Heart Center | Conditions and Treatments

Anomalous Left Coronary Artery from the Pulmonary Artery (ALCAPA)

What is ALCAPA? Anomalous left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery (ALCAPA) is a congenital (present at birth) heart defect in which the left coronary artery arises abnormally from the pulmonary...

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Aortic valve stenosis

What is aortic valve stenosis? The term “stenosis” describes an abnormal narrowing within a structure of the body. Aortic valve stenosis, therefore, refers to the narrowing of the heart’s aortic valve...

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Cardiac Tumor

What is a cardiac tumor? A cardiac tumor is a rare, abnormal growth that develops in the heart. The majority of cardiac tumors in children are benign, meaning they are non-cancerous and are unlikely...

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Cardiomyopathy

What is cardiomyopathy? Cardiomyopathy is a disease of the heart muscle characterized by an abnormally large, thick or stiff heart muscle. It may affect only the heart’s lower chambers (ventricles) or...

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Congenital Heart Defects

What is a congenital heart defect? A congenital heart defect is a structural problem of the heart that develops during pregnancy. About 1 out of 100 babies are born with a congenital heart defect....

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Heart Transplant

If your child’s end-stage heart dysfunction is no longer responding to medical treatment, a heart transplant may be an option to give him a longer and healthier life. Heart transplant is an operation...

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Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome (HLHS)

What is hypoplastic left heart syndrome? Hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) represents a spectrum of heart diseases in which the left-heart structures are underdeveloped. These structures include...

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Kawasaki Disease

If recognized and treated early, your child can begin to feel better in a few days, with a low likelihood of long-term heart issues. Children who receive treatment within the first ten days of illness...

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Single Ventricle Defects

What is a single ventricle defect? A single ventricle defect is a type of heart defect that a child is born with. It occurs when one of the two pumping chambers in the heart, called ventricles, isn’t...

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Syncope

Syncope is the medical term for fainting. It’s a temporary loss of consciousness and muscle tone that occurs when not enough blood goes to the brain. Fainting affects people of all ages. More than 100...

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Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF)

What is tetralogy of Fallot? Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) is a serious, congenital heart defect, affecting about two in 10,000 babies. In TOF, the abnormal connections prevent enough oxygen-poor (blue)...

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Transposition of the Great Arteries (TGA)

What is transposition of the great arteries? In transposition of the great arteries (TGA), the “great” arteries, the aorta and the right ventricle, are reversed in their origins from the heart. The...

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Tricuspid Atresia

What is tricuspid atresia? Tricuspid atresia is a congenital heart defect, occurring in two out of every 10,000 live births. Relatively rare, it accounts for about 1 to 2 percent of all cases of...

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Truncus Arteriosis

What is truncus arteriosus? Truncus arteriosus is a heart defect in which a single artery instead of two (truncus arteriosus) carries blood from the heart. It’s a congenital condition, meaning a baby...

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Aortopulmonary Window

An aortopulmonary window is a rare heart defect in which there is a hole between the major blood vessel feeding the heart (the aorta) and the one going to the lungs (pulmonary artery). The condition...

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Arrhythmia

What is an arrhythmia? An arrhythmia is an abnormal rhythm of the heart, which can cause the heart to pump less effectively. It most frequently occurs in adults and often people who don’t have...

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Atrial Septal Defect (ASD)

What is an atrial septal defect? An atrial septal defect (ASD) is a hole in the wall that separates the upper right and left heart collecting chambers (atria). “Atrial” is the name we give to the...

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Atrioventricular Canal Defect

What is atrioventricular canal defect? An atrioventricular canal defect or AV canal is a combination of several closely-associated heart problems that result in a large defect in the center of the...

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Bacterial Endocarditis

What is bacterial endocarditis? Bacterial endocarditis is an infection of the lining of the heart. It occurs when bacteria (germs) enter the bloodstream and lodge inside the heart, where they multiply...

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Barth Syndrome

Barth syndrome is rare metabolic disorder that most often occurs in males. A child with Barth syndrome typically has these characteristics: heart muscle weakness skeletal muscle abnormalities low...

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Coarctation of the Aorta

What is coarctation of the aorta? Coarctation of the aorta is a narrowing of the aorta, the main artery that delivers oxygen-rich (red) blood to the body. A coarctation is located just past the aortic...

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Heart Failure

"We make a commitment to our patients that we will leave no stone unturned to take care of a child with a heart condition. We will think outside the box, and we will look into any possible option that...

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Coronary Artery Fistula

A coronary artery fistula is an abnormal connection between one of the coronary arteries and a heart chamber or another blood vessel. Coronary artery fistula is a rare condition. Infants who are born...

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Cyanosis

What is cyanosis? Cyanosis is a bluish color in the skin, lips and nail beds caused by a shortage of oxygen in the blood. Cyanosis occurs because blood with decreased oxygen turns blue or purple. This...

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Double Outlet Right Ventricle (DORV)

What is double outlet right ventricle? Double outlet right ventricle (DORV) is a rare congenital heart defect, meaning it’s a condition a baby is born with. In DORV, the pulmonary artery and the aorta...

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Ebstein's anomaly

What is Ebstein’s anomaly? Ebstein’s anomaly is a rare heart defect that affects the tricuspid valve. Ebstein’s anomaly has a wide range of severity — from mild to severe. About one in 10,000 babies...

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Edema

Edema refers to swelling in the body’s tissues caused by a build up of fluid, most often in the feet, ankles, face, eyelids or abdomen. It can have many causes, including: sitting or standing in one...

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Ehlers Danlos Syndrome

Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome (EDS) is a group of rare genetic disorders that affect a person's connective tissue. Connective tissue consists of proteins, such as collagen, that provide elasticity and...

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Heart Murmur

A heart murmur is an extra or unusual sound heard during a heartbeat. Murmurs range from quite faint to very loud. There are two types of heart murmurs: innocent (harmless) and abnormal. People who...

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Hemitruncus

Hemitruncus is a rare congenital anomaly in which one pulmonary artery branch, usually the right, arises from the ascending aorta just above the aortic sinuses, whereas the main pulmonary artery and...

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Hypertension

Most people think of hypertension (high blood pressure) as something that affects adults, children can also be affected. In fact, it’s estimated that up to 5 percent of children and adolescents now...

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Kabuki Syndrome

Kabuki syndrome is a rare congenital disorder, meaning that children are born with the condition. Children with Kabuki syndrome usually have distinctive facial features and mild to moderate mental...

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Loeys-Dietz Syndrome

"Your child's care team may include physicians from several disciplines, all of whom have experience treating children with the various symptoms of Loeys-Dietz syndrome." – Joan M. Stoler, MD, Boston...

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Lung Transplantation

"Transplant tolerance means that your body accepts the lung with minimal to no immunosuppression. That's the holy grail of transplant research." --Gary Visner, MD, medical director, Pediatric Lung...

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Marfan Syndrome

What is Marfan syndrome? Marfan syndrome is a genetic disorder that causes the connective tissues that shape and support many parts of the body to be weaker than they should be. It can affect many...

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Mitral Valve Stenosis

What is mitral valve stenosis? The mitral valve plays a key role in the functioning of the heart. This one-way valve helps move oxygenated (red) blood from the left atrium into the left ventricle,...

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Patent Ductus Arteriosus

Patent ductus arteriosus is a congenital heart condition in which the ductus, a small opening or pathway between the pulmonary and aortic valves, remains open or patent. In most cases, the ductus...

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Pericarditis

Pericarditis is a condition in which the sac-like covering around the heart (pericardium) becomes inflamed. often causes chest pain usually sudden and short-lived (acute) chest pain occurs when the...

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Peripheral Pulmonary Stenosis

"I've seen such a difference in pediatric cardiology over the past 25 years. Not only are kids with heart disease surviving and thriving, but they're also coming back to visit us and have children of...

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Pulmonary Atresia

What is pulmonary atresia? Pulmonary atresia is type of heart defect that a baby is born with. It occurs when the pulmonary valve — normally located between the right ventricle and the pulmonary...

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Pulmonary Hypertension

Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is abnormally high blood pressure that occurs in the arteries of the lungs (the pulmonary arteries). Some cases of PH have no identifiable cause (idiopathic pulmonary...

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Pulmonary Vein Stenosis

"We're thinking not only in terms of getting the child through a procedure today, but also of how life might be for that child at age 50, 60, 70. How do we plan their management over many decades? It...

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Septal Defects

What is a septal defect? A septal defect is a hole in the septum, which is the muscle wall that separates the heart's left and right chambers. A septal defect is sometimes called "a hole in the heart....

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Tufted Angioma

Tufted angioma is a benign (non-cancerous) vascular tumor and mild variant of Kaposiform hemangioendothelioma (KHE). On biopsy, a tumor may be called tufted angioma, KHE or “tufted angioma/KHE...

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Twin Reversed Arterial Perfusion (TRAP)

Twin reversed arterial perfusion (TRAP) occurs in identical twin pregnancies when one twin has an absent or non-functioning heart and receives all of its blood from the normally functioning and...

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Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD)

What is a ventricular septal defect? A ventricular septal defect (VSD) is a hole in the wall that separates the lower right and left heart chambers (ventricles). It is the most common type of...

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