Treatment depends on the specific problem causing the pain.
Stretching - If the soft tissues (retinaculum, tendon or muscle) are the source of the pain, stretching, particularly in the prone (face down) position, can be very helpful.
- One simple stretch is to lie prone, grab the ankle of the affected leg with one hand and gently stretch the front of the knee. It helps to warm up before doing this, or any other stretch.
Strengthening and supporting the knee - Other treatments may involve
- exercises to build the quadriceps muscle
- taping the patella
- using a specially designed brace which provides support specific to the problem.
Using ice and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medications can also be helpful. It is often necessary to temporarily modify physical activities until the pain decreases.
Avoid activities which could make knee pain worse.
- Avoid sitting or kneeling with bent knees for extended periods of time.
- Adjust the seat of the bicycle so that the seat is at an appropriate height, you can spin the pedals without shifting your weight from side to side, and the legs are not fully extended at the lowest part of a pedal cycle.
- Avoid exercises that bend the knee, such as squats.
Surgery – In more extreme situations, a specific surgical procedure may be needed to help relieve the pain.
- If the cartilage under the kneecap is fragmented and causing mechanical symptoms and swelling, arthroscopic removal of the fragments may be helpful.
- If the kneecap is badly aligned, however, a surgical procedure may be needed to place the kneecap back into proper alignment, thereby reducing abnormal pressures on the cartilage and supporting structures around the front of the knee.
- In some people, particularly those who have had previous knee surgery, there may be a specific painful area in the soft tissue around the kneecap which may require removal.
Preventing patellofemoral pain
- Stretching, particularly in the prone position (face down), will keep the supporting structures around the front of the knee flexible and less likely to be irritated with exercise.
- Proper training, without sudden increases of stress to the front of the knee will help avoid pain.
- Weight reduction and activity modification may be necessary in some people.