Heart Murmurs


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1938 | Robert Gross, MD, performs first ligation of the patent ductus arteriosus for 7-year-old girl

1945 | Gross and Charles Hufnagel, MD, address surgical approach to coarctation of the aorta

1950 | Gross develops atrial well for atrial septal defect closure

1952 | Gross performs surgical ligation of an aortopulmonary window 


1966 | William Bernhard, MD, demonstrates feasibility of hyperbaric chamber to extend time for cardiac surgeons

1968 | Establishment of New England Regional Infant Cardiac Program database to ensure accurate diagnosis of congenital heart disease and compare results across the region 


1960-1970s | Alexandaer Nadas, MD, (left) helps establish the subspecialty of pediatric cardiology, including the development of the pediatric cardiology subboards

1972 | Aldo Castañeda, MD, performs first routine intracardiac of complex congenital heart disease in infants 


1974 | Walter J. Gamble, MD, (left), C. Grant LaFarge, MD, and R. Grier Monroe, MD, develop new technique of microscopic oximetry and an improved oxygen electrode.

1981 | William Norwood, MD, performs first “Norwood” repair of hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS)

1984 | Castañeda performs first transposition of the great arteries and intact ventricular septum 


1990 | Radio waves directed through a catheter correct Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, marking the first pediatric non-surgical repair of a cardiac arrhythmia 


1991 | James Lock, MD, and Nancy Bridges, MD, perform first percutaneous closure of patent foramen ovale 

1996 | Lock and Kathy Jenkins, MD, develop the Webster-Jenkins basket catheter to provide rapid diagnostic information in mapping multiple sites of cardiac arrhythmias 


2003 | Martha Curley, PhD, RN, and Patricia Hickey, PhD, RN, develop first nurse-sensitive quality metrics, “The Nightingale Metrics,” for pediatric cardiovascular critical care patients 


2004 | First successful recruitment of hypoplastic left ventricle for biventricular repair of HLHS 


2006 | Lock and Audrey Marshall, MD, perform world’s first in utero cardiac stenting to treat HLHS with intact atrial septum on 30-week fetus 

2008 | Institution of Standardized Clinical and Management Plans, a systematic approach that bridges gaps in care, provides an infrastructure to improve health care delivery and identifies unnecessary resource utilization 

We are grateful to have been ranked #1 on U.S. News & World Report's list of the best children's hospitals in the nation for the third year in a row, an honor we could not have achieved without the patients and families who inspire us to do our very best for them. Thanks to you, Boston Children's is a place where we can write the greatest children's stories ever told.”
- Sandra L. Fenwick, President and CEO

Boston Children's Hospital
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