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Frederick  Alt, PhD

Frederick Alt PhD
Lab:
Alt Laboratory
Program:
Program in Cellular and Molecular Medicine (PCMM)
Department:
Medicine Research
Division
Overview
Hospital Title:
Director, Program in Cellular and Molecular Medicine/Immune Disease Institute
Academic Title:
Charles A. Janeway Professor of Pediatrics, Harvard Medical School
Research Focus Area:
Genomic instability
Contact Via Email
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Research Overview

The broad focus of the Alt lab is the elucidation of mechanisms that generate antigen receptor diversity in the Immune system and mechanisms that maintain genomic stability in mammalian cells. More specifically, the lab studies V(D)J recombination in developing B and T lymphocytes and IgH heavy chain class switch recombination (CSR) and somatic hypermutation in mature B lymphocytes. Studies of these processes employ biochemical approaches to elucidate molecular mechanisms by which the RAG endonuclease and Activation Induced Cytidine Deaminase function on DNA to initiate, respectively, VDJ recombination and CSR. As one example, our recent studies showed a role for the RNA exosome in targeting AID to both strands of duplex DNA. Other studies focus on the elucidation of genetic and epigenetic chromosomal processes that regulate how RAG and AID are targeted to their specific chromosomal DNA substrates. In this regard, our recent work defined a control region, termed IGCR1, in the IgH locus that regulates proximal versus distal VH usage, lineage-specificity, ordered assembly of VH, D, and JH segments and feedback regulation/allelic exclusion. New studies focus on the use of novel mouse models and various types of high throughput genomic studies to elucidate how AID is targeted during CSR versus SHM in germinal center B cells and to define factors (e.g. sequence motifs, transcription patterns) that generate off-target AID activity during these processes. Other studies are aimed at elucidating roles of general DNA double strand break (DSB) repair and response pathways in VDJ recombination and CSR, and the interplay of DSB repair and response pathways in suppressing genomic instability and cancer. A major new lab research area focuses on how organization of the genome in the nucleus influences programmed gene rearrangements and chromosomal translocations. For this purpose, we have developed high throughput genomic translocation sequencing strategies to identify the translocations genome wide that can arise from fixed DSBs. This approach also identifies sites of endogenous genomic DSBs including RAG or AID off-target sequences and transcription start sites. Our goal is to establish the contribution of mechanistic elements (three dimensional genome organization, DSBs, transcription, epigenetic modifications, repair pathways, etc.) that contribute to the formation of translocations and other forms of genomic instability in mouse and human cells.

About Fred Alt

Dr. Alt received his Ph.D. in Biology from Stanford University in 1977 with Robert Schimke and he did his postdoctoral work at MIT with David Baltimore.  He was a Professor at Columbia University from 1982-1991, where he became an HHMI Investigator in 1987.  In 1991, Dr. Alt moved to Harvard Medical School as a Professor of Genetics and Pediatrics, an HHMI Investigator at Boston Children's Hospital and a Senior Investigator at the Immune Disease Institute.  He was appointed Charles A. Janeway Professor of Pediatrics in 1993 and Scientific Director of the Immune Disease Institute in 2005.  He became Director of the Immune Disease Institute and Program in Cellular and Molecular Medicine of Children's Hospital in 2009  and President of the Immune Disease Institute in 2010.  Dr. Alt has been elected to the U.S. National Academy of Sciences, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the American Academy of Microbiology, and the European Molecular Biology Organization.  He has received the Clowes Memorial Award from the American Association of Cancer Research; the Rabbi Shai Shacknai Prize from The Hebrew University, the Pasarow Foundation Prize for Extraordinary Achievement in Cancer Research, the Leukemia & Lymphoma Society de Villiers International Achievement Award, the Irvington Institute Immunology Award, the National Cancer Institute Alfred K. Knudson Award for pioneering contributions that have revolutionized the field of Cancer Genetics, the American Association of Immunologists AAI-Huang Meritorious Career Award, the William B. Coley Award from the Cancer Research Institute, and the Novartis Basic Immunology Prize for his discoveries on B cell development and antigen responses. 

Dr. Alt has mentored over 100 students and research fellows, many of whom have become leaders in immunology, genetics, or cancer biology and has received the American Association of Immunologists Excellence in Mentoring Award.  The Cancer Research Institute (New York) annually presents the Frederick W. Alt Award for New Discoveries in Immunology.

Publications

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  1. Compagno M, Wang Q, Pighi C, Cheong TC, Meng FL, Poggio T, Yeap LS, Karaca E, Blasco RB, Langellotto F, Ambrogio C, Voena C, Wiestner A, Kasar SN, Brown JR, Sun J, Wu CJ, Gostissa M, Alt FW, Chiarle R. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase d blockade increases genomic instability in B cells. Nature. 2017 02 23; 542(7642):489-493.
  2. Verkoczy L, Alt FW, Tian M. Human Ig knockin mice to study the development and regulation of HIV-1 broadly neutralizing antibodies. Immunol Rev. 2017 Jan; 275(1):89-107.
  3. Chen L, Zhao L, Alt FW, Krangel MS. An Ectopic CTCF Binding Element Inhibits Tcrd Rearrangement by Limiting Contact between Vd and Dd Gene Segments. J Immunol. 2016 Oct 15; 197(8):3188-3197.
  4. Tian M, Cheng C, Chen X, Duan H, Cheng HL, Dao M, Sheng Z, Kimble M, Wang L, Lin S, Schmidt SD, Du Z, Joyce MG, Chen Y, DeKosky BJ, Chen Y, Normandin E, Cantor E, Chen RE, Doria-Rose NA, Zhang Y, Shi W, Kong WP, Choe M, Henry AR, Laboune F, Georgiev IS, Huang PY, Jain S, McGuire AT, Georgeson E, Menis S, Douek DC, Schief WR, Stamatatos L, Kwong PD, Shapiro L, Haynes BF, Mascola JR, Alt FW. Induction of HIV Neutralizing Antibody Lineages in Mice with Diverse Precursor Repertoires. Cell. 2016 Sep 08; 166(6):1471-1484.e18.
  5. Kumar V, Alt FW, Frock RL. PAXX and XLF DNA repair factors are functionally redundant in joining DNA breaks in a G1-arrested progenitor B-cell line. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016 Sep 20; 113(38):10619-24.
  6. Zhao L, Frock RL, Du Z, Hu J, Chen L, Krangel MS, Alt FW. Orientation-specific RAG activity in chromosomal loop domains contributes to Tcrd V(D)J recombination during T cell development. J Exp Med. 2016 Aug 22; 213(9):1921-36.
  7. Lin SG, Ba Z, Du Z, Zhang Y, Hu J, Alt FW. Highly sensitive and unbiased approach for elucidating antibody repertoires. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016 Jul 12; 113(28):7846-51.
  8. Bank I, DePinho RA, Brenner MB, Cassimeris J, Alt FW, Chess L. Pillars Article: A Functional T3 Molecule Associated with a Novel Heterodimer on the Surface of Immature Human Thymocytes. Nature. 1986. 322: 179-181. J Immunol. 2016 May 01; 196(9):3514-6.
  9. Hu J, Meyers RM, Dong J, Panchakshari RA, Alt FW, Frock RL. Detecting DNA double-stranded breaks in mammalian genomes by linear amplification-mediated high-throughput genome-wide translocation sequencing. Nat Protoc. 2016 May; 11(5):853-71.
  10. Schwer B, Wei PC, Chang AN, Kao J, Du Z, Meyers RM, Alt FW. Transcription-associated processes cause DNA double-strand breaks and translocations in neural stem/progenitor cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016 Feb 23; 113(8):2258-63.
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  12. Wei PC, Chang AN, Kao J, Du Z, Meyers RM, Alt FW, Schwer B. Long Neural Genes Harbor Recurrent DNA Break Clusters in Neural Stem/Progenitor Cells. Cell. 2016 Feb 11; 164(4):644-55.
  13. Garot A, Marquet M, Saintamand A, Bender S, Le Noir S, Rouaud P, Carrion C, Oruc Z, Bébin AG, Moreau J, Lebrigand K, Denizot Y, Alt FW, Cogné M, Pinaud E. Sequential activation and distinct functions for distal and proximal modules within the IgH 3' regulatory region. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016 Feb 09; 113(6):1618-23.
  14. Yeap LS, Hwang JK, Du Z, Meyers RM, Meng FL, Jakubauskaite A, Liu M, Mani V, Neuberg D, Kepler TB, Wang JH, Alt FW. Sequence-Intrinsic Mechanisms that Target AID Mutational Outcomes on Antibody Genes. Cell. 2015 Nov 19; 163(5):1124-37.
  15. Hu J, Zhang Y, Zhao L, Frock RL, Du Z, Meyers RM, Meng FL, Schatz DG, Alt FW. Chromosomal Loop Domains Direct the Recombination of Antigen Receptor Genes. Cell. 2015 Nov 05; 163(4):947-59.
  16. Dong J, Panchakshari RA, Zhang T, Zhang Y, Hu J, Volpi SA, Meyers RM, Ho YJ, Du Z, Robbiani DF, Meng F, Gostissa M, Nussenzweig MC, Manis JP, Alt FW. Orientation-specific joining of AID-initiated DNA breaks promotes antibody class switching. Nature. 2015 Sep 03; 525(7567):134-9.
  17. Ba Z, Meng FL, Gostissa M, Huang PY, Ke Q, Wang Z, Dao MN, Fujiwara Y, Rajewsky K, Zhang B, Alt FW. A Rapid Embryonic Stem Cell-Based Mouse Model for B-cell Lymphomas Driven by Epstein-Barr Virus Protein LMP1. Cancer Immunol Res. 2015 Jun; 3(6):641-9.
  18. Zhang B, Calado DP, Wang Z, Fröhler S, Köchert K, Qian Y, Koralov SB, Schmidt-Supprian M, Sasaki Y, Unitt C, Rodig S, Chen W, Dalla-Favera R, Alt FW, Pasqualucci L, Rajewsky K. An oncogenic role for alternative NF-?B signaling in DLBCL revealed upon deregulated BCL6 expression. Cell Rep. 2015 May 05; 11(5):715-26.
  19. Jiang W, Lee BJ, Li C, Dubois RL, Gostissa M, Alt FW, Zha S. Aberrant TCRd rearrangement underlies the T-cell lymphocytopenia and t(12;14) translocation associated with ATM deficiency. Blood. 2015 Apr 23; 125(17):2665-8.
  20. Hwang JK, Alt FW, Yeap LS. Related Mechanisms of Antibody Somatic Hypermutation and Class Switch Recombination. Microbiol Spectr. 2015 Feb; 3(1):MDNA3-0037-2014.
  21. Lin SG, Guo C, Su A, Zhang Y, Alt FW. CTCF-binding elements 1 and 2 in the Igh intergenic control region cooperatively regulate V(D)J recombination. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015 Feb 10; 112(6):1815-20.
  22. Frock RL, Hu J, Meyers RM, Ho YJ, Kii E, Alt FW. Genome-wide detection of DNA double-stranded breaks induced by engineered nucleases. Nat Biotechnol. 2015 Feb; 33(2):179-86.
  23. Meng FL, Du Z, Federation A, Hu J, Wang Q, Kieffer-Kwon KR, Meyers RM, Amor C, Wasserman CR, Neuberg D, Casellas R, Nussenzweig MC, Bradner JE, Liu XS, Alt FW. Convergent transcription at intragenic super-enhancers targets AID-initiated genomic instability. Cell. 2014 Dec 18; 159(7):1538-48.
  24. Hu J, Tepsuporn S, Meyers RM, Gostissa M, Alt FW. Developmental propagation of V(D)J recombination-associated DNA breaks and translocations in mature B cells via dicentric chromosomes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014 Jul 15; 111(28):10269-74.
  25. Tepsuporn S, Hu J, Gostissa M, Alt FW. Mechanisms that can promote peripheral B-cell lymphoma in ATM-deficient mice. Cancer Immunol Res. 2014 Sep; 2(9):857-66.
  26. Kumar V, Alt FW, Oksenych V. Reprint of "Functional overlaps between XLF and the ATM-dependent DNA double strand break response". DNA Repair (Amst). 2014 May; 17:52-63.
  27. Macdonald LE, Karow M, Stevens S, Auerbach W, Poueymirou WT, Yasenchak J, Frendewey D, Valenzuela DM, Giallourakis CC, Alt FW, Yancopoulos GD, Murphy AJ. Precise and in situ genetic humanization of 6 Mb of mouse immunoglobulin genes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014 Apr 08; 111(14):5147-52.
  28. Kumar V, Alt FW, Oksenych V. Functional overlaps between XLF and the ATM-dependent DNA double strand break response. DNA Repair (Amst). 2014 Apr; 16:11-22.
  29. Gostissa M, Schwer B, Chang A, Dong J, Meyers RM, Marecki GT, Choi VW, Chiarle R, Zarrin AA, Alt FW. IgH class switching exploits a general property of two DNA breaks to be joined in cis over long chromosomal distances. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014 Feb 18; 111(7):2644-9.
  30. Alt F, Reth M. Michael Neuberger (1953-2013). Immunity. 2013 Dec 12; 39(6):987-8.
  31. Lee YN, Frugoni F, Dobbs K, Walter JE, Giliani S, Gennery AR, Al-Herz W, Haddad E, LeDeist F, Bleesing JH, Henderson LA, Pai SY, Nelson RP, El-Ghoneimy DH, El-Feky RA, Reda SM, Hossny E, Soler-Palacin P, Fuleihan RL, Patel NC, Massaad MJ, Geha RS, Puck JM, Palma P, Cancrini C, Chen K, Vihinen M, Alt FW, Notarangelo LD. A systematic analysis of recombination activity and genotype-phenotype correlation in human recombination-activating gene 1 deficiency. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2014 Apr; 133(4):1099-108.
  32. Shin J, He M, Liu Y, Paredes S, Villanova L, Brown K, Qiu X, Nabavi N, Mohrin M, Wojnoonski K, Li P, Cheng HL, Murphy AJ, Valenzuela DM, Luo H, Kapahi P, Krauss R, Mostoslavsky R, Yancopoulos GD, Alt FW, Chua KF, Chen D. SIRT7 represses Myc activity to suppress ER stress and prevent fatty liver disease. Cell Rep. 2013 Nov 14; 5(3):654-65.
  33. Dougan SK, Ashour J, Karssemeijer RA, Popp MW, Avalos AM, Barisa M, Altenburg AF, Ingram JR, Cragnolini JJ, Guo C, Alt FW, Jaenisch R, Ploegh HL. Antigen-specific B-cell receptor sensitizes B cells to infection by influenza virus. Nature. 2013 Nov 21; 503(7476):406-9.
  34. Medvedovic J, Ebert A, Tagoh H, Tamir IM, Schwickert TA, Novatchkova M, Sun Q, Huis In 't Veld PJ, Guo C, Yoon HS, Denizot Y, Holwerda SJ, de Laat W, Cogné M, Shi Y, Alt FW, Busslinger M. Flexible long-range loops in the VH gene region of the Igh locus facilitate the generation of a diverse antibody repertoire. Immunity. 2013 Aug 22; 39(2):229-44.
  35. Wesemann DR, Portuguese AJ, Meyers RM, Gallagher MP, Cluff-Jones K, Magee JM, Panchakshari RA, Rodig SJ, Kepler TB, Alt FW. Microbial colonization influences early B-lineage development in the gut lamina propria. Nature. 2013 Sep 05; 501(7465):112-5.
  36. Callen E, Di Virgilio M, Kruhlak MJ, Nieto-Soler M, Wong N, Chen HT, Faryabi RB, Polato F, Santos M, Starnes LM, Wesemann DR, Lee JE, Tubbs A, Sleckman BP, Daniel JA, Ge K, Alt FW, Fernandez-Capetillo O, Nussenzweig MC, Nussenzweig A. 53BP1 mediates productive and mutagenic DNA repair through distinct phosphoprotein interactions. Cell. 2013 Jun 06; 153(6):1266-80.
  37. Alt F, Almouzni G. Genome architecture and expression. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2013 Apr; 23(2):79-80.
  38. Shi W, Bain AL, Schwer B, Al-Ejeh F, Smith C, Wong L, Chai H, Miranda MS, Ho U, Kawaguchi M, Miura Y, Finnie JW, Wall M, Heierhorst J, Wicking C, Spring KJ, Alt FW, Khanna KK. Essential developmental, genomic stability, and tumour suppressor functions of the mouse orthologue of hSSB1/NABP2. PLoS Genet. 2013; 9(2):e1003298.
  39. Gostissa M, Bianco JM, Malkin DJ, Kutok JL, Rodig SJ, Morse HC, Bassing CH, Alt FW. Conditional inactivation of p53 in mature B cells promotes generation of nongerminal center-derived B-cell lymphomas. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 Feb 19; 110(8):2934-9.
  40. Alt FW, Zhang Y, Meng FL, Guo C, Schwer B. Mechanisms of programmed DNA lesions and genomic instability in the immune system. Cell. 2013 Jan 31; 152(3):417-29.
  41. Selimyan R, Gerstein RM, Ivanova I, Precht P, Subrahmanyam R, Perlot T, Alt FW, Sen R. Localized DNA demethylation at recombination intermediates during immunoglobulin heavy chain gene assembly. PLoS Biol. 2013; 11(1):e1001475.
  42. Rass E, Chandramouly G, Zha S, Alt FW, Xie A. Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) is dispensable for endonuclease I-SceI-induced homologous recombination in mouse embryonic stem cells. J Biol Chem. 2013 Mar 08; 288(10):7086-95.
  43. Oksenych V, Kumar V, Liu X, Guo C, Schwer B, Zha S, Alt FW. Functional redundancy between the XLF and DNA-PKcs DNA repair factors in V(D)J recombination and nonhomologous DNA end joining. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 Feb 05; 110(6):2234-9.
  44. Subrahmanyam R, Du H, Ivanova I, Chakraborty T, Ji Y, Zhang Y, Alt FW, Schatz DG, Sen R. Localized epigenetic changes induced by DH recombination restricts recombinase to DJH junctions. Nat Immunol. 2012 Dec; 13(12):1205-12.
  45. Garber JJ, Takeshima F, Antón IM, Oyoshi MK, Lyubimova A, Kapoor A, Shibata T, Chen F, Alt FW, Geha RS, Leong JM, Snapper SB. Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli and vaccinia virus do not require the family of WASP-interacting proteins for pathogen-induced actin assembly. Infect Immun. 2012 Dec; 80(12):4071-7.
  46. Wesemann DR, Portuguese AJ, Magee JM, Gallagher MP, Zhou X, Panchakshari RA, Alt FW. Reprogramming IgH isotype-switched B cells to functional-grade induced pluripotent stem cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 Aug 21; 109(34):13745-50.
  47. Westerberg LS, Dahlberg C, Baptista M, Moran CJ, Detre C, Keszei M, Eston MA, Alt FW, Terhorst C, Notarangelo LD, Snapper SB. Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP) and N-WASP are critical for peripheral B-cell development and function. Blood. 2012 Apr 26; 119(17):3966-74.
  48. Zhang Y, McCord RP, Ho YJ, Lajoie BR, Hildebrand DG, Simon AC, Becker MS, Alt FW, Dekker J. Spatial organization of the mouse genome and its role in recurrent chromosomal translocations. Cell. 2012 Mar 02; 148(5):908-21.
  49. Oksenych V, Alt FW, Kumar V, Schwer B, Wesemann DR, Hansen E, Patel H, Su A, Guo C. Functional redundancy between repair factor XLF and damage response mediator 53BP1 in V(D)J recombination and DNA repair. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 Feb 14; 109(7):2455-60.
  50. Boboila C, Oksenych V, Gostissa M, Wang JH, Zha S, Zhang Y, Chai H, Lee CS, Jankovic M, Saez LM, Nussenzweig MC, McKinnon PJ, Alt FW, Schwer B. Robust chromosomal DNA repair via alternative end-joining in the absence of X-ray repair cross-complementing protein 1 (XRCC1). Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 Feb 14; 109(7):2473-8.
  51. Boboila C, Alt FW, Schwer B. Classical and alternative end-joining pathways for repair of lymphocyte-specific and general DNA double-strand breaks. Adv Immunol. 2012; 116:1-49.
  52. Yancopoulos GD, Alt FW. Developmentally controlled and tissue-specific expression of unrearranged VH gene segments. Cell. 1985. 40: 271-281. J Immunol. 2012 Jan 01; 188(1):10-20.
  53. Wesemann DR, Magee JM, Boboila C, Calado DP, Gallagher MP, Portuguese AJ, Manis JP, Zhou X, Recher M, Rajewsky K, Notarangelo LD, Alt FW. Immature B cells preferentially switch to IgE with increased direct Sµ to Se recombination. J Exp Med. 2011 Dec 19; 208(13):2733-46.
  54. Hirschey MD, Shimazu T, Jing E, Grueter CA, Collins AM, Aouizerat B, Stancáková A, Goetzman E, Lam MM, Schwer B, Stevens RD, Muehlbauer MJ, Kakar S, Bass NM, Kuusisto J, Laakso M, Alt FW, Newgard CB, Farese RV, Kahn CR, Verdin E. SIRT3 deficiency and mitochondrial protein hyperacetylation accelerate the development of the metabolic syndrome. Mol Cell. 2011 Oct 21; 44(2):177-90.
  55. Chiarle R, Zhang Y, Frock RL, Lewis SM, Molinie B, Ho YJ, Myers DR, Choi VW, Compagno M, Malkin DJ, Neuberg D, Monti S, Giallourakis CC, Gostissa M, Alt FW. Genome-wide translocation sequencing reveals mechanisms of chromosome breaks and rearrangements in B cells. Cell. 2011 Sep 30; 147(1):107-19.
  56. Guo C, Yoon HS, Franklin A, Jain S, Ebert A, Cheng HL, Hansen E, Despo O, Bossen C, Vettermann C, Bates JG, Richards N, Myers D, Patel H, Gallagher M, Schlissel MS, Murre C, Busslinger M, Giallourakis CC, Alt FW. CTCF-binding elements mediate control of V(D)J recombination. Nature. 2011 Sep 11; 477(7365):424-30.
  57. Gutierrez A, Kentsis A, Sanda T, Holmfeldt L, Chen SC, Zhang J, Protopopov A, Chin L, Dahlberg SE, Neuberg DS, Silverman LB, Winter SS, Hunger SP, Sallan SE, Zha S, Alt FW, Downing JR, Mullighan CG, Look AT. The BCL11B tumor suppressor is mutated across the major molecular subtypes of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Blood. 2011 Oct 13; 118(15):4169-73.
  58. Jeevan-Raj BP, Robert I, Heyer V, Page A, Wang JH, Cammas F, Alt FW, Losson R, Reina-San-Martin B. Epigenetic tethering of AID to the donor switch region during immunoglobulin class switch recombination. J Exp Med. 2011 Aug 01; 208(8):1649-60.
  59. Ise W, Kohyama M, Schraml BU, Zhang T, Schwer B, Basu U, Alt FW, Tang J, Oltz EM, Murphy TL, Murphy KM. The transcription factor BATF controls the global regulators of class-switch recombination in both B cells and T cells. Nat Immunol. 2011 Jun; 12(6):536-43.
  60. Rucci F, Poliani PL, Caraffi S, Paganini T, Fontana E, Giliani S, Alt FW, Notarangelo LD. Abnormalities of thymic stroma may contribute to immune dysregulation in murine models of leaky severe combined immunodeficiency. Front Immunol. 2011 May 10; 2(15).
  61. Guo C, Alt FW, Giallourakis C. PAIRing for distal Igh locus V(D)J recombination. Immunity. 2011 Feb 25; 34(2):139-41.
  62. Green MR, Monti S, Dalla-Favera R, Pasqualucci L, Walsh NC, Schmidt-Supprian M, Kutok JL, Rodig SJ, Neuberg DS, Rajewsky K, Golub TR, Alt FW, Shipp MA, Manis JP. Signatures of murine B-cell development implicate Yy1 as a regulator of the germinal center-specific program. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011 Feb 15; 108(7):2873-8.
  63. Basu U, Meng FL, Keim C, Grinstein V, Pefanis E, Eccleston J, Zhang T, Myers D, Wasserman CR, Wesemann DR, Januszyk K, Gregory RI, Deng H, Lima CD, Alt FW. The RNA exosome targets the AID cytidine deaminase to both strands of transcribed duplex DNA substrates. Cell. 2011 Feb 04; 144(3):353-63.
  64. Zha S, Jiang W, Fujiwara Y, Patel H, Goff PH, Brush JW, Dubois RL, Alt FW. Ataxia telangiectasia-mutated protein and DNA-dependent protein kinase have complementary V(D)J recombination functions. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011 Feb 01; 108(5):2028-33.
  65. Eccleston J, Yan C, Yuan K, Alt FW, Selsing E. Mismatch repair proteins MSH2, MLH1, and EXO1 are important for class-switch recombination events occurring in B cells that lack nonhomologous end joining. J Immunol. 2011 Feb 15; 186(4):2336-43.
  66. Gostissa M, Alt FW, Chiarle R. Mechanisms that promote and suppress chromosomal translocations in lymphocytes. Annu Rev Immunol. 2011; 29:319-50.
  67. Zha S, Guo C, Boboila C, Oksenych V, Cheng HL, Zhang Y, Wesemann DR, Yuen G, Patel H, Goff PH, Dubois RL, Alt FW. ATM damage response and XLF repair factor are functionally redundant in joining DNA breaks. Nature. 2011 Jan 13; 469(7329):250-4.
  68. Shimazu T, Hirschey MD, Hua L, Dittenhafer-Reed KE, Schwer B, Lombard DB, Li Y, Bunkenborg J, Alt FW, Denu JM, Jacobson MP, Verdin E. SIRT3 deacetylates mitochondrial 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA synthase 2 and regulates ketone body production. Cell Metab. 2010 Dec 01; 12(6):654-61.
  69. Giallourakis CC, Franklin A, Guo C, Cheng HL, Yoon HS, Gallagher M, Perlot T, Andzelm M, Murphy AJ, Macdonald LE, Yancopoulos GD, Alt FW. Elements between the IgH variable (V) and diversity (D) clusters influence antisense transcription and lineage-specific V(D)J recombination. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010 Dec 21; 107(51):22207-12.
  70. Schwer B, Schumacher B, Lombard DB, Xiao C, Kurtev MV, Gao J, Schneider JI, Chai H, Bronson RT, Tsai LH, Deng CX, Alt FW. Neural sirtuin 6 (Sirt6) ablation attenuates somatic growth and causes obesity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010 Dec 14; 107(50):21790-4.
  71. Perlot T, Pawlitzky I, Manis JP, Zarrin AA, Brodeur PH, Alt FW. Analysis of mice lacking DNaseI hypersensitive sites at the 5' end of the IgH locus. PLoS One. 2010 Nov 15; 5(11):e13992.
  72. Zha S, Bassing CH, Sanda T, Brush JW, Patel H, Goff PH, Murphy MM, Tepsuporn S, Gatti RA, Look AT, Alt FW. ATM-deficient thymic lymphoma is associated with aberrant tcrd rearrangement and gene amplification. J Exp Med. 2010 Jul 05; 207(7):1369-80.
  73. Walter JE, Rucci F, Patrizi L, Recher M, Regenass S, Paganini T, Keszei M, Pessach I, Lang PA, Poliani PL, Giliani S, Al-Herz W, Cowan MJ, Puck JM, Bleesing J, Niehues T, Schuetz C, Malech H, DeRavin SS, Facchetti F, Gennery AR, Andersson E, Kamani NR, Sekiguchi J, Alenezi HM, Chinen J, Dbaibo G, ElGhazali G, Fontana A, Pasic S, Detre C, Terhorst C, Alt FW, Notarangelo LD. Expansion of immunoglobulin-secreting cells and defects in B cell tolerance in Rag-dependent immunodeficiency. J Exp Med. 2010 Jul 05; 207(7):1541-54.
  74. Westerberg LS, Meelu P, Baptista M, Eston MA, Adamovich DA, Cotta-de-Almeida V, Seed B, Rosen MK, Vandenberghe P, Thrasher AJ, Klein C, Alt FW, Snapper SB. Activating WASP mutations associated with X-linked neutropenia result in enhanced actin polymerization, altered cytoskeletal responses, and genomic instability in lymphocytes. J Exp Med. 2010 Jun 07; 207(6):1145-52.
  75. De Ravin SS, Cowen EW, Zarember KA, Whiting-Theobald NL, Kuhns DB, Sandler NG, Douek DC, Pittaluga S, Poliani PL, Lee YN, Notarangelo LD, Wang L, Alt FW, Kang EM, Milner JD, Niemela JE, Fontana-Penn M, Sinal SH, Malech HL. Hypomorphic Rag mutations can cause destructive midline granulomatous disease. Blood. 2010 Aug 26; 116(8):1263-71.
  76. Hirschey MD, Shimazu T, Goetzman E, Jing E, Schwer B, Lombard DB, Grueter CA, Harris C, Biddinger S, Ilkayeva OR, Stevens RD, Li Y, Saha AK, Ruderman NB, Bain JR, Newgard CB, Farese RV, Alt FW, Kahn CR, Verdin E. SIRT3 regulates mitochondrial fatty-acid oxidation by reversible enzyme deacetylation. Nature. 2010 Mar 04; 464(7285):121-5.
  77. Boboila C, Yan C, Wesemann DR, Jankovic M, Wang JH, Manis J, Nussenzweig A, Nussenzweig M, Alt FW. Alternative end-joining catalyzes class switch recombination in the absence of both Ku70 and DNA ligase 4. J Exp Med. 2010 Feb 15; 207(2):417-27.
  78. Rucci F, Notarangelo LD, Fazeli A, Patrizi L, Hickernell T, Paganini T, Coakley KM, Detre C, Keszei M, Walter JE, Feldman L, Cheng HL, Poliani PL, Wang JH, Balter BB, Recher M, Andersson EM, Zha S, Giliani S, Terhorst C, Alt FW, Yan CT. Homozygous DNA ligase IV R278H mutation in mice leads to leaky SCID and represents a model for human LIG4 syndrome. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010 Feb 16; 107(7):3024-9.
  79. Zhang T, Franklin A, Boboila C, McQuay A, Gallagher MP, Manis JP, Khamlichi AA, Alt FW. Downstream class switching leads to IgE antibody production by B lymphocytes lacking IgM switch regions. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010 Feb 16; 107(7):3040-5.
  80. Boboila C, Jankovic M, Yan CT, Wang JH, Wesemann DR, Zhang T, Fazeli A, Feldman L, Nussenzweig A, Nussenzweig M, Alt FW. Alternative end-joining catalyzes robust IgH locus deletions and translocations in the combined absence of ligase 4 and Ku70. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010 Feb 16; 107(7):3034-9.
  81. Zhang Y, Gostissa M, Hildebrand DG, Becker MS, Boboila C, Chiarle R, Lewis S, Alt FW. The role of mechanistic factors in promoting chromosomal translocations found in lymphoid and other cancers. Adv Immunol. 2010; 106:93-133.
  82. Sommer CA, Sommer AG, Longmire TA, Christodoulou C, Thomas DD, Gostissa M, Alt FW, Murphy GJ, Kotton DN, Mostoslavsky G. Excision of reprogramming transgenes improves the differentiation potential of iPS cells generated with a single excisable vector. Stem Cells. 2010 Jan; 28(1):64-74.
  83. Gostissa M, Yan CT, Bianco JM, Cogné M, Pinaud E, Alt FW. Long-range oncogenic activation of Igh-c-myc translocations by the Igh 3' regulatory region. Nature. 2009 Dec 10; 462(7274):803-7.
  84. Lee YN, Alt FW, Reyes J, Gleason M, Zarrin AA, Jung D. Differential utilization of T cell receptor TCR alpha/TCR delta locus variable region gene segments is mediated by accessibility. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 Oct 13; 106(41):17487-92.
  85. Zha S, Boboila C, Alt FW. Mre11: roles in DNA repair beyond homologous recombination. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2009 Aug; 16(8):798-800.
  86. Wang JH, Gostissa M, Yan CT, Goff P, Hickernell T, Hansen E, Difilippantonio S, Wesemann DR, Zarrin AA, Rajewsky K, Nussenzweig A, Alt FW. Mechanisms promoting translocations in editing and switching peripheral B cells. Nature. 2009 Jul 09; 460(7252):231-6.
  87. Schwer B, Eckersdorff M, Li Y, Silva JC, Fermin D, Kurtev MV, Giallourakis C, Comb MJ, Alt FW, Lombard DB. Calorie restriction alters mitochondrial protein acetylation. Aging Cell. 2009 Sep; 8(5):604-6.
  88. Basu U, Franklin A, Schwer B, Cheng HL, Chaudhuri J, Alt FW. Regulation of activation-induced cytidine deaminase DNA deamination activity in B-cells by Ser38 phosphorylation. Biochem Soc Trans. 2009 Jun; 37(Pt 3):561-8.
  89. Callén E, Jankovic M, Wong N, Zha S, Chen HT, Difilippantonio S, Di Virgilio M, Heidkamp G, Alt FW, Nussenzweig A, Nussenzweig M. Essential role for DNA-PKcs in DNA double-strand break repair and apoptosis in ATM-deficient lymphocytes. Mol Cell. 2009 May 15; 34(3):285-97.
  90. Chakraborty T, Perlot T, Subrahmanyam R, Jani A, Goff PH, Zhang Y, Ivanova I, Alt FW, Sen R. A 220-nucleotide deletion of the intronic enhancer reveals an epigenetic hierarchy in immunoglobulin heavy chain locus activation. J Exp Med. 2009 May 11; 206(5):1019-27.
  91. Carpenter AC, Yang-Iott KS, Chao LH, Nuskey B, Whitlow S, Alt FW, Bassing CH. Assembled DJ beta complexes influence TCR beta chain selection and peripheral V beta repertoire. J Immunol. 2009 May 01; 182(9):5586-95.
  92. Basu U, Franklin A, Alt FW. Post-translational regulation of activation-induced cytidine deaminase. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2009 Mar 12; 364(1517):667-73.
  93. Schenten D, Kracker S, Esposito G, Franco S, Klein U, Murphy M, Alt FW, Rajewsky K. Pol zeta ablation in B cells impairs the germinal center reaction, class switch recombination, DNA break repair, and genome stability. J Exp Med. 2009 Feb 16; 206(2):477-90.
  94. Cheng HL, Vuong BQ, Basu U, Franklin A, Schwer B, Astarita J, Phan RT, Datta A, Manis J, Alt FW, Chaudhuri J. Integrity of the AID serine-38 phosphorylation site is critical for class switch recombination and somatic hypermutation in mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 Feb 24; 106(8):2717-22.
  95. Gostissa M, Ranganath S, Bianco JM, Alt FW. Chromosomal location targets different MYC family gene members for oncogenic translocations. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 Feb 17; 106(7):2265-70.
  96. Van Gool F, Gallí M, Gueydan C, Kruys V, Prevot PP, Bedalov A, Mostoslavsky R, Alt FW, De Smedt T, Leo O. Intracellular NAD levels regulate tumor necrosis factor protein synthesis in a sirtuin-dependent manner. Nat Med. 2009 Feb; 15(2):206-10.
  97. Giblin W, Chatterji M, Westfield G, Masud T, Theisen B, Cheng HL, DeVido J, Alt FW, Ferguson DO, Schatz DG, Sekiguchi J. Leaky severe combined immunodeficiency and aberrant DNA rearrangements due to a hypomorphic RAG1 mutation. Blood. 2009 Mar 26; 113(13):2965-75.
  98. Wang JH, Alt FW, Gostissa M, Datta A, Murphy M, Alimzhanov MB, Coakley KM, Rajewsky K, Manis JP, Yan CT. Oncogenic transformation in the absence of Xrcc4 targets peripheral B cells that have undergone editing and switching. J Exp Med. 2008 Dec 22; 205(13):3079-90.
  99. Oberdoerffer P, Michan S, McVay M, Mostoslavsky R, Vann J, Park SK, Hartlerode A, Stegmuller J, Hafner A, Loerch P, Wright SM, Mills KD, Bonni A, Yankner BA, Scully R, Prolla TA, Alt FW, Sinclair DA. SIRT1 redistribution on chromatin promotes genomic stability but alters gene expression during aging. Cell. 2008 Nov 28; 135(5):907-18.
  100. Basu U, Wang Y, Alt FW. Evolution of phosphorylation-dependent regulation of activation-induced cytidine deaminase. Mol Cell. 2008 Oct 24; 32(2):285-91.
  101. Li G, Alt FW, Cheng HL, Brush JW, Goff PH, Murphy MM, Franco S, Zhang Y, Zha S. Lymphocyte-specific compensation for XLF/cernunnos end-joining functions in V(D)J recombination. Mol Cell. 2008 Sep 05; 31(5):631-40.
  102. Bassing CH, Whitlow S, Mostoslavsky R, Mostoslovasky R, Yang-Iott K, Ranganath S, Alt FW. Vbeta cluster sequences reduce the frequency of primary Vbeta2 and Vbeta14 rearrangements. Eur J Immunol. 2008 Sep; 38(9):2564-72.
  103. Takizawa M, Tolarová H, Li Z, Dubois W, Lim S, Callen E, Franco S, Mosaico M, Feigenbaum L, Alt FW, Nussenzweig A, Potter M, Casellas R. AID expression levels determine the extent of cMyc oncogenic translocations and the incidence of B cell tumor development. J Exp Med. 2008 Sep 01; 205(9):1949-57.
  104. Asher G, Gatfield D, Stratmann M, Reinke H, Dibner C, Kreppel F, Mostoslavsky R, Alt FW, Schibler U. SIRT1 regulates circadian clock gene expression through PER2 deacetylation. Cell. 2008 Jul 25; 134(2):317-28.
  105. Zha S, Sekiguchi J, Brush JW, Bassing CH, Alt FW. Complementary functions of ATM and H2AX in development and suppression of genomic instability. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 Jul 08; 105(27):9302-6.
  106. Walkley CR, Qudsi R, Sankaran VG, Perry JA, Gostissa M, Roth SI, Rodda SJ, Snay E, Dunning P, Fahey FH, Alt FW, McMahon AP, Orkin SH. Conditional mouse osteosarcoma, dependent on p53 loss and potentiated by loss of Rb, mimics the human disease. Genes Dev. 2008 Jun 15; 22(12):1662-76.
  107. Chen D, Bruno J, Easlon E, Lin SJ, Cheng HL, Alt FW, Guarente L. Tissue-specific regulation of SIRT1 by calorie restriction. Genes Dev. 2008 Jul 01; 22(13):1753-7.
  108. Zarrin AA, Goff PH, Senger K, Alt FW. Sgamma3 switch sequences function in place of endogenous Sgamma1 to mediate antibody class switching. J Exp Med. 2008 Jul 07; 205(7):1567-72.
  109. Franco S, Murphy MM, Li G, Borjeson T, Boboila C, Alt FW. DNA-PKcs and Artemis function in the end-joining phase of immunoglobulin heavy chain class switch recombination. J Exp Med. 2008 Mar 17; 205(3):557-64.
  110. Lee IH, Cao L, Mostoslavsky R, Lombard DB, Liu J, Bruns NE, Tsokos M, Alt FW, Finkel T. A role for the NAD-dependent deacetylase Sirt1 in the regulation of autophagy. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 Mar 04; 105(9):3374-9.
  111. Perlot T, Li G, Alt FW. Antisense transcripts from immunoglobulin heavy-chain locus V(D)J and switch regions. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 Mar 11; 105(10):3843-8.
  112. Ranganath S, Carpenter AC, Gleason M, Shaw AC, Bassing CH, Alt FW. Productive coupling of accessible Vbeta14 segments and DJbeta complexes determines the frequency of Vbeta14 rearrangement. J Immunol. 2008 Feb 15; 180(4):2339-46.
  113. Lombard DB, Schwer B, Alt FW, Mostoslavsky R. SIRT6 in DNA repair, metabolism and ageing. J Intern Med. 2008 Feb; 263(2):128-41.
  114. Zhang Y, Kwon S, Yamaguchi T, Cubizolles F, Rousseaux S, Kneissel M, Cao C, Li N, Cheng HL, Chua K, Lombard D, Mizeracki A, Matthias G, Alt FW, Khochbin S, Matthias P. Mice lacking histone deacetylase 6 have hyperacetylated tubulin but are viable and develop normally. Mol Cell Biol. 2008 Mar; 28(5):1688-701.
  115. Perlot T, Alt FW. Cis-regulatory elements and epigenetic changes control genomic rearrangements of the IgH locus. Adv Immunol. 2008; 99:1-32.
  116. Xie A, Hartlerode A, Stucki M, Odate S, Puget N, Kwok A, Nagaraju G, Yan C, Alt FW, Chen J, Jackson SP, Scully R. Distinct roles of chromatin-associated proteins MDC1 and 53BP1 in mammalian double-strand break repair. Mol Cell. 2007 Dec 28; 28(6):1045-57.
  117. Alt FW. From gene amplification to V(D)J recombination and back: a personal account of my early years in B cell biology. Eur J Immunol. 2007 Nov; 37 Suppl 1:S138-47.
  118. Wuerffel R, Wang L, Grigera F, Manis J, Selsing E, Perlot T, Alt FW, Cogne M, Pinaud E, Kenter AL. S-S synapsis during class switch recombination is promoted by distantly located transcriptional elements and activation-induced deaminase. Immunity. 2007 Nov; 27(5):711-22.
  119. Potente M, Ghaeni L, Baldessari D, Mostoslavsky R, Rossig L, Dequiedt F, Haendeler J, Mione M, Dejana E, Alt FW, Zeiher AM, Dimmeler S. SIRT1 controls endothelial angiogenic functions during vascular growth. Genes Dev. 2007 Oct 15; 21(20):2644-58.
  120. Lombard DB, Alt FW, Cheng HL, Bunkenborg J, Streeper RS, Mostoslavsky R, Kim J, Yancopoulos G, Valenzuela D, Murphy A, Yang Y, Chen Y, Hirschey MD, Bronson RT, Haigis M, Guarente LP, Farese RV, Weissman S, Verdin E, Schwer B. Mammalian Sir2 homolog SIRT3 regulates global mitochondrial lysine acetylation. Mol Cell Biol. 2007 Dec; 27(24):8807-14.
  121. Cotta-de-Almeida V, Westerberg L, Maillard MH, Onaldi D, Wachtel H, Meelu P, Chung UI, Xavier R, Alt FW, Snapper SB. Wiskott Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP) and N-WASP are critical for T cell development. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 Sep 25; 104(39):15424-9.
  122. Bassing CH, Ranganath S, Murphy M, Savic V, Gleason M, Alt FW. Aberrant V(D)J recombination is not required for rapid development of H2ax/p53-deficient thymic lymphomas with clonal translocations. Blood. 2008 Feb 15; 111(4):2163-9.
  123. Yan CT, Boboila C, Souza EK, Franco S, Hickernell TR, Murphy M, Gumaste S, Geyer M, Zarrin AA, Manis JP, Rajewsky K, Alt FW. IgH class switching and translocations use a robust non-classical end-joining pathway. Nature. 2007 Sep 27; 449(7161):478-82.
  124. Takeyama K, Monti S, Manis JP, Dal Cin P, Getz G, Beroukhim R, Dutt S, Aster JC, Alt FW, Golub TR, Shipp MA. Integrative analysis reveals 53BP1 copy loss and decreased expression in a subset of human diffuse large B-cell lymphomas. Oncogene. 2008 Jan 10; 27(3):318-22.
  125. Fraenkel S, Mostoslavsky R, Novobrantseva TI, Pelanda R, Chaudhuri J, Esposito G, Jung S, Alt FW, Rajewsky K, Cedar H, Bergman Y. Allelic 'choice' governs somatic hypermutation in vivo at the immunoglobulin kappa-chain locus. Nat Immunol. 2007 Jul; 8(7):715-22.
  126. Gerhart-Hines Z, Rodgers JT, Bare O, Lerin C, Kim SH, Mostoslavsky R, Alt FW, Wu Z, Puigserver P. Metabolic control of muscle mitochondrial function and fatty acid oxidation through SIRT1/PGC-1alpha. EMBO J. 2007 Apr 04; 26(7):1913-23.
  127. Zha S, Alt FW, Cheng HL, Brush JW, Li G. Defective DNA repair and increased genomic instability in Cernunnos-XLF-deficient murine ES cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 Mar 13; 104(11):4518-23.
  128. Wu C, Ranganath S, Gleason M, Woodman BB, Borjeson TM, Alt FW, Bassing CH. Restriction of endogenous T cell antigen receptor beta rearrangements to Vbeta14 through selective recombination signal sequence modifications. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 Mar 06; 104(10):4002-7.
  129. Basu U, Chaudhuri J, Phan RT, Datta A, Alt FW. Regulation of activation induced deaminase via phosphorylation. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2007; 596:129-37.
  130. Chaudhuri J, Basu U, Zarrin A, Yan C, Franco S, Perlot T, Vuong B, Wang J, Phan RT, Datta A, Manis J, Alt FW. Evolution of the immunoglobulin heavy chain class switch recombination mechanism. Adv Immunol. 2007; 94:157-214.
  131. Zarrin AA, Del Vecchio C, Tseng E, Gleason M, Zarin P, Tian M, Alt FW. Antibody class switching mediated by yeast endonuclease-generated DNA breaks. Science. 2007 Jan 19; 315(5810):377-81.
  132. Mostoslavsky G, Fabian AJ, Rooney S, Alt FW, Mulligan RC. Complete correction of murine Artemis immunodeficiency by lentiviral vector-mediated gene transfer. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Oct 31; 103(44):16406-11.
  133. Haigis MC, Mostoslavsky R, Haigis KM, Fahie K, Christodoulou DC, Murphy AJ, Valenzuela DM, Yancopoulos GD, Karow M, Blander G, Wolberger C, Prolla TA, Weindruch R, Alt FW, Guarente L. SIRT4 inhibits glutamate dehydrogenase and opposes the effects of calorie restriction in pancreatic beta cells. Cell. 2006 Sep 08; 126(5):941-54.
  134. Franco S, Alt FW, Manis JP. Pathways that suppress programmed DNA breaks from progressing to chromosomal breaks and translocations. DNA Repair (Amst). 2006 Sep 08; 5(9-10):1030-41.
  135. Aifantis I, Bassing CH, Garbe AI, Sawai K, Alt FW, von Boehmer H. The E delta enhancer controls the generation of CD4- CD8- alphabetaTCR-expressing T cells that can give rise to different lineages of alphabeta T cells. J Exp Med. 2006 Jun 12; 203(6):1543-50.
  136. Shen RR, Ferguson DO, Renard M, Hoyer KK, Kim U, Hao X, Alt FW, Roeder RG, Morse HC, Teitell MA. Dysregulated TCL1 requires the germinal center and genome instability for mature B-cell transformation. Blood. 2006 Sep 15; 108(6):1991-8.
  137. Yan CT, Kaushal D, Murphy M, Zhang Y, Datta A, Chen C, Monroe B, Mostoslavsky G, Coakley K, Gao Y, Mills KD, Fazeli AP, Tepsuporn S, Hall G, Mulligan R, Fox E, Bronson R, De Girolami U, Lee C, Alt FW. XRCC4 suppresses medulloblastomas with recurrent translocations in p53-deficient mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 May 09; 103(19):7378-83.
  138. Puebla-Osorio N, Lacey DB, Alt FW, Zhu C. Early embryonic lethality due to targeted inactivation of DNA ligase III. Mol Cell Biol. 2006 May; 26(10):3935-41.
  139. Vaquero A, Scher MB, Lee DH, Sutton A, Cheng HL, Alt FW, Serrano L, Sternglanz R, Reinberg D. SirT2 is a histone deacetylase with preference for histone H4 Lys 16 during mitosis. Genes Dev. 2006 May 15; 20(10):1256-61.
  140. Morales JC, Franco S, Murphy MM, Bassing CH, Mills KD, Adams MM, Walsh NC, Manis JP, Rassidakis GZ, Alt FW, Carpenter PB. 53BP1 and p53 synergize to suppress genomic instability and lymphomagenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Feb 28; 103(9):3310-5.
  141. Longerich S, Basu U, Alt F, Storb U. AID in somatic hypermutation and class switch recombination. Curr Opin Immunol. 2006 Apr; 18(2):164-74.
  142. Mostoslavsky R, Chua KF, Lombard DB, Pang WW, Fischer MR, Gellon L, Liu P, Mostoslavsky G, Franco S, Murphy MM, Mills KD, Patel P, Hsu JT, Hong AL, Ford E, Cheng HL, Kennedy C, Nunez N, Bronson R, Frendewey D, Auerbach W, Valenzuela D, Karow M, Hottiger MO, Hursting S, Barrett JC, Guarente L, Mulligan R, Demple B, Yancopoulos GD, Alt FW. Genomic instability and aging-like phenotype in the absence of mammalian SIRT6. Cell. 2006 Jan 27; 124(2):315-29.
  143. Lou Z, Minter-Dykhouse K, Franco S, Gostissa M, Rivera MA, Celeste A, Manis JP, van Deursen J, Nussenzweig A, Paull TT, Alt FW, Chen J. MDC1 maintains genomic stability by participating in the amplification of ATM-dependent DNA damage signals. Mol Cell. 2006 Jan 20; 21(2):187-200.
  144. Franco S, Gostissa M, Zha S, Lombard DB, Murphy MM, Zarrin AA, Yan C, Tepsuporn S, Morales JC, Adams MM, Lou Z, Bassing CH, Manis JP, Chen J, Carpenter PB, Alt FW. H2AX prevents DNA breaks from progressing to chromosome breaks and translocations. Mol Cell. 2006 Jan 20; 21(2):201-14.
  145. Jung D, Giallourakis C, Mostoslavsky R, Alt FW. Mechanism and control of V(D)J recombination at the immunoglobulin heavy chain locus. Annu Rev Immunol. 2006; 24:541-70.
  146. Schelonka RL, Ivanov II, Jung DH, Ippolito GC, Nitschke L, Zhuang Y, Gartland GL, Pelkonen J, Alt FW, Rajewsky K, Schroeder HW. A single DH gene segment creates its own unique CDR-H3 repertoire and is sufficient for B cell development and immune function. J Immunol. 2005 Nov 15; 175(10):6624-32.
  147. Basu U, Chaudhuri J, Alpert C, Dutt S, Ranganath S, Li G, Schrum JP, Manis JP, Alt FW. The AID antibody diversification enzyme is regulated by protein kinase A phosphorylation. Nature. 2005 Nov 24; 438(7067):508-11.
  148. Perlot T, Alt FW, Bassing CH, Suh H, Pinaud E. Elucidation of IgH intronic enhancer functions via germ-line deletion. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Oct 04; 102(40):14362-7.
  149. O'Neil J, Calvo J, McKenna K, Krishnamoorthy V, Aster JC, Bassing CH, Alt FW, Kelliher M, Look AT. Activating Notch1 mutations in mouse models of T-ALL. Blood. 2006 Jan 15; 107(2):781-5.
  150. Chua KF, Mostoslavsky R, Lombard DB, Pang WW, Saito S, Franco S, Kaushal D, Cheng HL, Fischer MR, Stokes N, Murphy MM, Appella E, Alt FW. Mammalian SIRT1 limits replicative life span in response to chronic genotoxic stress. Cell Metab. 2005 Jul; 2(1):67-76.
  151. Snapper SB, Meelu P, Nguyen D, Stockton BM, Bozza P, Alt FW, Rosen FS, von Andrian UH, Klein C. WASP deficiency leads to global defects of directed leukocyte migration in vitro and in vivo. J Leukoc Biol. 2005 Jun; 77(6):993-8.
  152. Lombard DB, Chua KF, Mostoslavsky R, Franco S, Gostissa M, Alt FW. DNA repair, genome stability, and aging. Cell. 2005 Feb 25; 120(4):497-512.
  153. Rooney S, Alt FW, Sekiguchi J, Manis JP. Artemis-independent functions of DNA-dependent protein kinase in Ig heavy chain class switch recombination and development. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Feb 15; 102(7):2471-5.
  154. Zarrin AA, Tian M, Wang J, Borjeson T, Alt FW. Influence of switch region length on immunoglobulin class switch recombination. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Feb 15; 102(7):2466-70.
  155. Kang J, Ferguson D, Song H, Bassing C, Eckersdorff M, Alt FW, Xu Y. Functional interaction of H2AX, NBS1, and p53 in ATM-dependent DNA damage responses and tumor suppression. Mol Cell Biol. 2005 Jan; 25(2):661-70.
  156. Dudley DD, Chaudhuri J, Bassing CH, Alt FW. Mechanism and control of V(D)J recombination versus class switch recombination: similarities and differences. Adv Immunol. 2005; 86:43-112.
  157. Xie A, Puget N, Shim I, Odate S, Jarzyna I, Bassing CH, Alt FW, Scully R. Control of sister chromatid recombination by histone H2AX. Mol Cell. 2004 Dec 22; 16(6):1017-25.
  158. Nussenzweig MC, Alt FW. Antibody diversity: one enzyme to rule them all. Nat Med. 2004 Dec; 10(12):1304-5.
  159. Zarrin AA, Alt FW, Chaudhuri J, Stokes N, Kaushal D, Du Pasquier L, Tian M. An evolutionarily conserved target motif for immunoglobulin class-switch recombination. Nat Immunol. 2004 Dec; 5(12):1275-81.
  160. Ansel KM, Greenwald RJ, Agarwal S, Bassing CH, Monticelli S, Interlandi J, Djuretic IM, Lee DU, Sharpe AH, Alt FW, Rao A. Deletion of a conserved Il4 silencer impairs T helper type 1-mediated immunity. Nat Immunol. 2004 Dec; 5(12):1251-9.
  161. Mostoslavsky R, Alt FW, Rajewsky K. The lingering enigma of the allelic exclusion mechanism. Cell. 2004 Sep 03; 118(5):539-44.
  162. Talukder SR, Dudley DD, Alt FW, Takahama Y, Akamatsu Y. Increased frequency of aberrant V(D)J recombination products in core RAG-expressing mice. Nucleic Acids Res. 2004; 32(15):4539-49.
  163. Rooney S, Chaudhuri J, Alt FW. The role of the non-homologous end-joining pathway in lymphocyte development. Immunol Rev. 2004 Aug; 200:115-31.
  164. Bassing CH, Alt FW. The cellular response to general and programmed DNA double strand breaks. DNA Repair (Amst). 2004 Aug-Sep; 3(8-9):781-96.
  165. Chaudhuri J, Khuong C, Alt FW. Replication protein A interacts with AID to promote deamination of somatic hypermutation targets. Nature. 2004 Aug 26; 430(7003):992-8.
  166. Chaudhuri J, Alt FW. Class-switch recombination: interplay of transcription, DNA deamination and DNA repair. Nat Rev Immunol. 2004 Jul; 4(7):541-52.
  167. Senoo M, Manis JP, Alt FW, McKeon F. p63 and p73 are not required for the development and p53-dependent apoptosis of T cells. Cancer Cell. 2004 Jul; 6(1):85-9.
  168. Couëdel C, Mills KD, Barchi M, Shen L, Olshen A, Johnson RD, Nussenzweig A, Essers J, Kanaar R, Li GC, Alt FW, Jasin M. Collaboration of homologous recombination and nonhomologous end-joining factors for the survival and integrity of mice and cells. Genes Dev. 2004 Jun 01; 18(11):1293-304.
  169. Mostoslavsky R, Alt FW. Receptor revision in T cells: an open question? Trends Immunol. 2004 Jun; 25(6):276-9.
  170. Mills KD, Ferguson DO, Essers J, Eckersdorff M, Kanaar R, Alt FW. Rad54 and DNA Ligase IV cooperate to maintain mammalian chromatid stability. Genes Dev. 2004 Jun 01; 18(11):1283-92.
  171. Giallourakis C, Alt FW, Bassing CH. V(D)J recombinational accessibility-heading in the opposite direction? Nat Immunol. 2004 Jun; 5(6):561-2.
  172. Manis JP, Morales JC, Xia Z, Kutok JL, Alt FW, Carpenter PB. 53BP1 links DNA damage-response pathways to immunoglobulin heavy chain class-switch recombination. Nat Immunol. 2004 May; 5(5):481-7.
  173. Bassing CH, Alt FW. Molecular biology: case of mistaken identity. Nature. 2004 Mar 04; 428(6978):29-31.
  174. Dedeoglu F, Horwitz B, Chaudhuri J, Alt FW, Geha RS. Induction of activation-induced cytidine deaminase gene expression by IL-4 and CD40 ligation is dependent on STAT6 and NFkappaB. Int Immunol. 2004 Mar; 16(3):395-404.
  175. Tian M, Jones DA, Smith M, Shinkura R, Alt FW. Deficiency in the nuclease activity of xeroderma pigmentosum G in mice leads to hypersensitivity to UV irradiation. Mol Cell Biol. 2004 Mar; 24(6):2237-42.
  176. Rooney S, Sekiguchi J, Whitlow S, Eckersdorff M, Manis JP, Lee C, Ferguson DO, Alt FW. Artemis and p53 cooperate to suppress oncogenic N-myc amplification in progenitor B cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 Feb 24; 101(8):2410-5.
  177. Brunet A, Sweeney LB, Sturgill JF, Chua KF, Greer PL, Lin Y, Tran H, Ross SE, Mostoslavsky R, Cohen HY, Hu LS, Cheng HL, Jedrychowski MP, Gygi SP, Sinclair DA, Alt FW, Greenberg ME. Stress-dependent regulation of FOXO transcription factors by the SIRT1 deacetylase. Science. 2004 Mar 26; 303(5666):2011-5.
  178. Bassing CH, Alt FW. H2AX may function as an anchor to hold broken chromosomal DNA ends in close proximity. Cell Cycle. 2004 Feb; 3(2):149-53.
  179. Tian M, Shinkura R, Shinkura N, Alt FW. Growth retardation, early death, and DNA repair defects in mice deficient for the nucleotide excision repair enzyme XPF. Mol Cell Biol. 2004 Feb; 24(3):1200-5.
  180. Jung D, Alt FW. Unraveling V(D)J recombination; insights into gene regulation. Cell. 2004 Jan 23; 116(2):299-311.
  181. Pivniouk VI, Snapper SB, Kettner A, Alenius H, Laouini D, Falet H, Hartwig J, Alt FW, Geha RS. Impaired signaling via the high-affinity IgE receptor in Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein-deficient mast cells. Int Immunol. 2003 Dec; 15(12):1431-40.
  182. Theunissen JW, Kaplan MI, Hunt PA, Williams BR, Ferguson DO, Alt FW, Petrini JH. Checkpoint failure and chromosomal instability without lymphomagenesis in Mre11(ATLD1/ATLD1) mice. Mol Cell. 2003 Dec; 12(6):1511-23.
  183. Exley MA, Bigley NJ, Cheng O, Shaulov A, Tahir SM, Carter QL, Garcia J, Wang C, Patten K, Stills HF, Alt FW, Snapper SB, Balk SP. Innate immune response to encephalomyocarditis virus infection mediated by CD1d. Immunology. 2003 Dec; 110(4):519-26.
  184. Fujikawa K, Miletic AV, Alt FW, Faccio R, Brown T, Hoog J, Fredericks J, Nishi S, Mildiner S, Moores SL, Brugge J, Rosen FS, Swat W. Vav1/2/3-null mice define an essential role for Vav family proteins in lymphocyte development and activation but a differential requirement in MAPK signaling in T and B cells. J Exp Med. 2003 Nov 17; 198(10):1595-608.
  185. Dudley DD, Sekiguchi J, Zhu C, Sadofsky MJ, Whitlow S, DeVido J, Monroe RJ, Bassing CH, Alt FW. Impaired V(D)J recombination and lymphocyte development in core RAG1-expressing mice. J Exp Med. 2003 Nov 03; 198(9):1439-50.
  186. Cheng HL, Mostoslavsky R, Saito S, Manis JP, Gu Y, Patel P, Bronson R, Appella E, Alt FW, Chua KF. Developmental defects and p53 hyperacetylation in Sir2 homolog (SIRT1)-deficient mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003 Sep 16; 100(19):10794-9.
  187. Bassing CH, Suh H, Ferguson DO, Chua KF, Manis J, Eckersdorff M, Gleason M, Bronson R, Lee C, Alt FW. Histone H2AX: a dosage-dependent suppressor of oncogenic translocations and tumors. Cell. 2003 Aug 08; 114(3):359-70.
  188. Mills KD, Ferguson DO, Alt FW. The role of DNA breaks in genomic instability and tumorigenesis. Immunol Rev. 2003 Aug; 194:77-95.
  189. Yan C, Martinez-Quiles N, Eden S, Shibata T, Takeshima F, Shinkura R, Fujiwara Y, Bronson R, Snapper SB, Kirschner MW, Geha R, Rosen FS, Alt FW. WAVE2 deficiency reveals distinct roles in embryogenesis and Rac-mediated actin-based motility. EMBO J. 2003 Jul 15; 22(14):3602-12.
  190. Mostoslavsky R, Alt FW, Bassing CH. Chromatin dynamics and locus accessibility in the immune system. Nat Immunol. 2003 Jul; 4(7):603-6.
  191. Manis JP, Alt FW. Novel antibody switching defects in human patients. J Clin Invest. 2003 Jul; 112(1):19-22.
  192. Enzler T, Gillessen S, Manis JP, Ferguson D, Fleming J, Alt FW, Mihm M, Dranoff G. Deficiencies of GM-CSF and interferon gamma link inflammation and cancer. J Exp Med. 2003 May 05; 197(9):1213-9.
  193. Shinkura R, Tian M, Smith M, Chua K, Fujiwara Y, Alt FW. The influence of transcriptional orientation on endogenous switch region function. Nat Immunol. 2003 May; 4(5):435-41.
  194. Chaudhuri J, Tian M, Khuong C, Chua K, Pinaud E, Alt FW. Transcription-targeted DNA deamination by the AID antibody diversification enzyme. Nature. 2003 Apr 17; 422(6933):726-30.
  195. Rooney S, Alt FW, Lombard D, Whitlow S, Eckersdorff M, Fleming J, Fugmann S, Ferguson DO, Schatz DG, Sekiguchi J. Defective DNA repair and increased genomic instability in Artemis-deficient murine cells. J Exp Med. 2003 Mar 03; 197(5):553-65.
  196. Bassing CH, Tillman RE, Woodman BB, Canty D, Monroe RJ, Sleckman BP, Alt FW. T cell receptor (TCR) alpha/delta locus enhancer identity and position are critical for the assembly of TCR delta and alpha variable region genes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003 Mar 04; 100(5):2598-603.
  197. Swat W, Xavier R, Mizoguchi A, Mizoguchi E, Fredericks J, Fujikawa K, Bhan AK, Alt FW. Essential role for Vav1 in activation, but not development, of gammadelta T cells. Int Immunol. 2003 Feb; 15(2):215-21.
  198. Wong KK, Maser RS, Bachoo RM, Menon J, Carrasco DR, Gu Y, Alt FW, DePinho RA. Telomere dysfunction and Atm deficiency compromises organ homeostasis and accelerates ageing. Nature. 2003 Feb 06; 421(6923):643-8.
  199. Akamatsu Y, Monroe R, Dudley DD, Elkin SK, Gartner F, Talukder SR, Takahama Y, Alt FW, Bassing CH, Oettinger MA. Deletion of the RAG2 C terminus leads to impaired lymphoid development in mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003 Feb 04; 100(3):1209-14.
  200. Zinkel SS, Ong CC, Ferguson DO, Iwasaki H, Akashi K, Bronson RT, Kutok JL, Alt FW, Korsmeyer SJ. Proapoptotic BID is required for myeloid homeostasis and tumor suppression. Genes Dev. 2003 Jan 15; 17(2):229-39.
  201. Wu C, Bassing CH, Jung D, Woodman BB, Foy D, Alt FW. Dramatically increased rearrangement and peripheral representation of Vbeta14 driven by the 3'Dbeta1 recombination signal sequence. Immunity. 2003 Jan; 18(1):75-85.
  202. Jung D, Bassing CH, Fugmann SD, Cheng HL, Schatz DG, Alt FW. Extrachromosomal recombination substrates recapitulate beyond 12/23 restricted VDJ recombination in nonlymphoid cells. Immunity. 2003 Jan; 18(1):65-74.
  203. Manis JP, Michaelson JS, Birshtein BK, Alt FW. Elucidation of a downstream boundary of the 3' IgH regulatory region. Mol Immunol. 2003 Jan; 39(12):753-60.
  204. Rooney S, Sekiguchi J, Zhu C, Cheng HL, Manis J, Whitlow S, DeVido J, Foy D, Chaudhuri J, Lombard D, Alt FW. Leaky Scid phenotype associated with defective V(D)J coding end processing in Artemis-deficient mice. Mol Cell. 2002 Dec; 10(6):1379-90.
  205. Klein C, Nguyen D, Liu CH, Mizoguchi A, Bhan AK, Miki H, Takenawa T, Rosen FS, Alt FW, Mulligan RC, Snapper SB. Gene therapy for Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome: rescue of T-cell signaling and amelioration of colitis upon transplantation of retrovirally transduced hematopoietic stem cells in mice. Blood. 2003 Mar 15; 101(6):2159-66.
  206. Yang XF, Ye Q, Press B, Han RZ, Bassing CH, Sleckman BP, Alt FW, Cantor H. Analysis of the complex genomic structure of Bcl-x and its relationship to Bcl-x(gamma) expression after CD28-dependent costimulation. Mol Immunol. 2002 Sep; 39(1-2):45-55.
  207. Dudley DD, Manis JP, Zarrin AA, Kaylor L, Tian M, Alt FW. Internal IgH class switch region deletions are position-independent and enhanced by AID expression. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002 Jul 23; 99(15):9984-9.
  208. Solymar DC, Agarwal S, Bassing CH, Alt FW, Rao A. A 3' enhancer in the IL-4 gene regulates cytokine production by Th2 cells and mast cells. Immunity. 2002 Jul; 17(1):41-50.
  209. Ye Q, Press B, Kissler S, Yang XF, Lu L, Bassing CH, Sleckman BP, Jansson M, Panoutsakopoulou V, Trimble LA, Alt FW, Cantor H. T cell costimulation through CD28 depends on induction of the Bcl-xgamma isoform: analysis of Bcl-xgamma-deficient mice. J Exp Med. 2002 Jul 01; 196(1):87-95.
  210. Zhu C, Mills KD, Ferguson DO, Lee C, Manis J, Fleming J, Gao Y, Morton CC, Alt FW. Unrepaired DNA breaks in p53-deficient cells lead to oncogenic gene amplification subsequent to translocations. Cell. 2002 Jun 28; 109(7):811-21.
  211. Bassing CH, Chua KF, Sekiguchi J, Suh H, Whitlow SR, Fleming JC, Monroe BC, Ciccone DN, Yan C, Vlasakova K, Livingston DM, Ferguson DO, Scully R, Alt FW. Increased ionizing radiation sensitivity and genomic instability in the absence of histone H2AX. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002 Jun 11; 99(12):8173-8.
  212. Chua KF, Alt FW, Manis JP. The function of AID in somatic mutation and class switch recombination: upstream or downstream of DNA breaks. J Exp Med. 2002 May 06; 195(9):F37-41.
  213. Inlay M, Alt FW, Baltimore D, Xu Y. Essential roles of the kappa light chain intronic enhancer and 3' enhancer in kappa rearrangement and demethylation. Nat Immunol. 2002 May; 3(5):463-8.
  214. Bassing CH, Swat W, Alt FW. The mechanism and regulation of chromosomal V(D)J recombination. Cell. 2002 Apr; 109 Suppl:S45-55.
  215. Manis JP, Dudley D, Kaylor L, Alt FW. IgH class switch recombination to IgG1 in DNA-PKcs-deficient B cells. Immunity. 2002 Apr; 16(4):607-17.
  216. Fujikawa K, Inoue Y, Sakai M, Koyama Y, Nishi S, Funada R, Alt FW, Swat W. Vav3 is regulated during the cell cycle and effects cell division. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002 Apr 02; 99(7):4313-8.
  217. Krawczyk C, Oliveira-dos-Santos A, Sasaki T, Griffiths E, Ohashi PS, Snapper S, Alt F, Penninger JM. Vav1 controls integrin clustering and MHC/peptide-specific cell adhesion to antigen-presenting cells. Immunity. 2002 Mar; 16(3):331-43.
  218. Shibata T, Takeshima F, Chen F, Alt FW, Snapper SB. Cdc42 facilitates invasion but not the actin-based motility of Shigella. Curr Biol. 2002 Feb 19; 12(4):341-5.
  219. Malynn BA, Shaw AC, Young F, Stewart V, Alt FW. Truncated immunoglobulin Dmu causes incomplete developmental progression of RAG-deficient pro-B cells. Mol Immunol. 2002 Jan; 38(7):547-56.
  220. Manis JP, Tian M, Alt FW. Mechanism and control of class-switch recombination. Trends Immunol. 2002 Jan; 23(1):31-9.
  221. Sharpless NE, Ferguson DO, O'Hagan RC, Castrillon DH, Lee C, Farazi PA, Alson S, Fleming J, Morton CC, Frank K, Chin L, Alt FW, DePinho RA. Impaired nonhomologous end-joining provokes soft tissue sarcomas harboring chromosomal translocations, amplifications, and deletions. Mol Cell. 2001 Dec; 8(6):1187-96.
  222. Sekiguchi JA, Whitlow S, Alt FW. Increased accumulation of hybrid V(D)J joins in cells expressing truncated versus full-length RAGs. Mol Cell. 2001 Dec; 8(6):1383-90.
  223. Snapper SB, Takeshima F, Antón I, Liu CH, Thomas SM, Nguyen D, Dudley D, Fraser H, Purich D, Lopez-Ilasaca M, Klein C, Davidson L, Bronson R, Mulligan RC, Southwick F, Geha R, Goldberg MB, Rosen FS, Hartwig JH, Alt FW. N-WASP deficiency reveals distinct pathways for cell surface projections and microbial actin-based motility. Nat Cell Biol. 2001 Oct; 3(10):897-904.
  224. Tsitsikov EN, Laouini D, Dunn IF, Sannikova TY, Davidson L, Alt FW, Geha RS. TRAF1 is a negative regulator of TNF signaling. enhanced TNF signaling in TRAF1-deficient mice. Immunity. 2001 Oct; 15(4):647-57.
  225. Ferguson DO, Alt FW. DNA double strand break repair and chromosomal translocation: lessons from animal models. Oncogene. 2001 Sep 10; 20(40):5572-9.
  226. Reimold AM, Iwakoshi NN, Manis J, Vallabhajosyula P, Szomolanyi-Tsuda E, Gravallese EM, Friend D, Grusby MJ, Alt F, Glimcher LH. Plasma cell differentiation requires the transcription factor XBP-1. Nature. 2001 Jul 19; 412(6844):300-7.
  227. Sekiguchi J, Ferguson DO, Chen HT, Yang EM, Earle J, Frank K, Whitlow S, Gu Y, Xu Y, Nussenzweig A, Alt FW. Genetic interactions between ATM and the nonhomologous end-joining factors in genomic stability and development. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001 Mar 13; 98(6):3243-8.
  228. de Alboran IM, O'Hagan RC, Gärtner F, Malynn B, Davidson L, Rickert R, Rajewsky K, DePinho RA, Alt FW. Analysis of C-MYC function in normal cells via conditional gene-targeted mutation. Immunity. 2001 Jan; 14(1):45-55.
  229. Gärtner F, Alt FW, Monroe RJ, Seidl KJ. Antigen-independent appearance of recombination activating gene (RAG)-positive bone marrow B cells in the spleens of immunized mice. J Exp Med. 2000 Dec 18; 192(12):1745-54.
  230. Krawczyk C, Bachmaier K, Sasaki T, Jones RG, Snapper SB, Bouchard D, Kozieradzki I, Ohashi PS, Alt FW, Penninger JM. Cbl-b is a negative regulator of receptor clustering and raft aggregation in T cells. Immunity. 2000 Oct; 13(4):463-73.
  231. Tian M, Alt FW. RNA editing meets DNA shuffling. Nature. 2000 Sep 07; 407(6800):31, 33.
  232. O'Hagan RC, Ohh M, David G, de Alboran IM, Alt FW, Kaelin WG, DePinho RA. Myc-enhanced expression of Cul1 promotes ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis and cell cycle progression. Genes Dev. 2000 Sep 01; 14(17):2185-91.
  233. Wong KK, Chang S, Weiler SR, Ganesan S, Chaudhuri J, Zhu C, Artandi SE, Rudolph KL, Gottlieb GJ, Chin L, Alt FW, DePinho RA. Telomere dysfunction impairs DNA repair and enhances sensitivity to ionizing radiation. Nat Genet. 2000 Sep; 26(1):85-8.
  234. Moores SL, Selfors LM, Fredericks J, Breit T, Fujikawa K, Alt FW, Brugge JS, Swat W. Vav family proteins couple to diverse cell surface receptors. Mol Cell Biol. 2000 Sep; 20(17):6364-73.
  235. Tian M, Alt FW. Transcription-induced cleavage of immunoglobulin switch regions by nucleotide excision repair nucleases in vitro. J Biol Chem. 2000 Aug 04; 275(31):24163-72.
  236. Sleckman BP, Bassing CH, Hughes MM, Okada A, D'Auteuil M, Wehrly TD, Woodman BB, Davidson L, Chen J, Alt FW. Mechanisms that direct ordered assembly of T cell receptor beta locus V, D, and J gene segments. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000 Jul 05; 97(14):7975-80.
  237. Chen F, Ma L, Parrini MC, Mao X, Lopez M, Wu C, Marks PW, Davidson L, Kwiatkowski DJ, Kirchhausen T, Orkin SH, Rosen FS, Mayer BJ, Kirschner MW, Alt FW. Cdc42 is required for PIP(2)-induced actin polymerization and early development but not for cell viability. Curr Biol. 2000 Jun 29; 10(13):758-65.
  238. Ferguson DO, Sekiguchi JM, Chang S, Frank KM, Gao Y, DePinho RA, Alt FW. The nonhomologous end-joining pathway of DNA repair is required for genomic stability and the suppression of translocations. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000 Jun 06; 97(12):6630-3.
  239. Bassing CH, Alt FW, Hughes MM, D'Auteuil M, Wehrly TD, Woodman BB, Gärtner F, White JM, Davidson L, Sleckman BP. Recombination signal sequences restrict chromosomal V(D)J recombination beyond the 12/23 rule. Nature. 2000 Jun 01; 405(6786):583-6.
  240. Frank KM, Sharpless NE, Gao Y, Sekiguchi JM, Ferguson DO, Zhu C, Manis JP, Horner J, DePinho RA, Alt FW. DNA ligase IV deficiency in mice leads to defective neurogenesis and embryonic lethality via the p53 pathway. Mol Cell. 2000 Jun; 5(6):993-1002.
  241. Sleckman BP, Khan WN, Xu W, Bassing CH, Malynn BA, Copeland NG, Bardon CG, Breit TM, Davidson L, Oltz EM, Jenkins NA, Berman JE, Alt FW. Cloning and functional characterization of the early-lymphocyte-specific Pb99 gene. Mol Cell Biol. 2000 Jun; 20(12):4405-10.
  242. Malynn BA, de Alboran IM, O'Hagan RC, Bronson R, Davidson L, DePinho RA, Alt FW. N-myc can functionally replace c-myc in murine development, cellular growth, and differentiation. Genes Dev. 2000 Jun 01; 14(11):1390-9.
  243. Gao Y, Ferguson DO, Xie W, Manis JP, Sekiguchi J, Frank KM, Chaudhuri J, Horner J, DePinho RA, Alt FW. Interplay of p53 and DNA-repair protein XRCC4 in tumorigenesis, genomic stability and development. Nature. 2000 Apr 20; 404(6780):897-900.
  244. Borghesani PR, Alt FW, Bottaro A, Davidson L, Aksoy S, Rathbun GA, Roberts TM, Swat W, Segal RA, Gu Y. Abnormal development of Purkinje cells and lymphocytes in Atm mutant mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000 Mar 28; 97(7):3336-41.
  245. Gu Y, Sekiguchi J, Gao Y, Dikkes P, Frank K, Ferguson D, Hasty P, Chun J, Alt FW. Defective embryonic neurogenesis in Ku-deficient but not DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit-deficient mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000 Mar 14; 97(6):2668-73.
  246. Merget R, Kulzer R, Dierkes-Globisch A, Breitstadt R, Gebler A, Kniffka A, Artelt S, Koenig HP, Alt F, Vormberg R, Baur X, Schultze-Werninghaus G. Exposure-effect relationship of platinum salt allergy in a catalyst production plant: conclusions from a 5-year prospective cohort study. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2000 Feb; 105(2 Pt 1):364-70.
  247. Bauch A, Alt FW, Crabtree GR, Snapper SB. The cytoskeleton in lymphocyte signaling. Adv Immunol. 2000; 75:89-114.
  248. Ferguson DO, Sekiguchi JM, Frank KM, Gao Y, Sharpless NE, Gu Y, Manis J, DePinho RA, Alt FW. The interplay between nonhomologous end-joining and cell cycle checkpoint factors in development, genomic stability, and tumorigenesis. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol. 2000; 65:395-403.
  249. Monroe RJ, Chen F, Ferrini R, Davidson L, Alt FW. RAG2 is regulated differentially in B and T cells by elements 5' of the promoter. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999 Oct 26; 96(22):12713-8.
  250. Aifantis I, Pivniouk VI, Gärtner F, Feinberg J, Swat W, Alt FW, von Boehmer H, Geha RS. Allelic exclusion of the T cell receptor beta locus requires the SH2 domain-containing leukocyte protein (SLP)-76 adaptor protein. J Exp Med. 1999 Oct 18; 190(8):1093-102.
  251. Sakai E, Bottaro A, Alt FW. The Ig heavy chain intronic enhancer core region is necessary and sufficient to promote efficient class switch recombination. Int Immunol. 1999 Oct; 11(10):1709-13.
  252. Fruman DA, Snapper SB, Yballe CM, Alt FW, Cantley LC. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase knockout mice: role of p85alpha in B cell development and proliferation. Biochem Soc Trans. 1999 Aug; 27(4):624-9.
  253. Monroe RJ, Seidl KJ, Gaertner F, Han S, Chen F, Sekiguchi J, Wang J, Ferrini R, Davidson L, Kelsoe G, Alt FW. RAG2:GFP knockin mice reveal novel aspects of RAG2 expression in primary and peripheral lymphoid tissues. Immunity. 1999 Aug; 11(2):201-12.
  254. Wang Z, Yunis D, Irigoyen M, Kitchens B, Bottaro A, Alt FW, Alper CA. Discordance between IgA switching at the DNA level and IgA expression at the mRNA level in IgA-deficient patients. Clin Immunol. 1999 Jun; 91(3):263-70.
  255. Gärtner F, Alt FW, Monroe R, Chu M, Sleckman BP, Davidson L, Swat W. Immature thymocytes employ distinct signaling pathways for allelic exclusion versus differentiation and expansion. Immunity. 1999 May; 10(5):537-46.
  256. Monroe RJ, Sleckman BP, Monroe BC, Khor B, Claypool S, Ferrini R, Davidson L, Alt FW. Developmental regulation of TCR delta locus accessibility and expression by the TCR delta enhancer. Immunity. 1999 May; 10(5):503-13.
  257. Seidl KJ, Manis JP, Bottaro A, Zhang J, Davidson L, Kisselgof A, Oettgen H, Alt FW. Position-dependent inhibition of class-switch recombination by PGK-neor cassettes inserted into the immunoglobulin heavy chain constant region locus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999 Mar 16; 96(6):3000-5.
  258. Shaw AC, Swat W, Davidson L, Alt FW. Induction of Ig light chain gene rearrangement in heavy chain-deficient B cells by activated Ras. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999 Mar 02; 96(5):2239-43.
  259. Sakai E, Bottaro A, Davidson L, Sleckman BP, Alt FW. Recombination and transcription of the endogenous Ig heavy chain locus is effected by the Ig heavy chain intronic enhancer core region in the absence of the matrix attachment regions. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999 Feb 16; 96(4):1526-31.
  260. Fruman DA, Snapper SB, Yballe CM, Davidson L, Yu JY, Alt FW, Cantley LC. Impaired B cell development and proliferation in absence of phosphoinositide 3-kinase p85alpha. Science. 1999 Jan 15; 283(5400):393-7.
  261. Shaw AC, Swat W, Ferrini R, Davidson L, Alt FW. Activated Ras signals developmental progression of recombinase-activating gene (RAG)-deficient pro-B lymphocytes. J Exp Med. 1999 Jan 04; 189(1):123-9.
  262. Sekiguchi JM, Gao Y, Gu Y, Frank K, Sun Y, Chaudhuri J, Zhu C, Cheng HL, Manis J, Ferguson D, Davidson L, Greenberg ME, Alt FW. Nonhomologous end-joining proteins are required for V(D)J recombination, normal growth, and neurogenesis. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol. 1999; 64:169-81.
  263. Gao Y, Sun Y, Frank KM, Dikkes P, Fujiwara Y, Seidl KJ, Sekiguchi JM, Rathbun GA, Swat W, Wang J, Bronson RT, Malynn BA, Bryans M, Zhu C, Chaudhuri J, Davidson L, Ferrini R, Stamato T, Orkin SH, Greenberg ME, Alt FW. A critical role for DNA end-joining proteins in both lymphogenesis and neurogenesis. Cell. 1998 Dec 23; 95(7):891-902.
  264. Frank KM, Sekiguchi JM, Seidl KJ, Swat W, Rathbun GA, Cheng HL, Davidson L, Kangaloo L, Alt FW. Late embryonic lethality and impaired V(D)J recombination in mice lacking DNA ligase IV. Nature. 1998 Nov 12; 396(6707):173-7.
  265. Seidl KJ, Bottaro A, Vo A, Zhang J, Davidson L, Alt FW. An expressed neo(r) cassette provides required functions of the 1gamma2b exon for class switching. Int Immunol. 1998 Nov; 10(11):1683-92.
  266. Sleckman BP, Khor B, Monroe R, Alt FW. Assembly of productive T cell receptor delta variable region genes exhibits allelic inclusion. J Exp Med. 1998 Oct 19; 188(8):1465-71.
  267. Manis JP, van der Stoep N, Tian M, Ferrini R, Davidson L, Bottaro A, Alt FW. Class switching in B cells lacking 3' immunoglobulin heavy chain enhancers. J Exp Med. 1998 Oct 19; 188(8):1421-31.
  268. Sleckman BP, Bassing CH, Bardon CG, Okada A, Khor B, Bories JC, Monroe R, Alt FW. Accessibility control of variable region gene assembly during T-cell development. Immunol Rev. 1998 Oct; 165:121-30.
  269. Satterthwaite AB, Lowell CA, Khan WN, Sideras P, Alt FW, Witte ON. Independent and opposing roles for Btk and lyn in B and myeloid signaling pathways. J Exp Med. 1998 Sep 07; 188(5):833-44.
  270. Gao Y, Chaudhuri J, Zhu C, Davidson L, Weaver DT, Alt FW. A targeted DNA-PKcs-null mutation reveals DNA-PK-independent functions for KU in V(D)J recombination. Immunity. 1998 Sep; 9(3):367-76.
  271. Cunningham K, Ackerly H, Claflin L, Collins J, Wu P, Ford C, Lansford R, Alt F, Dunnick WA. Germline transcription and recombination of a murine VDJmudeltagamma1 transgene. Int Immunol. 1998 Aug; 10(8):1027-37.
  272. Wang LC, Swat W, Fujiwara Y, Davidson L, Visvader J, Kuo F, Alt FW, Gilliland DG, Golub TR, Orkin SH. The TEL/ETV6 gene is required specifically for hematopoiesis in the bone marrow. Genes Dev. 1998 Aug 01; 12(15):2392-402.
  273. Pivniouk V, Tsitsikov E, Swinton P, Rathbun G, Alt FW, Geha RS. Impaired viability and profound block in thymocyte development in mice lacking the adaptor protein SLP-76. Cell. 1998 Jul 24; 94(2):229-38.
  274. Snapper SB, Rosen FS, Mizoguchi E, Cohen P, Khan W, Liu CH, Hagemann TL, Kwan SP, Ferrini R, Davidson L, Bhan AK, Alt FW. Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein-deficient mice reveal a role for WASP in T but not B cell activation. Immunity. 1998 Jul; 9(1):81-91.
  275. Manis JP, Gu Y, Lansford R, Sonoda E, Ferrini R, Davidson L, Rajewsky K, Alt FW. Ku70 is required for late B cell development and immunoglobulin heavy chain class switching. J Exp Med. 1998 Jun 15; 187(12):2081-9.
  276. Bottaro A, Young F, Chen J, Serwe M, Sablitzky F, Alt FW. Deletion of the IgH intronic enhancer and associated matrix-attachment regions decreases, but does not abolish, class switching at the mu locus. Int Immunol. 1998 Jun; 10(6):799-806.
  277. van der Stoep N, Gorman JR, Alt FW. Reevaluation of 3'Ekappa function in stage- and lineage-specific rearrangement and somatic hypermutation. Immunity. 1998 Jun; 8(6):743-50.
  278. Irving BA, Alt FW, Killeen N. Thymocyte development in the absence of pre-T cell receptor extracellular immunoglobulin domains. Science. 1998 May 08; 280(5365):905-8.
  279. Holsinger LJ, Graef IA, Swat W, Chi T, Bautista DM, Davidson L, Lewis RS, Alt FW, Crabtree GR. Defects in actin-cap formation in Vav-deficient mice implicate an actin requirement for lymphocyte signal transduction. Curr Biol. 1998 May 07; 8(10):563-72.
  280. Swat W, Fujikawa K, Ganiatsas S, Yang D, Xavier RJ, Harris NL, Davidson L, Ferrini R, Davis RJ, Labow MA, Flavell RA, Zon LI, Alt FW. SEK1/MKK4 is required for maintenance of a normal peripheral lymphoid compartment but not for lymphocyte development. Immunity. 1998 May; 8(5):625-34.
  281. Hata D, Kawakami Y, Inagaki N, Lantz CS, Kitamura T, Khan WN, Maeda-Yamamoto M, Miura T, Han W, Hartman SE, Yao L, Nagai H, Goldfeld AE, Alt FW, Galli SJ, Witte ON, Kawakami T. Involvement of Bruton's tyrosine kinase in FcepsilonRI-dependent mast cell degranulation and cytokine production. J Exp Med. 1998 Apr 20; 187(8):1235-47.
  282. Cunningham K, Ackerly H, Alt F, Dunnick W. Potential regulatory elements for germline transcription in or near murine Sgamma1. Int Immunol. 1998 Apr; 10(4):527-36.
  283. Lansford R, Manis JP, Sonoda E, Rajewsky K, Alt FW. Ig heavy chain class switching in Rag-deficient mice. Int Immunol. 1998 Mar; 10(3):325-32.
  284. Ranger AM, Hodge MR, Gravallese EM, Oukka M, Davidson L, Alt FW, de la Brousse FC, Hoey T, Grusby M, Glimcher LH. Delayed lymphoid repopulation with defects in IL-4-driven responses produced by inactivation of NF-ATc. Immunity. 1998 Jan; 8(1):125-34.
  285. Gorman JR, Alt FW. Regulation of immunoglobulin light chain isotype expression. Adv Immunol. 1998; 69:113-81.
  286. Fraefel C, Jacoby DR, Lage C, Hilderbrand H, Chou JY, Alt FW, Breakefield XO, Majzoub JA. Gene transfer into hepatocytes mediated by helper virus-free HSV/AAV hybrid vectors. Mol Med. 1997 Dec; 3(12):813-25.
  287. Gu Y, Seidl KJ, Rathbun GA, Zhu C, Manis JP, van der Stoep N, Davidson L, Cheng HL, Sekiguchi JM, Frank K, Stanhope-Baker P, Schlissel MS, Roth DB, Alt FW. Growth retardation and leaky SCID phenotype of Ku70-deficient mice. Immunity. 1997 Nov; 7(5):653-65.
  288. Mizuta R, Cheng HL, Gao Y, Alt FW. Molecular genetic characterization of XRCC4 function. Int Immunol. 1997 Oct; 9(10):1607-13.
  289. Sleckman BP, Bardon CG, Ferrini R, Davidson L, Alt FW. Function of the TCR alpha enhancer in alphabeta and gammadelta T cells. Immunity. 1997 Oct; 7(4):505-15.
  290. Porter FD, Drago J, Xu Y, Cheema SS, Wassif C, Huang SP, Lee E, Grinberg A, Massalas JS, Bodine D, Alt F, Westphal H. Lhx2, a LIM homeobox gene, is required for eye, forebrain, and definitive erythrocyte development. Development. 1997 Aug; 124(15):2935-44.
  291. Weaver DT, Alt FW. V(D)J recombination. From RAGs to stitches. Nature. 1997 Jul 31; 388(6641):428-9.
  292. Gu Y, Jin S, Gao Y, Weaver DT, Alt FW. Ku70-deficient embryonic stem cells have increased ionizing radiosensitivity, defective DNA end-binding activity, and inability to support V(D)J recombination. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997 Jul 22; 94(15):8076-81.
  293. Suzuki H, Shinkai Y, Granger LG, Alt FW, Love PE, Singer A. Commitment of immature CD4+8+ thymocytes to the CD4 lineage requires CD3 signaling but does not require expression of clonotypic T cell receptor (TCR) chains. J Exp Med. 1997 Jul 07; 186(1):17-23.
  294. Mizuta R, LaSalle JM, Cheng HL, Shinohara A, Ogawa H, Copeland N, Jenkins NA, Lalande M, Alt FW. RAB22 and RAB163/mouse BRCA2: proteins that specifically interact with the RAD51 protein. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997 Jun 24; 94(13):6927-32.
  295. Merrell K, Wells S, Henderson A, Gorman J, Alt F, Stall A, Calame K. The absence of the transcription activator TFE3 impairs activation of B cells in vivo. Mol Cell Biol. 1997 Jun; 17(6):3335-44.
  296. Kawakami Y, Miura T, Bissonnette R, Hata D, Khan WN, Kitamura T, Maeda-Yamamoto M, Hartman SE, Yao L, Alt FW, Kawakami T. Bruton's tyrosine kinase regulates apoptosis and JNK/SAPK kinase activity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997 Apr 15; 94(8):3938-42.
  297. Van Parijs L, Biuckians A, Ibragimov A, Alt FW, Willerford DM, Abbas AK. Functional responses and apoptosis of CD25 (IL-2R alpha)-deficient T cells expressing a transgenic antigen receptor. J Immunol. 1997 Apr 15; 158(8):3738-45.
  298. Khan WN, Nilsson A, Mizoguchi E, Castigli E, Forsell J, Bhan AK, Geha R, Sideras P, Alt FW. Impaired B cell maturation in mice lacking Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk) and CD40. Int Immunol. 1997 Mar; 9(3):395-405.
  299. Young F, Mizoguchi E, Bhan AK, Alt FW. Constitutive Bcl-2 expression during immunoglobulin heavy chain-promoted B cell differentiation expands novel precursor B cells. Immunity. 1997 Jan; 6(1):23-33.
  300. Wang Q, Stacy T, Miller JD, Lewis AF, Gu TL, Huang X, Bushweller JH, Bories JC, Alt FW, Ryan G, Liu PP, Wynshaw-Boris A, Binder M, Marín-Padilla M, Sharpe AH, Speck NA. The CBFbeta subunit is essential for CBFalpha2 (AML1) function in vivo. Cell. 1996 Nov 15; 87(4):697-708.
  301. Willerford DM, Swat W, Alt FW. Developmental regulation of V(D)J recombination and lymphocyte differentiation. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 1996 Oct; 6(5):603-9.
  302. Mizuta R, Taccioli GE, Alt FW. The V(D)J recombination defect in the xrs-6 cell line results from a point mutation in the Ku80 gene. Int Immunol. 1996 Sep; 8(9):1467-71.
  303. Gorman JR, van der Stoep N, Monroe R, Cogne M, Davidson L, Alt FW. The Ig(kappa) enhancer influences the ratio of Ig(kappa) versus Ig(lambda) B lymphocytes. Immunity. 1996 Sep; 5(3):241-52.
  304. Hardin JD, Boast S, Schwartzberg PL, Lee G, Alt FW, Stall AM, Goff SP. Abnormal peripheral lymphocyte function in c-abl mutant mice. Cell Immunol. 1996 Aug 25; 172(1):100-7.
  305. Bories JC, Demengeot J, Davidson L, Alt FW. Gene-targeted deletion and replacement mutations of the T-cell receptor beta-chain enhancer: the role of enhancer elements in controlling V(D)J recombination accessibility. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996 Jul 23; 93(15):7871-6.
  306. Porcher C, Swat W, Rockwell K, Fujiwara Y, Alt FW, Orkin SH. The T cell leukemia oncoprotein SCL/tal-1 is essential for development of all hematopoietic lineages. Cell. 1996 Jul 12; 86(1):47-57.
  307. Lakso M, Pichel JG, Gorman JR, Sauer B, Okamoto Y, Lee E, Alt FW, Westphal H. Efficient in vivo manipulation of mouse genomic sequences at the zygote stage. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996 Jun 11; 93(12):5860-5.
  308. Swat W, Shinkai Y, Cheng HL, Davidson L, Alt FW. Activated Ras signals differentiation and expansion of CD4+8+ thymocytes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996 May 14; 93(10):4683-7.
  309. Xu Y, Davidson L, Alt FW, Baltimore D. Deletion of the Ig kappa light chain intronic enhancer/matrix attachment region impairs but does not abolish V kappa J kappa rearrangement. Immunity. 1996 Apr; 4(4):377-85.
  310. Xu Y, Davidson L, Alt FW, Baltimore D. Function of the pre-T-cell receptor alpha chain in T-cell development and allelic exclusion at the T-cell receptor beta locus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996 Mar 05; 93(5):2169-73.
  311. Castigli E, Young F, Carossino AM, Alt FW, Geha RS. CD40 expression and function in murine B cell ontogeny. Int Immunol. 1996 Mar; 8(3):405-411.
  312. Zhang BW, Zimmer G, Chen J, Ladd D, Li E, Alt FW, Wiederrecht G, Cryan J, O'Neill EA, Seidman CE, Abbas AK, Seidman JG. T cell responses in calcineurin A alpha-deficient mice. J Exp Med. 1996 Feb 01; 183(2):413-20.
  313. Sleckman BP, Gorman JR, Alt FW. Accessibility control of antigen-receptor variable-region gene assembly: role of cis-acting elements. Annu Rev Immunol. 1996; 14:459-81.
  314. Li Z, Alt FW. Identification of the XRCC4 gene: complementation of the DSBR and V(D)J recombination defects of XR-1 cells. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 1996; 217:143-50.
  315. Komori T, Pricop L, Hatakeyama A, Bona CA, Alt FW. Repertoires of antigen receptors in Tdt congenitally deficient mice. Int Rev Immunol. 1996; 13(4):317-25.
  316. Dong C, Willerford D, Alt FW, Cooper MD. Genomic organization and chromosomal localization of the mouse Bp3 gene, a member of the CD38/ADP-ribosyl cyclase family. Immunogenetics. 1996; 45(1):35-43.
  317. Li Z, Otevrel T, Gao Y, Cheng HL, Seed B, Stamato TD, Taccioli GE, Alt FW. The XRCC4 gene encodes a novel protein involved in DNA double-strand break repair and V(D)J recombination. Cell. 1995 Dec 29; 83(7):1079-89.
  318. Demengeot J, Oltz EM, Alt FW. Promotion of V(D)J recombinational accessibility by the intronic E kappa element: role of the kappa B motif. Int Immunol. 1995 Dec; 7(12):1995-2003.
  319. Blunt T, Taccioli GE, Priestley A, Hafezparast M, McMillan T, Liu J, Cole CC, White J, Alt FW, Jackson SP, et al. A YAC contig encompassing the XRCC5 (Ku80) DNA repair gene and complementation of defective cells by YAC protoplast fusion. Genomics. 1995 Nov 20; 30(2):320-8.
  320. Bories JC, Willerford DM, Grévin D, Davidson L, Camus A, Martin P, Stéhelin D, Alt FW. Increased T-cell apoptosis and terminal B-cell differentiation induced by inactivation of the Ets-1 proto-oncogene. Nature. 1995 Oct 19; 377(6550):635-8.
  321. Zhang Y, Cado D, Asarnow DM, Komori T, Alt FW, Raulet DH, Allison JP. The role of short homology repeats and TdT in generation of the invariant gamma delta antigen receptor repertoire in the fetal thymus. Immunity. 1995 Oct; 3(4):439-47.
  322. Malynn BA, Demengeot J, Stewart V, Charron J, Alt FW. Generation of normal lymphocytes derived from N-myc-deficient embryonic stem cells. Int Immunol. 1995 Oct; 7(10):1637-47.
  323. Willerford DM, Chen J, Ferry JA, Davidson L, Ma A, Alt FW. Interleukin-2 receptor alpha chain regulates the size and content of the peripheral lymphoid compartment. Immunity. 1995 Oct; 3(4):521-30.
  324. Hardin JD, Boast S, Schwartzberg PL, Lee G, Alt FW, Stall AM, Goff SP. Bone marrow B lymphocyte development in c-abl-deficient mice. Cell Immunol. 1995 Oct 01; 165(1):44-54.
  325. Khan WN, Sideras P, Rosen FS, Alt FW. The role of Bruton's tyrosine kinase in B-cell development and function in mice and man. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1995 Sep 29; 764:27-38.
  326. Khan WN, Alt FW, Gerstein RM, Malynn BA, Larsson I, Rathbun G, Davidson L, Müller S, Kantor AB, Herzenberg LA, et al. Defective B cell development and function in Btk-deficient mice. Immunity. 1995 Sep; 3(3):283-99.
  327. Taccioli GE, Alt FW. Potential targets for autosomal SCID mutations. Curr Opin Immunol. 1995 Aug; 7(4):436-40.
  328. Ma A, Pena JC, Chang B, Margosian E, Davidson L, Alt FW, Thompson CB. Bclx regulates the survival of double-positive thymocytes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995 May 23; 92(11):4763-7.
  329. Sen J, Venkataraman L, Shinkai Y, Pierce JW, Alt FW, Burakoff SJ, Sen R. Expression and induction of nuclear factor-kappa B-related proteins in thymocytes. J Immunol. 1995 Apr 01; 154(7):3213-21.
  330. Shinkai Y, Ma A, Cheng HL, Alt FW. CD3 epsilon and CD3 zeta cytoplasmic domains can independently generate signals for T cell development and function. Immunity. 1995 Apr; 2(4):401-11.
  331. Zhang R, Alt FW, Davidson L, Orkin SH, Swat W. Defective signalling through the T- and B-cell antigen receptors in lymphoid cells lacking the vav proto-oncogene. Nature. 1995 Mar 30; 374(6521):470-3.
  332. Blunt T, Finnie NJ, Taccioli GE, Smith GC, Demengeot J, Gottlieb TM, Mizuta R, Varghese AJ, Alt FW, Jeggo PA, Jackson SP. Defective DNA-dependent protein kinase activity is linked to V(D)J recombination and DNA repair defects associated with the murine scid mutation. Cell. 1995 Mar 10; 80(5):813-23.
  333. Castigli E, Alt FW, Davidson L, Bottaro A, Mizoguchi E, Bhan AK, Geha RS. CD40-deficient mice generated by recombination-activating gene-2-deficient blastocyst complementation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994 Dec 06; 91(25):12135-9.
  334. Pricop L, Brumeanu T, Elahi E, Moran T, Wang BS, Troustine M, Huszar D, Alt F, Bona C. Antibody response elicited by T-dependent and T-independent antigens in gene targeted kappa-deficient mice. Int Immunol. 1994 Dec; 6(12):1839-47.
  335. Sen J, Shinkai Y, Alt FW, Sen R, Burakoff SJ. Nuclear factors that mediate intrathymic signals are developmentally regulated. J Exp Med. 1994 Dec 01; 180(6):2321-7.
  336. Tsai FY, Keller G, Kuo FC, Weiss M, Chen J, Rosenblatt M, Alt FW, Orkin SH. An early haematopoietic defect in mice lacking the transcription factor GATA-2. Nature. 1994 Sep 15; 371(6494):221-6.
  337. Taccioli GE, Gottlieb TM, Blunt T, Priestley A, Demengeot J, Mizuta R, Lehmann AR, Alt FW, Jackson SP, Jeggo PA. Ku80: product of the XRCC5 gene and its role in DNA repair and V(D)J recombination. Science. 1994 Sep 02; 265(5177):1442-5.
  338. Chen J, Ma A, Young F, Alt FW. IL-2 receptor alpha chain expression during early B lymphocyte differentiation. Int Immunol. 1994 Aug; 6(8):1265-8.
  339. Okada A, Mendelsohn M, Alt F. Differential activation of transcription versus recombination of transgenic T cell receptor beta variable region gene segments in B and T lineage cells. J Exp Med. 1994 Jul 01; 180(1):261-72.
  340. Shinkai Y, Alt FW. CD3 epsilon-mediated signals rescue the development of CD4+CD8+ thymocytes in RAG-2-/- mice in the absence of TCR beta chain expression. Int Immunol. 1994 Jul; 6(7):995-1001.
  341. Cogné M, Lansford R, Bottaro A, Zhang J, Gorman J, Young F, Cheng HL, Alt FW. A class switch control region at the 3' end of the immunoglobulin heavy chain locus. Cell. 1994 Jun 03; 77(5):737-47.
  342. Okada A, Alt FW. Mechanisms that control antigen receptor variable region gene assembly. Semin Immunol. 1994 Jun; 6(3):185-96.
  343. Young F, Ardman B, Shinkai Y, Lansford R, Blackwell TK, Mendelsohn M, Rolink A, Melchers F, Alt FW. Influence of immunoglobulin heavy- and light-chain expression on B-cell differentiation. Genes Dev. 1994 May 01; 8(9):1043-57.
  344. Karasuyama H, Rolink A, Shinkai Y, Young F, Alt FW, Melchers F. The expression of Vpre-B/lambda 5 surrogate light chain in early bone marrow precursor B cells of normal and B cell-deficient mutant mice. Cell. 1994 Apr 08; 77(1):133-43.
  345. Chen J, Stewart V, Spyrou G, Hilberg F, Wagner EF, Alt FW. Generation of normal T and B lymphocytes by c-jun deficient embryonic stem cells. Immunity. 1994 Apr; 1(1):65-72.
  346. Chen J, Shinkai Y, Young F, Alt FW. Probing immune functions in RAG-deficient mice. Curr Opin Immunol. 1994 Apr; 6(2):313-9.
  347. Li SC, Rothman PB, Zhang J, Chan C, Hirsh D, Alt FW. Expression of I mu-C gamma hybrid germline transcripts subsequent to immunoglobulin heavy chain class switching. Int Immunol. 1994 Apr; 6(4):491-7.
  348. Taccioli GE, Cheng HL, Varghese AJ, Whitmore G, Alt FW. A DNA repair defect in Chinese hamster ovary cells affects V(D)J recombination similarly to the murine scid mutation. J Biol Chem. 1994 Mar 11; 269(10):7439-42.
  349. Bottaro A, Lansford R, Xu L, Zhang J, Rothman P, Alt FW. S region transcription per se promotes basal IgE class switch recombination but additional factors regulate the efficiency of the process. EMBO J. 1994 Feb 01; 13(3):665-74.
  350. Isobe H, Alt F, Bona CA, Schulman J. Intact antiinfluenza virus immune response in targeted kappa-deficient mice. Viral Immunol. 1994; 7(1):25-30.
  351. Chen J, Young F, Bottaro A, Stewart V, Smith RK, Alt FW. Mutations of the intronic IgH enhancer and its flanking sequences differentially affect accessibility of the JH locus. EMBO J. 1993 Dec; 12(12):4635-45.
  352. Oltz EM, Alt FW, Lin WC, Chen J, Taccioli G, Desiderio S, Rathbun G. A V(D)J recombinase-inducible B-cell line: role of transcriptional enhancer elements in directing V(D)J recombination. Mol Cell Biol. 1993 Oct; 13(10):6223-30.
  353. Nakayama K, Nakayama K, Negishi I, Kuida K, Shinkai Y, Louie MC, Fields LE, Lucas PJ, Stewart V, Alt FW, et al. Disappearance of the lymphoid system in Bcl-2 homozygous mutant chimeric mice. Science. 1993 Sep 17; 261(5128):1584-8.
  354. Zhang J, Bottaro A, Li S, Stewart V, Alt FW. A selective defect in IgG2b switching as a result of targeted mutation of the I gamma 2b promoter and exon. EMBO J. 1993 Sep; 12(9):3529-37.
  355. Blackwell TK, Huang J, Ma A, Kretzner L, Alt FW, Eisenman RN, Weintraub H. Binding of myc proteins to canonical and noncanonical DNA sequences. Mol Cell Biol. 1993 Sep; 13(9):5216-24.
  356. Komori T, Okada A, Stewart V, Alt FW. Lack of N regions in antigen receptor variable region genes of TdT-deficient lymphocytes. Science. 1993 Aug 27; 261(5125):1171-5.
  357. Rathbun G, Oltz EM, Alt FW. Comparison of RAG gene expression in normal and transformed precursor lymphocytes. Int Immunol. 1993 Aug; 5(8):997-1000.
  358. Chen J, Gorman JR, Stewart V, Williams B, Jacks T, Alt FW. Generation of normal lymphocyte populations by Rb-deficient embryonic stem cells. Curr Biol. 1993 Jul 01; 3(7):405-13.
  359. Chen J, Trounstine M, Alt FW, Young F, Kurahara C, Loring JF, Huszar D. Immunoglobulin gene rearrangement in B cell deficient mice generated by targeted deletion of the JH locus. Int Immunol. 1993 Jun; 5(6):647-56.
  360. Chen J, Lansford R, Stewart V, Young F, Alt FW. RAG-2-deficient blastocyst complementation: an assay of gene function in lymphocyte development. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993 May 15; 90(10):4528-32.
  361. Xu L, Gorham B, Li SC, Bottaro A, Alt FW, Rothman P. Replacement of germ-line epsilon promoter by gene targeting alters control of immunoglobulin heavy chain class switching. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993 Apr 15; 90(8):3705-9.
  362. Taccioli GE, Rathbun G, Oltz E, Stamato T, Jeggo PA, Alt FW. Impairment of V(D)J recombination in double-strand break repair mutants. Science. 1993 Apr 09; 260(5105):207-10.
  363. Rodewald HR, Awad K, Moingeon P, D'Adamio L, Rabinowitz D, Shinkai Y, Alt FW, Reinherz EL. Fc gamma RII/III and CD2 expression mark distinct subpopulations of immature CD4-CD8- murine thymocytes: in vivo developmental kinetics and T cell receptor beta chain rearrangement status. J Exp Med. 1993 Apr 01; 177(4):1079-92.
  364. Chen J, Alt FW. Gene rearrangement and B-cell development. Curr Opin Immunol. 1993 Apr; 5(2):194-200.
  365. Ma A, Moroy T, Collum R, Weintraub H, Alt FW, Blackwell TK. DNA binding by N- and L-Myc proteins. Oncogene. 1993 Apr; 8(4):1093-8.
  366. Chen J, Trounstine M, Kurahara C, Young F, Kuo CC, Xu Y, Loring JF, Alt FW, Huszar D. B cell development in mice that lack one or both immunoglobulin kappa light chain genes. EMBO J. 1993 Mar; 12(3):821-30.
  367. Shinkai Y, Koyasu S, Nakayama K, Murphy KM, Loh DY, Reinherz EL, Alt FW. Restoration of T cell development in RAG-2-deficient mice by functional TCR transgenes. Science. 1993 Feb 05; 259(5096):822-5.
  368. Xu Y, Baldassare M, Fisher P, Rathbun G, Oltz EM, Yancopoulos GD, Jessell TM, Alt FW. LH-2: a LIM/homeodomain gene expressed in developing lymphocytes and neural cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993 Jan 01; 90(1):227-31.
  369. Charron J, Malynn BA, Fisher P, Stewart V, Jeannotte L, Goff SP, Robertson EJ, Alt FW. Embryonic lethality in mice homozygous for a targeted disruption of the N-myc gene. Genes Dev. 1992 Dec; 6(12A):2248-57.
  370. Alt FW, Oltz EM, Young F, Gorman J, Taccioli G, Chen J. VDJ recombination. Immunol Today. 1992 Aug; 13(8):306-14.
  371. Oltz EM, Yancopoulos GD, Morrow MA, Rolink A, Lee G, Wong F, Kaplan K, Gillis S, Melchers F, Alt FW. A novel regulatory myosin light chain gene distinguishes pre-B cell subsets and is IL-7 inducible. EMBO J. 1992 Jul; 11(7):2759-67.
  372. Schultz CL, Rothman P, Kühn R, Kehry M, Müller W, Rajewsky K, Alt F, Coffman RL. T helper cell membranes promote IL-4-independent expression of germ-line C gamma 1 transcripts in B cells. J Immunol. 1992 Jul 01; 149(1):60-4.
  373. Ma A, Fisher P, Dildrop R, Oltz E, Rathbun G, Achacoso P, Stall A, Alt FW. Surface IgM mediated regulation of RAG gene expression in E mu-N-myc B cell lines. EMBO J. 1992 Jul; 11(7):2727-34.
  374. Wang Y, Sugiyama H, Axelson H, Panda CK, Babonits M, Ma A, Steinberg JM, Alt FW, Klein G, Wiener F. Functional homology between N-myc and c-myc in murine plasmacytomagenesis: plasmacytoma development in N-myc transgenic mice. Oncogene. 1992 Jun; 7(6):1241-7.
  375. Alt FW, Rathbun G, Oltz E, Taccioli G, Shinkai Y. Function and control of recombination-activating gene activity. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1992 May 04; 651:277-94.
  376. Smith RK, Zimmerman K, Yancopoulos GD, Ma A, Alt FW. Transcriptional down-regulation of N-myc expression during B-cell development. Mol Cell Biol. 1992 Apr; 12(4):1578-84.
  377. Möröy T, Fisher PE, Lee G, Achacoso P, Wiener F, Alt FW. High frequency of myelomonocytic tumors in aging E mu L-myc transgenic mice. J Exp Med. 1992 Feb 01; 175(2):313-22.
  378. Alt FW. Mutational analyses of lymphocyte differentiation. Harvey Lect. 1992-1993; 88:97-114.
  379. Morrow MA, Lee G, Gillis S, Yancopoulos GD, Alt FW. Interleukin-7 induces N-myc and c-myc expression in normal precursor B lymphocytes. Genes Dev. 1992 Jan; 6(1):61-70.
  380. Taccioli GE, Rathbun G, Shinkai Y, Oltz EM, Cheng H, Whitmore G, Stamato T, Jeggo P, Alt FW. Activities involved in V(D)J recombination. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 1992; 182:107-14.
  381. Möröy T, Verbeek S, Ma A, Achacoso P, Berns A, Alt F. E mu N- and E mu L-myc cooperate with E mu pim-1 to generate lymphoid tumors at high frequency in double-transgenic mice. Oncogene. 1991 Nov; 6(11):1941-8.
  382. Rothman P, Li SC, Gorham B, Glimcher L, Alt F, Boothby M. Identification of a conserved lipopolysaccharide-plus-interleukin-4-responsive element located at the promoter of germ line epsilon transcripts. Mol Cell Biol. 1991 Nov; 11(11):5551-61.
  383. Timmers E, Kenter M, Thompson A, Kraakman ME, Berman JE, Alt FW, Schuurman RK. Diversity of immunoglobulin heavy chain gene segment rearrangement in B lymphoblastoid cell lines from X-linked agammaglobulinemia patients. Eur J Immunol. 1991 Oct; 21(10):2355-63.
  384. Bailey NC, Kasturi KN, Blackwell TK, Alt FW, Bona CA. Complexity of the immunoglobulin light chain V kappa 1 gene family in the New Zealand black mouse. Int Immunol. 1991 Aug; 3(8):751-60.
  385. Berman JE, Humphries CG, Barth J, Alt FW, Tucker PW. Structure and expression of human germline VH transcripts. J Exp Med. 1991 Jun 01; 173(6):1529-35.
  386. Berman JE, Nickerson KG, Pollock RR, Barth JE, Schuurman RK, Knowles DM, Chess L, Alt FW. VH gene usage in humans: biased usage of the VH6 gene in immature B lymphoid cells. Eur J Immunol. 1991 May; 21(5):1311-4.
  387. Bailey NC, Bona A, Dikman S, Bonilla F, Alt FW, Bona C. Correlation between the occurrence of lupus nephritis, anti-erythrocyte autoantibodies and V kappa haplotype in NZB x 129/J and NZB x SM/J recombinant inbred murine strains. Eur J Immunol. 1991 Apr; 21(4):959-65.
  388. Collum RG, Clayton DF, Alt FW. Structure and expression of canary myc family genes. Mol Cell Biol. 1991 Mar; 11(3):1770-6.
  389. Alt FW, Rathbun G, Yancopoulos GD. DNA recombination in the brain? Curr Biol. 1991 Feb; 1(1):3-5.
  390. DePinho RA, Schreiber-Agus N, Alt FW. myc family oncogenes in the development of normal and neoplastic cells. Adv Cancer Res. 1991; 57:1-46.
  391. Li SC, Rothman P, Boothby M, Ferrier P, Glimcher L, Alt FW. Control of immunoglobulin heavy chain constant region gene expression. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1991; 292:245-51.
  392. Ma A, Smith RK, Tesfaye A, Achacoso P, Dildrop R, Rosenberg N, Alt FW. Mechanism of endogenous myc gene down-regulation in E mu-N-myc tumors. Mol Cell Biol. 1991 Jan; 11(1):440-4.
  393. Desai R, Spatz L, Matsuda T, Ilyas AA, Berman JE, Alt FW, Kabat EA, Latov N. Molecular cloning of a human immunoglobulin heavy chain variable (vh) region with anti-myelin-associated glycoprotein activity. J Neuroimmunol. 1990 Dec; 30(2-3):245.
  394. Möröy T, Fisher P, Guidos C, Ma A, Zimmerman K, Tesfaye A, DePinho R, Weissman I, Alt FW. IgH enhancer deregulated expression of L-myc: abnormal T lymphocyte development and T cell lymphomagenesis. EMBO J. 1990 Nov; 9(11):3659-66.
  395. Ferrier P, Covey LR, Li SC, Suh H, Malynn BA, Blackwell TK, Morrow MA, Alt FW. Normal recombination substrate VH to DJH rearrangements in pre-B cell lines from scid mice. J Exp Med. 1990 Jun 01; 171(6):1909-18.
  396. Zimmerman K, Legouy E, Stewart V, Depinho R, Alt FW. Differential regulation of the N-myc gene in transfected cells and transgenic mice. Mol Cell Biol. 1990 May; 10(5):2096-103.
  397. Rothman P, Chen YY, Lutzker S, Li SC, Stewart V, Coffman R, Alt FW. Structure and expression of germ line immunoglobulin heavy-chain epsilon transcripts: interleukin-4 plus lipopolysaccharide-directed switching to C epsilon. Mol Cell Biol. 1990 Apr; 10(4):1672-9.
  398. Yancopoulos GD, Nolan GP, Pollock R, Prockop S, Li SC, Herzenberg LA, Alt FW. A novel fluorescence-based system for assaying and separating live cells according to VDJ recombinase activity. Mol Cell Biol. 1990 Apr; 10(4):1697-704.
  399. Spatz LA, Wong KK, Williams M, Desai R, Golier J, Berman JE, Alt FW, Latov N. Cloning and sequence analysis of the VH and VL regions of an anti-myelin/DNA antibody from a patient with peripheral neuropathy and chronic lymphocytic leukemia. J Immunol. 1990 Apr 01; 144(7):2821-8.
  400. Charron J, Malynn BA, Robertson EJ, Goff SP, Alt FW. High-frequency disruption of the N-myc gene in embryonic stem and pre-B cell lines by homologous recombination. Mol Cell Biol. 1990 Apr; 10(4):1799-804.
  401. Malynn BA, Yancopoulos GD, Barth JE, Bona CA, Alt FW. Biased expression of JH-proximal VH genes occurs in the newly generated repertoire of neonatal and adult mice. J Exp Med. 1990 Mar 01; 171(3):843-59.
  402. Collum RG, Alt FW. Are myc proteins transcription factors? Cancer Cells. 1990 Mar; 2(3):69-75.
  403. Ferrier P, Krippl B, Blackwell TK, Furley AJ, Suh H, Winoto A, Cook WD, Hood L, Costantini F, Alt FW. Separate elements control DJ and VDJ rearrangement in a transgenic recombination substrate. EMBO J. 1990 Jan; 9(1):117-25.
  404. Zimmerman K, Alt FW. Expression and function of myc family genes. Crit Rev Oncog. 1990; 2(1):75-95.
  405. Berman JE, Alt FW. Human heavy chain variable region gene diversity, organization, and expression. Int Rev Immunol. 1990; 5(3-4):203-14.
  406. Rothman P, Lutzker S, Gorham B, Stewart V, Coffman R, Alt FW. Structure and expression of germline immunoglobulin gamma 3 heavy chain gene transcripts: implications for mitogen and lymphokine directed class-switching. Int Immunol. 1990; 2(7):621-7.
  407. Covey LR, Ferrier P, Alt FW. VH to VHDJH rearrangement is mediated by the internal VH heptamer. Int Immunol. 1990; 2(6):579-83.
  408. Desai R, Spatz L, Matsuda T, Ilyas AA, Berman JE, Alt FW, Kabat EA, Latov N. Molecular cloning of a human immunoglobulin heavy chain variable (VH) region with anti-myelin-associated glycoprotein activity. J Neuroimmunol. 1990 Jan; 26(1):35-41.
  409. Rathbun G, Alt FW, Yancopoulos GD. Immunology: making antigen-receptor genes. Nature. 1989 Dec 21-28; 342(6252):863-4.
  410. Hsu E, Schwager J, Alt FW. Evolution of immunoglobulin genes: VH families in the amphibian Xenopus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1989 Oct; 86(20):8010-4.
  411. Logtenberg T, Young FM, Van Es JH, Gmelig-Meyling FH, Alt FW. Autoantibodies encoded by the most Jh-proximal human immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region gene. J Exp Med. 1989 Oct 01; 170(4):1347-55.
  412. Rothman P, Li SC, Alt FW. The molecular events in heavy chain class-switching. Semin Immunol. 1989 Sep; 1(1):65-77.
  413. Blackwell TK, Alt FW. Molecular characterization of the lymphoid V(D)J recombination activity. J Biol Chem. 1989 Jun 25; 264(18):10327-30.
  414. Logtenberg T, Young FM, van Es J, Gmelig-Meyling FH, Berman JE, Alt FW. Frequency of VH-gene utilization in human EBV-transformed B-cell lines: the most JH-proximal VH segment encodes autoantibodies. J Autoimmun. 1989 Jun; 2 Suppl:203-13.
  415. Nickerson KG, Berman J, Glickman E, Chess L, Alt FW. Early human IgH gene assembly in Epstein-Barr virus-transformed fetal B cell lines. Preferential utilization of the most JH-proximal D segment (DQ52) and two unusual VH-related rearrangements. J Exp Med. 1989 Apr 01; 169(4):1391-403.
  416. Dildrop R, Ma A, Zimmerman K, Hsu E, Tesfaye A, DePinho R, Alt FW. IgH enhancer-mediated deregulation of N-myc gene expression in transgenic mice: generation of lymphoid neoplasias that lack c-myc expression. EMBO J. 1989 Apr; 8(4):1121-8.
  417. Blackwell TK, Malynn BA, Pollock RR, Ferrier P, Covey LR, Fulop GM, Phillips RA, Yancopoulos GD, Alt FW. Isolation of scid pre-B cells that rearrange kappa light chain genes: formation of normal signal and abnormal coding joins. EMBO J. 1989 Mar; 8(3):735-42.
  418. Blackwell TK, Alt FW. Mechanism and developmental program of immunoglobulin gene rearrangement in mammals. Annu Rev Genet. 1989; 23:605-36.
  419. Campbell GR, Zimmerman K, Blank RD, Alt FW, D'Eustachio P. Chromosomal location of N-myc and L-myc genes in the mouse. Oncogene Res. 1989; 4(1):47-54.
  420. Ferrier P, Covey LR, Suh H, Winoto A, Hood L, Alt FW. T cell receptor DJ but not VDJ rearrangement within a recombination substrate introduced into a pre-B cell line. Int Immunol. 1989; 1(1):66-74.
  421. Logtenberg T, Schutte ME, Inghirami G, Berman JE, Gmelig-Meyling FH, Insel RA, Knowles DM, Alt FW. Immunoglobulin VH gene expression in human B cell lines and tumors: biased VH gene expression in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Int Immunol. 1989; 1(4):362-6.
  422. Rothman P, Lutzker S, Cook W, Coffman R, Alt FW. Mitogen plus interleukin 4 induction of C epsilon transcripts in B lymphoid cells. J Exp Med. 1988 Dec 01; 168(6):2385-9.
  423. Sawczuk IS, Olsson CA, Buttyan R, Nguyen-Huu MC, Zimmerman KA, Alt FW, Zakeri Z, Wolgemuth D, Reitelman C. Gene expression in renal growth and regrowth. J Urol. 1988 Nov; 140(5 Pt 2):1145-8.
  424. Okada A, Bank I, Rogozinski L, Takihara Y, Mak TW, Chess L, Alt FW. Structure of the gamma/delta T cell receptor of a human thymocyte clone. J Exp Med. 1988 Oct 01; 168(4):1481-6.
  425. Mugrauer G, Alt FW, Ekblom P. N-myc proto-oncogene expression during organogenesis in the developing mouse as revealed by in situ hybridization. J Cell Biol. 1988 Oct; 107(4):1325-35.
  426. Yancopoulos GD, Alt FW. Reconstruction of an immune system. Science. 1988 Sep 23; 241(4873):1581-3.
  427. Malynn BA, Blackwell TK, Fulop GM, Rathbun GA, Furley AJ, Ferrier P, Heinke LB, Phillips RA, Yancopoulos GD, Alt FW. The scid defect affects the final step of the immunoglobulin VDJ recombinase mechanism. Cell. 1988 Aug 12; 54(4):453-60.
  428. Yancopoulos GD, Malynn BA, Alt FW. Developmentally regulated and strain-specific expression of murine VH gene families. J Exp Med. 1988 Jul 01; 168(1):417-35.
  429. Nisen PD, Rich MA, Gloster E, Valderrama E, Saric O, Shende A, Lanzkowsky P, Alt FW. N-myc oncogene expression in histopathologically unrelated bilateral pediatric renal tumors. Cancer. 1988 May 01; 61(9):1821-6.
  430. Lutzker S, Rothman P, Pollock R, Coffman R, Alt FW. Mitogen- and IL-4-regulated expression of germ-line Ig gamma 2b transcripts: evidence for directed heavy chain class switching. Cell. 1988 Apr 22; 53(2):177-84.
  431. Lutzker S, Alt FW. Structure and expression of germ line immunoglobulin gamma 2b transcripts. Mol Cell Biol. 1988 Apr; 8(4):1849-52.
  432. Takihara Y, Champagne E, Griesser H, Kimura N, Tkachuk D, Reimann J, Okada A, Alt FW, Chess L, Minden M, et al. Sequence and organization of the human T cell delta chain gene. Eur J Immunol. 1988 Feb; 18(2):283-7.
  433. Dildrop R, Zimmerman K, DePinho RA, Yancopoulos GD, Tesfaye A, Alt FW. Differential expression of myc-family genes during development: normal and deregulated N-myc expression in transgenic mice. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 1988; 141:100-9.
  434. Alt FW, Ferrier P, Malynn B, Lutzker S, Rothman P, Berman J, Blackwell K, Mellis S, Pollock R, Furley A, et al. Control of recombination events during lymphocyte differentiation. Heavy chain variable region gene assembly and heavy chain class switching. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1988; 546:9-24.
  435. Maddon PJ, Molineaux SM, Maddon DE, Zimmerman KA, Godfrey M, Alt FW, Chess L, Axel R. Structure and expression of the human and mouse T4 genes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1987 Dec; 84(24):9155-9.
  436. DePinho RA, Hatton KS, Tesfaye A, Yancopoulos GD, Alt FW. The human myc gene family: structure and activity of L-myc and an L-myc pseudogene. Genes Dev. 1987 Dec; 1(10):1311-26.
  437. Alt FW, Blackwell TK, Yancopoulos GD. Development of the primary antibody repertoire. Science. 1987 Nov 20; 238(4830):1079-87.
  438. Reth M, Petrac E, Wiese P, Lobel L, Alt FW. Activation of V kappa gene rearrangement in pre-B cells follows the expression of membrane-bound immunoglobulin heavy chains. EMBO J. 1987 Nov; 6(11):3299-305.
  439. Legouy E, DePinho R, Zimmerman K, Collum R, Yancopoulos G, Mitsock L, Kriz R, Alt FW. Structure and expression of the murine L-myc gene. EMBO J. 1987 Nov; 6(11):3359-66.
  440. Kanda N, Tsuchida Y, Hata J, Kohl NE, Alt FW, Latt SA, Utakoji T. Amplification of IMR-32 clones 8, G21, and N-myc in human neuroblastoma xenografts. Cancer Res. 1987 Jun 15; 47(12):3291-5.
  441. Alt FW, Yancopoulos GD. Circular T-cell receptor gene recombination products. Nature. 1987 May 21-27; 327(6119):189-90.
  442. Bellon B, Manheimer-Lory A, Monestier M, Moran T, Dimitriu-Bona A, Alt F, Bona C. High frequency of autoantibodies bearing cross-reactive idiotopes among hybridomas using VH7183 genes prepared from normal and autoimmune murine strains. J Clin Invest. 1987 Apr; 79(4):1044-53.
  443. Ott DE, Alt FW, Marcu KB. Immunoglobulin heavy chain switch region recombination within a retroviral vector in murine pre-B cells. EMBO J. 1987 Mar; 6(3):577-84.
  444. Rohowsky-Kochan C, Kowal C, King DW, Alt FW, Suciu-Foca N. T cell receptor B chain rearrangements in human suppressor T lymphocytes. Transplant Proc. 1987 Feb; 19(1 Pt 1):811-4.
  445. Kowal C, Rohowsky-Kochan C, Cristea E, Cai J, Rosochacki S, Lungu O, King DW, Alt FW, Suciu-Foca N. Differentiation antigens associated with the function of alloreactive T lymphocytes. Transplant Proc. 1987 Feb; 19(1 Pt 1):268-72.
  446. Malynn BA, Berman JE, Yancopoulos GD, Bona CA, Alt FW. Expression of the immunoglobulin heavy-chain variable gene repertoire. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 1987; 135:75-94.
  447. Blackwell TK, Moore MW, Yancopoulos GD, Suh H, Lutzker S, Selsing E, Alt FW. Recombination between immunoglobulin variable region gene segments is enhanced by transcription. Nature. 1986 Dec 11-17; 324(6097):585-9.
  448. Yancopoulos GD, DePinho RA, Zimmerman KA, Lutzker SG, Rosenberg N, Alt FW. Secondary genomic rearrangement events in pre-B cells: VHDJH replacement by a LINE-1 sequence and directed class switching. EMBO J. 1986 Dec 01; 5(12):3259-66.
  449. Nisen PD, Zimmerman KA, Cotter SV, Gilbert F, Alt FW. Enhanced expression of the N-myc gene in Wilms' tumors. Cancer Res. 1986 Dec; 46(12 Pt 1):6217-22.
  450. Berman JE, Malynn BA, Blackwell TK, Alt FW. Regulation fo immunoglobulin variable region gene assembly: development of the primary antibody repertoire. Bioessays. 1986 Nov; 5(5):197-203.
  451. Manheimer-Lory AJ, Monestier M, Bellon B, Alt FW, Bona CA. Fine specificity, idiotypy, and nature of cloned heavy-chain variable region genes of murine monoclonal rheumatoid factor antibodies. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1986 Nov; 83(21):8293-7.
  452. Shiloh Y, Korf B, Kohl NE, Sakai K, Brodeur GM, Harris P, Kanda N, Seeger RC, Alt F, Latt SA. Amplification and rearrangement of DNA sequences from the chromosomal region 2p24 in human neuroblastomas. Cancer Res. 1986 Oct; 46(10):5297-301.
  453. Reth MG, Jackson S, Alt FW. VHDJH formation and DJH replacement during pre-B differentiation: non-random usage of gene segments. EMBO J. 1986 Sep; 5(9):2131-8.
  454. Mensink EJ, Schuurman RK, Schot JD, Thompson A, Alt FW. Immunoglobulin heavy chain gene rearrangements in X-linked agammaglobulinemia. Eur J Immunol. 1986 Aug; 16(8):963-7.
  455. Alt FW. Antibody diversity. New mechanism revealed. Nature. 1986 Aug 28-Sep 3; 322(6082):772-3.
  456. Bank I, DePinho RA, Brenner MB, Cassimeris J, Alt FW, Chess L. A functional T3 molecule associated with a novel heterodimer on the surface of immature human thymocytes. Nature. 1986 Jul 10-16; 322(6075):179-81.
  457. Alt FW, Reth MG, Blackwell TK, Yancopoulos GD. Regulation of immunoglobulin variable-region gene assembly. Mt Sinai J Med. 1986 Mar; 53(3):166-9.
  458. DePinho RA, Legouy E, Feldman LB, Kohl NE, Yancopoulos GD, Alt FW. Structure and expression of the murine N-myc gene. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1986 Mar; 83(6):1827-31.
  459. Alt FW, Blackwell TK, DePinho RA, Reth MG, Yancopoulos GD. Regulation of genome rearrangement events during lymphocyte differentiation. Immunol Rev. 1986 Feb; 89:5-30.
  460. Yancopoulos GD, Blackwell TK, Suh H, Hood L, Alt FW. Introduced T cell receptor variable region gene segments recombine in pre-B cells: evidence that B and T cells use a common recombinase. Cell. 1986 Jan 31; 44(2):251-9.
  461. Depinho RA, Hatton K, Ferrier P, Zimmerman K, Legouy E, Tesfaye A, Collum R, Yancopoulos G, Nisen P, Alt F. Myc family genes: a dispersed multi-gene family. Ann Clin Res. 1986; 18(5-6):284-9.
  462. Alt FW, DePinho R, Zimmerman K, Legouy E, Hatton K, Ferrier P, Tesfaye A, Yancopoulos G, Nisen P. The human myc gene family. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol. 1986; 51 Pt 2:931-41.
  463. Kohl NE, Legouy E, DePinho RA, Nisen PD, Smith RK, Gee CE, Alt FW. Human N-myc is closely related in organization and nucleotide sequence to c-myc. Nature. 1986 Jan 2-8; 319(6048):73-7.
  464. Yancopoulos GD, Alt FW. Regulation of the assembly and expression of variable-region genes. Annu Rev Immunol. 1986; 4:339-68.
  465. Reth MG, Ammirati P, Jackson S, Alt FW. Regulated progression of a cultured pre-B-cell line to the B-cell stage. Nature. 1985 Sep 26-Oct 2; 317(6035):353-5.
  466. Yancopoulos GD, Nisen PD, Tesfaye A, Kohl NE, Goldfarb MP, Alt FW. N-myc can cooperate with ras to transform normal cells in culture. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1985 Aug; 82(16):5455-9.
  467. Yancopoulos GD, Alt FW. Developmentally controlled and tissue-specific expression of unrearranged VH gene segments. Cell. 1985 Feb; 40(2):271-81.
  468. DePinho R, Kruger K, Andrews N, Lutzker S, Baltimore D, Alt FW. Molecular basis of heavy-chain class switching and switch region deletion in an Abelson virus-transformed cell line. Mol Cell Biol. 1984 Dec; 4(12):2905-10.
  469. Alt FW. Exclusive immunoglobulin genes. Nature. 1984 Dec 6-12; 312(5994):502-3.
  470. Reth MG, Alt FW. Novel immunoglobulin heavy chains are produced from DJH gene segment rearrangements in lymphoid cells. Nature. 1984 Nov 29-Dec 5; 312(5993):418-23.
  471. Desiderio SV, Yancopoulos GD, Paskind M, Thomas E, Boss MA, Landau N, Alt FW, Baltimore D. Insertion of N regions into heavy-chain genes is correlated with expression of terminal deoxytransferase in B cells. Nature. 1984 Oct 25-31; 311(5988):752-5.
  472. Yancopoulos GD, Desiderio SV, Paskind M, Kearney JF, Baltimore D, Alt FW. Preferential utilization of the most JH-proximal VH gene segments in pre-B-cell lines. Nature. 1984 Oct 25-31; 311(5988):727-33.
  473. Alt FW, Yancopoulos GD, Blackwell TK, Wood C, Thomas E, Boss M, Coffman R, Rosenberg N, Tonegawa S, Baltimore D. Ordered rearrangement of immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region segments. EMBO J. 1984 Jun; 3(6):1209-19.
  474. Blackwell TK, Alt FW. Site-specific recombination between immunoglobulin D and JH segments that were introduced into the genome of a murine pre-B cell line. Cell. 1984 May; 37(1):105-12.
  475. Kohl NE, Kanda N, Schreck RR, Bruns G, Latt SA, Gilbert F, Alt FW. Transposition and amplification of oncogene-related sequences in human neuroblastomas. Cell. 1983 Dec; 35(2 Pt 1):359-67.
  476. Kanda N, Schreck R, Alt F, Bruns G, Baltimore D, Latt S. Isolation of amplified DNA sequences from IMR-32 human neuroblastoma cells: facilitation by fluorescence-activated flow sorting of metaphase chromosomes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1983 Jul; 80(13):4069-73.
  477. Lewis S, Rosenberg N, Alt F, Baltimore D. Continuing kappa-gene rearrangement in a cell line transformed by Abelson murine leukemia virus. Cell. 1982 Oct; 30(3):807-16.
  478. Alt FW, Baltimore D. Joining of immunoglobulin heavy chain gene segments: implications from a chromosome with evidence of three D-JH fusions. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1982 Jul; 79(13):4118-22.
  479. Alt FW, Rosenberg N, Enea V, Siden E, Baltimore D. Multiple immunoglobulin heavy-chain gene transcripts in Abelson murine leukemia virus-transformed lymphoid cell lines. Mol Cell Biol. 1982 Apr; 2(4):386-400.
  480. Alt FW, Rosenberg N, Casanova RJ, Thomas E, Baltimore D. Immunoglobulin heavy-chain expression and class switching in a murine leukaemia cell line. Nature. 1982 Mar 25; 296(5855):325-31.
  481. Alt F, Rosenberg N, Lewis S, Thomas E, Baltimore D. Organization and reorganization of immunoglobulin genes in A-MULV-transformed cells: rearrangement of heavy but not light chain genes. Cell. 1981 Dec; 27(2 Pt 1):381-90.
  482. Siden E, Alt FW, Shinefeld L, Sato V, Baltimore D. Synthesis of immunoglobulin mu chain gene products precedes synthesis of light chains during B-lymphocyte development. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1981 Mar; 78(3):1823-7.
  483. Mather EL, Alt FW, Bothwell AL, Baltimore D, Koshland ME. Expression of J chain RNA in cell lines representing different stages of B lymphocyte differentiation. Cell. 1981 Feb; 23(2):369-78.
  484. Alt FW, Enea V, Bothwell AL, Baltimore D. Activity of multiple light chain genes in murine myeloma cells producing a single, functional light chain. Cell. 1980 Aug; 21(1):1-12.
  485. Alt FW, Bothwell AL, Knapp M, Siden E, Mather E, Koshland M, Baltimore D. Synthesis of secreted and membrane-bound immunoglobulin mu heavy chains is directed by mRNAs that differ at their 3' ends. Cell. 1980 Jun; 20(2):293-301.
  486. Schimke RT, Alt FW, Kellems RE, Kaufman RJ, Bertino JR. Amplification of dihydrofolate reductase genes in methotrexate-resistant cultured mouse cells. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol. 1978; 42 Pt 2:649-57.
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