Heart Murmurs


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1938 | Robert Gross, MD, performs first ligation of the patent ductus arteriosus for 7-year-old girl

1945 | Gross and Charles Hufnagel, MD, address surgical approach to coarctation of the aorta

1950 | Gross develops atrial well for atrial septal defect closure

1952 | Gross performs surgical ligation of an aortopulmonary window 


1966 | William Bernhard, MD, demonstrates feasibility of hyperbaric chamber to extend time for cardiac surgeons

1968 | Establishment of New England Regional Infant Cardiac Program database to ensure accurate diagnosis of congenital heart disease and compare results across the region 


1960-1970s | Alexandaer Nadas, MD, (left) helps establish the subspecialty of pediatric cardiology, including the development of the pediatric cardiology subboards

1972 | Aldo Castañeda, MD, performs first routine intracardiac of complex congenital heart disease in infants 


1974 | Walter J. Gamble, MD, (left), C. Grant LaFarge, MD, and R. Grier Monroe, MD, develop new technique of microscopic oximetry and an improved oxygen electrode.

1981 | William Norwood, MD, performs first “Norwood” repair of hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS)

1984 | Castañeda performs first transposition of the great arteries and intact ventricular septum 


1990 | Radio waves directed through a catheter correct Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, marking the first pediatric non-surgical repair of a cardiac arrhythmia 


1991 | James Lock, MD, and Nancy Bridges, MD, perform first percutaneous closure of patent foramen ovale 

1996 | Lock and Kathy Jenkins, MD, develop the Webster-Jenkins basket catheter to provide rapid diagnostic information in mapping multiple sites of cardiac arrhythmias 


2003 | Martha Curley, PhD, RN, and Patricia Hickey, PhD, RN, develop first nurse-sensitive quality metrics, “The Nightingale Metrics,” for pediatric cardiovascular critical care patients 


2004 | First successful recruitment of hypoplastic left ventricle for biventricular repair of HLHS 


2006 | Lock and Audrey Marshall, MD, perform world’s first in utero cardiac stenting to treat HLHS with intact atrial septum on 30-week fetus 

2008 | Institution of Standardized Clinical and Management Plans, a systematic approach that bridges gaps in care, provides an infrastructure to improve health care delivery and identifies unnecessary resource utilization 

The future of pediatrics will be forged by thinking differently, breaking paradigms and joining together in a shared vision of tackling the toughest challenges before us.”
- Sandra L. Fenwick, President and CEO

Boston Children's Hospital 300 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115 617-355-6000 | 800-355-7944