliffe JJ, Hickey PR. The effect of halothane on the steady-state levels of high-energy phosphates in the neonatal heart. Anesthesiology. 1987 Aug; 67(2):231-5.
  71. Hickey PR, Andersen NP. Deep hypothermic circulatory arrest: a review of pathophysiology and clinical experience as a basis for anesthetic management. J Cardiothorac Anesth. 1987 Apr; 1(2):137-55.
  72. Hickey PR, Hansen DD, Strafford M, Thompson JE, Jonas RE, Mayer JE. Pulmonary and systemic hemodynamic effects of nitrous oxide in infants with normal and elevated pulmonary vascular resistance. Anesthesiology. 1986 Oct; 65(4):374-8.
  73. Jonas RA, Lang P, Hansen D, Hickey P, Castaneda AR. First-stage palliation of hypoplastic left heart syndrome. The importance of coarctation and shunt size. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1986 Jul; 92(1):6-13.
  74. Hickey PR. Intraoperative tension pneumopericardium with tamponade after ligation of patent ductus arteriosus in a premature neonate. Anesthesiology. 1986 May; 64(5):641-3.
  75. Hansen DD, Hickey PR. Anesthesia for hypoplastic left heart syndrome: use of high-dose fentanyl in 30 neonates. Anesth Analg. 1986 Feb; 65(2):127-32.
  76. Hickey PR, Hansen DD, Wessel DL, Lang P, Jonas RA, Elixson EM. Blunting of stress responses in the pulmonary circulation of infants by fentanyl. Anesth Analg. 1985 Dec; 64(12):1137-42.
  77. Hickey PR. Deep hypothermic circulatory arrest: current status and future directions. Mt Sinai J Med. 1985 Sep; 52(7):541-7.
  78. Hickey PR, Hansen DD, Wessel DL, Lang P, Jonas RA. Pulmonary and systemic hemodynamic responses to fentanyl in infants. Anesth Analg. 1985 May; 64(5):483-6.
  79. Hickey PR, Hansen DD, Cramolini GM, Vincent RN, Lang P. Pulmonary and systemic hemodynamic responses to ketamine in infants with normal and elevated pulmonary vascular resistance. Anesthesiology. 1985 Mar; 62(3):287-93.
  80. Hickey PR, Hansen DD, Norwood WI, Castaneda AR. Anesthetic complications in surgery for congenital heart disease. Anesth Analg. 1984 Jul; 63(7):657-64.
  81. Hickey PR, Hansen DD. Fentanyl- and sufentanil-oxygen-pancuronium anesthesia for cardiac surgery in infants. Anesth Analg. 1984 Feb; 63(2):117-24.
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